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Mexiko,  niit  25  Karten,  32  I'liinen,  uud  4  Grundrissen,        .        .        .         $3.00 

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AUSTRI.\,    including    Hungary,    Transylvania,    Dalmatia,    and   Bosnia, 

with  30  Maps  and  36  Plans $2.40 

BELaiUM  AND  HOLLAND,  with  14  Maps  and  22  Plans,  .        .        ...        $1.80 

BERLIN  AND  irs  Environs,  with  4  Maps  and  10  Plans $0.00 

EGYPT,  with  23  Maps,  66  Plans,  and  59  Views  and  Vignettes.  .  $4.50 
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the  Loire,   excluding   Paris    and  its   Environs,   with   10  Maps  and  34 

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Panorama $2.70 

GERMANY  (NORTHERN),  with  40  Maps  and  74  PInn.s,    ....        $2.40 

GERMANY  (SOUTHERN),  with  22  Maps  and  16  rian.= $1.80 

GERMANY    (RHINE    from    ROTTERDAM   to   CONSTANCE),   with  45  Maps 

and  26  Plans, $2.10 

GRB.iT  BRITAIN,  with  22  Maps  and  58  Plans  and  a  Panorama,  .  .  $3.00 
GREECE,  with  8  Maps,  15  Plans,  and  a  Panorama  of  Athens,  .  .  .  $2.40 
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AND  Routes  through   Switzerland  and  Austria,  with  30  Maps  and  39 

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NORWAY,    SWEDEN,    and     DENMARK,    with     37     Maps,    22    Plans,    and    3 

Panoramas, $2.40 

PALESTINE    and    SYRIA,     with    20    Maps,    52    Plans,    and    a    Panorama    of 

Jerusalem,         . $3.60 

PARIS    AND   ENTVIRONS,     with    Routes    from    London  to  Paris,  with  13 

Maps  and  38  Plans, $1-^0 

SPAIN  AND  PORTUGAL,  with  7  Maps  and  47  Plans $4.80 

SWITZERLAND    and  the  adjacent  Portions  op  Italy,    Savoy,   and  the 

Tyrol,  with  65  Maps,  14  Plans,  and  11  Panoramas $-.40 

TRAVELLERS     MANUAL    OF     CONVERSATION,    in     English,     German^ 

French,  and  Italian,  with  Vocabulary,  etc $0.90 

CHARLES  SCRIBNER'S  SONS,  153-157  Fifth  Ave.,  New  York, 

Sole  Agents  for  the  United  States, 


(Comp.  p.  xi.) 

Approximate  Equivalents. 












X.    S. 


Mk.   1  P/g. 

















































































































































































































Distances.  Italy,  like  most  of  the  other  European  states,  has  adopted 
the  French  metric  system.  One  kilometre  is  equal  to  0.62138,  or  nearly 
Vs  ths,  of  an  English  mile  (8  kil.  =  5  M.). 

The  Italian  time  is  that  of  Central  Europe.  In  official  dealings  the 
old-fashioned  Italian  way  of  reckoning  the  hours  from  1  to  24  has  again 
been  introduced.    Thus,  allt  tredid  is  1  p.m.,  alle  venti  8  p.m. 


\,ov.^"  •>'    OK.NVn..,     ■^;^?^ 

^'*^-  ALTA  ITALIA 













With  30  Maps,  40  Plans,  and  a.  Panokama 





,  All  righli  reterred 

'Go,  little  book,  Ciod  send  thee  good  passage, 
And  specially  let  this  be  thy  prayere: 
Unto  them  all  that  thee  will  read  or  hear, 
"Where  thou  art  wrong,  after  their  help  to  call, 
Thee  to  correct  in  any  part  or  all.' 

•  ^;^ 

^'^^  ' 

Ihe  objects  of  the  Handbook  for  Italy,  which  consists  of 
three  volumes,  each  complete  in  itself,  are  to  supply  the  trav- 
eller with  some  information  regarding  the  culture  and  art  of 
the  people  he  is  about  to  visit,  as  well  as  regarding  the  nat- 
ural features  of  the  country,  to  render  him  as  independent  as 
possible  of  the  services  of  guides  and  valets-de-place,  to  pro- 
tect him  against  extortion,  and  in  every  way  to  aid  him  in 
deriving  enjoyment  and  instruction  from  his  tour  in  one  of 
the  most  fascinating  countries  in  the  world. 

The  Handbook  is  founded  on  the  Editor's  personal  ac- 
quaintance with  the  places  described,  most  of  which  he  has 
repeatedly  and  carefully  explored.  As,  however,  changes 
are  constantly  taking  place,  he  will  highly  appreciate  any 
communications  with  which  travellers  may  kindly  favour 
him,  if  the  result  of  their  own  observation.  The  information 
already  received  from  correspondents ,  which  he  gratefully 
acknowledges ,  has  in  many  cases  proved  most  serviceable. 

The  present  volume,  corresponding  to  the  seventeenth  Ger- 
man edition,  has,  like  its  predecessor,  been  thoroughly  revised 
and  considerably  augmented.  Its  contents  have  been  divided 
into  groups  of  routes  arranged  historically  and  geographically 
(Piedmont ,  Liguria ,  Lombard]/ ,  Venetia  ,  The  Emilia ,  and 
Tuscan)/),  each  group  being  provided  with  a  prefatory  outline 
of  the  history  of  the  district.  Each  section  is  also  prefaced 
with  a  list  of  the  routes  it  contains,  and  may  be  removed 
from  the  volume  and  used  separately  if  desired. 

The  introductorj'^  article  on  Art,  which  has  special  re- 
ference to  Northern  Italy  and  Florence,  and  the  art-historical 
notices  prefixed  to  the  descriptions  of  the  larger  towns  and 
principal  picture-galleries  are  due  to  the  late  Professor 
Springer,  of  Leipzig.  In  the  descriptions  of  individual  pic- 
tures the  works  oi  More  Hi,  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  andJBurck- 
hardt  have  been  laid  extensively  under  contribution,  and  also 
occasionally  those  of  Ruskin  and  others. 


Heights  are  given  in  English  feet  (1  Engl.  ft.  =  0,3048 
m^tre),  and  Distances  in  English  miles  (comp.  p.  ii).  The 
Populations  given  are  those  of  the  separate  towns  and  vil- 
lages (popolazione  agglomerata)  according  to  the  census  of  1901. 

Hotels  (comp.  p.  xix).  Besides  the  modern  palatial  and 
expensive  establishments  the  Handbook  also  mentions  a  se- 
lection of  modest,  old-fashioned  inns,  which  not  unfrequently 
afford  good  accommodation  at  moderate  charges.  The  asterisks 
indicate  those  hotels  which  the  Editor  has  reason  to  believe 
from  his  own  experience,  as  well  as  from  information  supplied 
by  numerous  travellers,  to  be  respectable,  clean,  reasonable, 
and  fairly  well  provided  with  the  comforts  and  conveniences 
expected  in  an  up-to-date  establishment.  Houses  of  a  more 
primitive  character,  when  good  of  their  class,  are  described  as 
'fair'  or  'very  fair'.  At  the  same  time  the  Editor  does  not  doubt 
that  comfortable  quarters  may  occasionally  be  obtained  at  inns 
which  he  has  not  recommended  or  even  mentioned.  The 
average  charges  are  stated  in  accordance  with  the  Editor's 
own  experience,  or  from  the  bills  furnished  to  him  by  trav- 
ellers. Although  changes  frequently  take  place,  and  prices 
generally  have  an  upward  tendency,  the  approximate  state- 
ment of  these  items  which  is  thus  supplied  will  at  least  enable 
the  traveller  to  form  an  estimate  of  his  probable  expenditure. 

To  hotel-proprietors ,  tradesmen ,  and  others  the  Editor 
begs  to  intimate  that  a  character  for  fair  dealing  and  courtesy 
towards  travellers  is  the  sole  passport  to  his  commendation, 
and  that  advertisements  of  every  kind  are  strictly  excluded 
from  his  Handbooks.  Hotel-keepers  are  also  warned  against 
persons  representing  themselves  as  agents  for  Baedeker's 



Practical  Introdnction xi 

History  of  Art xxxi 

Glossary  of  Technical  Terms Lxiv 

I.   Boutes  to  Italy. 

1.  From  Paris  (Oentva)  to  Turin  by  Mont  Cenis 1 

2.  From  Brigue  (Lausanne)  to  Milan  via  Arona.     Slmplon 

Railway 3 

3.  From  Lucerne  (Bale)  to  Lugano,  Como,  and  Milan.    St. 

Gotthard  Railway 6 

4.  From  Thusis  to  Colico  over  the  Spliigen 17 

5.  From  Innshruck  to  Verona  hy  the  Brenner 19 

6.  From  Vienna  to  Venice  via  Pontebba 23 

II.  Piedmont 25 

7.  Turin      27 

8.  The  Alpine  Valleys  to  the  West  of  Turin 42 

9.  From  Turin  to  Ventimiglla  via  Cuneo  and  Tenda  ....  45 

10.  From  Cuneo  to  Bastia  (Turin,  Savona) 49 

11.  From  Turin  to  Genoa 49 

12.  From  Turin  to  Aosta  and  Courmayeur 54 

13.  From  Aosta  to  the  Qraian  Alps 60 

14.  From  Santhia  (Turin)  to  Biella 64 

15.  From  Turin  to  Arena  via  Santhik  and  Borgomanero  ...  65 

16.  From  Turin  to  Milan  via  Novara 65 

17.  From  Domodossola  to  Novara.    Lake  of  Orta.    From  Orta 

to  Varallo 69 

III.  Liguria 73 

18.  Genoa 75 

19.  From  Genoa  to  Ventimiglia.    Riviera  di  Ponente    ....  94 

20.  From  Genoa  to  Pisa.    Riviera  di  Levante 107 

21.  The  Apuan  Alps 123 

IV.  Lombardy      125 

22.  Milan 128 

23.  From  Milan  to  Como  via  Saronno 164 

24.  From  Milan  to  Como  and  Lecco  (Colico)  via  Monza  .    .    .  165 

25.  From  Milan  to  Bellagio.    The  Brianza 171 

26.  Lake  of  Como 173 

27.  From  Menagglo  to  Lugano  and  Luino 182 

28.  From  Milan  to  Porto  Ceresio  vijl  Gallarate  and  Varese  .    .  185 

viii  CONTENTS. 

Route  Page 

29.  From  Milan  to  Laveno  via  Saronno  and  Varese    ....  187 

30.  From  Bellinzona  to  Genoa  via  Alessandria 189 

31.  Lago  Maggiore 190 

32.  From  Milan  to  Genoa  via  Pavia  and  Voghera 202 

33.  From  Milan  to  Mantua  via  Cremona 206 

34.  From  Milan  to  Bergamo 209 

35.  The  Bergamasque  Alps 213 

36.  From  Lecco  to  Brescia  via  Bergamo 216 

37.  From  Milan  to  Verona  via  Brescia 217 

38.  Brescia 219 

39.  The  Brescian  Alps 225 

40.  The  Lago  di  Garda      229 

V.  Venetia 241 

41.  Verona 243 

42.  From  Verona  to  Mantua  and  Modena 256 

43.  From  Verona  to  Venice.    Vicenza 264 

44.  Padua 270 

45.  From  Vicenza  to  Treviso 279 

46.  From  Padna  to  Bassano 280 

47.  Venice 281 

48.  From  Venice  to  Trieste      345 

VI.  The  Emilia 366 

49.  From  Turin  to  Piacenza  via  Alessandria ,  367 

60.  From  Milan  to  Bologna  via  Parma  and  Modena.  Piacenza. 

Reggio 367 

51.  Parma 364 

52.  From  Parma  (Milan)  to  Sarzana  (Spezia,  Pisa)    ....  370 

53.  Modena 372 

54.  From  Venice  to  Bologna  via  Padua  and  Ferrara  ....  376 

55.  Ferrara 379 

56.  Bologna 386 

57.  From  Bologna  to  Florence  via  Pistoia 407 

58.  From  Bologna  to  Ravenna 408 

59.  From  Ravenna  (or  Bologna)  to  Florence  via  Faenza.    .    .  420 

VII.  Tuscany 423 

GO.  Pisa 426 

61.  From  Pisa  to  Leghorn 437 

62.  From  (Genoa)  Pisa  to  Florence  via  Empoli 440 

63.  From  Pisa  to  Florence  via  Lucca  and  Pistoia 441 

64.  Florence 457 

65.  Environs  of  Florence  .    .        548 

List  of  Artists 563 

Index 571 



1.  Gbnebal  Map  of  Noethebn  Italy  (1:1,350,000),  Western  Half  :  before 

the  title-page. 

2.  General  Map  of  Northern  Italt,  Eastern  Half:  after  the  Index. 

3.  Environs  of  Lugano  (1:150,000):  p.  12. 

4.  Eastern  Environs  of  Turin  (1:66,200):  p.  40. 

5.  Graian  Alps  (1:250,000):  p.  60. 

a.  Environs  of  Genoa  (1:1011.000):  p.  92. 

7,  8.  Riviera  di  Ponente  from  Genoa  to  Ventimiglia  (1:500,000):  pp.  96, 98. 

9.  Environs  of  Bordighera  (1:50.0001:  p.  104. 

10.  Riviera  di  Levante  from  Genoa  to  Spezia  (1:500,000):  p.  107. 

11.  Environs  of  Rapallo  {Recco-Chiavari;  1:100,000):  p.  112. 

12.  Environs  of  Sestri-Levante  (1:100  000):  p.  114. 

13.  Environs  of  Spezia  (1:100,000):  p.  116. 

l-l.  Environs  of  the  Certosa  di  Pavia  (1:86,400):  p.  lCi2. 

15.  Railway  Map  of  the  Environs  of  Milan  (1:500,000):  p.  164. 

16.  Environs  of  Como  (1:28.000):  p.  107. 

17.  Lakes  of  Como  and  Lugano  (1 :  250,(XIO) :  p.  172. 

18.  Lago  Maggioee  and  Lago  d'Orta  (1:250,000):  p.  190. 

19.  Environs  of  Locarno  (1 :  75,000) :  p.  192. 

20.  Environs  of  Pallanza  (1 :  65,000) :  p.  197. 

21.  Environs  of  Baveno  and  Steesa  (1:65,000):  p.  200. 

22.  Lago  di  Garda  (1:500,000):  p.  230. 

23.  EN^'IRONS  of  Gardone-Riviera  (1:75,000):  p.  232. 

24.  Environs  of  Riva  and  Arco  (1:75,000):  p.  233. 

25.  The  Lido  at  Venice  (1:12,500):  p.  312. 

26.  Environs  of  Bologna  (1:86,400):  p.  406. 

27.  Environs  of  Ravenna  (1:86,400):  p.  418. 

28.  Environs  of  Florence  (1:55,000):  p.  548. 

29.  Environs  of  Vallombrosa  and  Camaldoli  (1 :  280,(X)0)  :  p.  558. 

30.  Key  Map  of  Italy  (1 : 7,000,000) :  at  the  end  of  the  Handbook. 

1.  Bergamo 

2.  Bologna 

3.  Bordigher 

4.  Brescia  . 

5.  Cremona 

6.  Ferrara 

7.  Florence 

8.  Genoa.  . 

9.  Leghorn 

10.  Lucca 

11.  Lugano  . 


Flans  of  Towns. 


12.  Mantua  . 

13.  Milan  .  . 

14.  Modena  . 

15.  NOVARA  . 

16.  Padua. 

17.  Parma 3*34 

18.  Pavia  .    . 

19.  Piacenza 

20.  Pisa.   .    . 

21.  Pistoia  . 

22.  Ravenna 




.  450 

.  409 

23.  Reggio   (with 

24.  San  Remo 

25.  Treviso  . 

26.  Turin.    . 

27.  TJdine  .   . 

28.  Venice  (with 

29.  Verona  . 

30.  ViCENZA  . 




Ground  Plans. 


1.  Brera  Gallery,  at  Milan  .   .  140 

2.  Castkllo,  at  Milan 148 

3.  Ckrtosa  di  Pavia 162 

4.  Church  of  St.  Mark,  at  Venice  290 

5.  Doges''  Palace,  at  Venice  .    .  297 


6.  Academy,  at  Venice 307 

7.  Academy,  at  Bologna    ....  402 

8.  9.  Uffizi  Gallery,  at  Florence  487 
10.  Arch.t.ological  Museum  ,   at 

Florence 612,  514 

Panorama  from  the  Mole  AnionelHana  at  Twin,  p.  41. 

M.  =  Engl.  mile, 
ft.  =  Engl.  foot, 
kil.   =  kildmetre. 
kg.  =  kilogramme. 
lir.  =  hour. 


min.   =  minute. 

Alb.  =  Albergo  (hotel). 

omn.  =  omnibus. 

carr.  =  carriage. 

If.  =  north,  northwards,  northern. 


S.  =  south,  etc.    (also  snpper). 

B.  =  east,  etc. 

W.  =  west,  etc. 

R.  =  room  (includiog  light  and 

attendance),  route. 
B.  =  breakfast. 
D.  =  dinner. 
A.  =  attendance. 
L.  =  light. 
d6j.  =  dijeuner  'a  la  fourchette'. 

rfmts.  =  refreshments, 
pens.  =  pension  (»'.€.  board  and  lodg- 
fr.  =  franc  (Ital.  lira), 
c  =  centime  (Ital.  centesimo). 
k.  =  Krone  (Austrian  currency). 
h.  =  Heller  (Austrian  currency'* 
ca.  =  circa  (about), 
comp.  =  compare, 
carr.   =  carriage. 

The  letter  d  with  a  date,  after  the  name  of  a  person,  indicates  the 
year  of  his  death.  The  number  prefixed  to  the  name  of  a  place  on  a  rail- 
way or  liighroad  indicates  its  distance  in  English  miles  from  the  starting- 
point  of  the  route  or  sub-route.  The  number  of  feet  given  after  the  name 
of  a  place  shows  its  height  above  the  sea-level. 

Asterisks  are  used  as  marks  of  commendation. 

Clironological  Table  of  Becent  Events. 

1846.  June  16.  Election  of  Pius  IX. 

1&48.  March  18.  Insurrection  at  Milan.  —  March  22.  Charles  Albert  enters 
Milan.  Republic  proclaimed  at  Venice.  —  May  15.  Insurrection  at 
Naples  quelled  by  Ferdinand  II.  ('Re  Bomba').  —  May  30.  Radetzky 
defeated  at  Goito;  capitulation  of  Peschiera.  —  July  25.  Radetzky's 
victory  at  Custozza.  —  Aug.  6.  Radetzky's  victory  at  Milan.  — 
Aug.  9.    Armistice.  —  Xov.  25.   Flight  of  the  Pope  to  Gaeta. 

1819.  Feb.  5.  Republic  proclaimed  at  Rome.  —  March  16.  Charles  Albert 
terminates  the  armistice  (ten  days''  campaign).  —  March  23.  Radetzky''s 
victory  at  Novara.  —  Mar.  24.  Charles  Albert  abdicates  ;  accession  of 
'Victor  Emmanuel  II.  —  Mar.  26.  Armistice.  —  Mar.  31.  Haynau 
conquers  Brescia.  —  April  5.  Republic  at  Genoa  overthrown  by  La- 
marmora.  —  Apr.  30.  Garibaldi  defeats  the  French  under  Oudinot.  — 
May  15.  Subjugation  of  Sicily.  —  July  4.  Rome  capitulates.  — 
Aug.  6.  Peace  concluded  between  Austria  and  Sardinia.  —  Aug.  22. 
Venice  capitulates. 

1850.  April  4.  Pius  IX.  returns  to  Rome. 

1855.  Sardinia  takes  part  in  the  Crimean  'War. 

1856.  Congress  at  Paris.     Cavour  raises  the  Italian  question. 

1859.  May  20.  Battle  of  Montebello.  —  June  4.  Battle  of  Magenta.  — 
June  24.    Battle  of  Solferino.    —    Nov.  10.   Peace  of  Zurich. 

1860.  March  18.  Annexation  of  the  Emilia.  —  Mar.  22.  Annexation  of 
Tuscany.  —  Mar.  24.  Cession  of  Savoy  and  Nice.  —  May  11.  Garibaldi 
lands  at  Marsala.  —  May  27.  Taking  of  Palermo.  —  July  20.  Battle 
of  Melazzo.  —  Sept.  7.  Garibaldi  enters  Naples.  —  Oct.  1.  Battle  of 
the  Volturno.  —  Oct.  21.  Plebiscite  at  Naples.  —  Dec.  17.  Annexa- 
tion of  the  principalities,  TJmbria,  and  the  two  Sicilies. 

1861.  Feb.  13.  Gaeta  capitulates.  —  March  17.  Victor  Emmanuel  assumes 
the  title  of  King  of  Italy.  —  June  6.    Death  of  Cavour. 

1886.  June  20.  Battle  of  Custozza.  —  July  5.  Cession  of  Venetia.  —  July  20. 

Naval  battle  of  Lissa. 
1870.  Sept.  20.    Occupation   of  Rome  by  Italian  troops.  —  Oct.  9.    Rome 

declared  the  capital  of  Italy. 
1878.  Jan.  9.  Death  of  Victor  Emmanuel  II.;   accession  of  Humbert  I.  — 

Feb.  7.  Death  of  Pius  IX.  —  Feb.  20.    Election  of  Leo  XIII. 
1900.  July  29.  Assassination  of  Humbert  I ;  accession  of  Victor  Emmanuel  III. 
1903.  July  20.  Death  of  Leo  Xm.  —  Aug.  4.  Election  of  Pius  X. 



I.  Travelling  Expenses.    Money xl 

11.  Period  and  Plan  of  Tonr xii 

III.  Language xiv 

IV.  Passports.    Custom  House.    Luggage xiv 

V.  Public  Safety.    Beggars xv 

VI.  Gratuities.    Guides xv 

VII.  Railways.     Steamboats xvi 

VIII.  Cycling  and  Motoring xix 

IX.  Hotels xix 

X.  Restaurants.    Caf^s.   Birrerie xxi 

XI.  Sights.    Theatres.    Shops xxiT 

XII.  Post  Office.    Telegraph xxv 

XIII.  Climate.    Winter  Stations.     Seaside  Resorts.    Health  xxvi 

XIV.  History  of  Art,  hy  Pro/".  A.  Springer xxxi 

'Thou  art  the  garden  of  the  world,  the  home 
Of  all  Art  yields,  and  Nature  can  decree; 
E'en  in  thy  desert,  what  is  like  to  thee? 
Thy  very  weeds  are  beautiful,  thy  waste 
More  rich  than  other  climes''  fertility, 
Thy  wreck  a  glory,  and  thy  ruin  graced 
With  an  immaculate  charm  which  cannot  be  defaced. 


I.  Travelling  Expenses.  Money. 

Expenses.  The  cost  of  a  tour  in  Italy  need  not  exceed  that  in- 
curred in  other  much-frequented  parts  of  the  continent.  The  average 
expenditure  of  a  single  traveller,  apart  from  railway-fares,  may  be 
estimated  at  20-25  francs  per  day,  or  at  15-20  francs  when  a  pro- 
longed stay  is  made  at  one  place ;  but  persons  acquainted  with  the 
language  and  habits  of  the  country  may  easily  restrict  their  expenses 
to  still  narrower  limits.  Those  who  travel  as  members  of  a  party 
effect  a  considerable  saving  by  sharing  the  expense  of  guides,  car- 
riages, and  other  items.  "When  ladies  are  of  the  party,  the  expenses 
are  generally  greater. 

Money.  The  French  monetary  system  is  now  in  use  throughout 
the  whole  of  Italy.  The  franc  (lira  or  franco)  contains  100  centesimi , 
1  fr.  25  c.  =1  f.  (comp.  p.  ii).  In  copper  (bronzo  or  rame)  there  are 
coins  of  1,  2,  5,  and  10  centesimi,  and  in  nickel  pieces  of  20  and 
25  c.  In  silver  there  are  pieces  of  1,  2,  and  5  fr.,  but  coins  issued 
before  1863  are  refused.  The  gold  coins  (10,  20,  and  100  fr.)  are 
seldom  met  with,  their  place  being  taken  by  Biglietti  di  Stato  (treas- 
ury-notes) of  0,  10,  and  26  fr.,  the  banknotes  of  the  Banca  d' Italia, 
and  the  new  notes  (stamped  with  a  profile-head  of  Italia  In  red)  of 
the  Banco  di  Napoli  and  the  Banco  di  Sicilia.  All  other  banknotes 
should  be  refused. 

xli  SEASON. 

The  gold  coins  of  the  Latin  Monetary  League  (Italy,  France, 
Belgium,  Switzerland,  and  Greece)  circulate  at  their  face-value; 
also  the  gold  coins  of  Austria  (4  and  8  gulden-pieces),  Russia, 
Roumania,  Servia,  and  Monaco.  The  silver  five-franc  pieces  (scudi) 
of  the  Latin  Monetary  League  are  accepted  at  their  full  value,  and 
also  those  of  the  former  small  Italian  states,  with  the  exception  of 
the  Papal  states  and  the  Duchy  of  Lucca.  The  traveller  should 
refuse  all  other  Italian  silver  coins  issued  before  1863,  French  coins 
Issued  before  1864,  Belgian  and  Swiss  coins  issued  before  1866, 
Greek  coins  issued  before  1867,  and  coins  of  Monaco  issued  before 
1898.  No  foreign  copper  coins  legally  circulate  except  those  of  San 
Marino  issued  since  1864.  Obsolete  and  worn  coins  are  frequently 
offered  to  strangers  at  shops  and  inns  and  even  at  railway  ticket- 
offices.  —  A  piece  of  5  c.  is  called  a  soldo  or  palanca,  and  as  the 
lower  classes  often  keep  their  accounts  in  soldi,  the  traveller  will 
find  it  useful  to  accustom  himself  to  this  mode  of  reckoning  (diecj 
soldi  =  50  c,  dodici  soldi  =  60  c,  etc.). 

Best  Monet  fok  the  Todk.  Circular  Notes  or  Letters  of  Credit  ^  ob- 
tainable at  the  principal  English  or  American  banks,  form  the  proper 
medium  for  the  transport  of  large  sums,  and  realise  the  most  favourable 
exchange.  English  and  German  banknotes  also  realise  their  nominal 
value.  Sovertigns  are  received  at  the  full  value  (not  less  than  25  fr.)  by 
the  principal  hotel-keepers. 

Exchange.  Foreign  money  ig  most  advantageously  changed  in  the 
larger  towns,  either  at  one  of  the  English  bankers  or  at  a  respectable 
money-changer's  (''cambiavaluta').  As  a  rule,  those  money-changers  are 
the  most  satisfactory  who  publicly  exhibit  a  list  of  the  current  rates  of 
exchange.  The  traveller  should  always  be  provided  with  an  abundant 
supply  of  silver  and  small  notes,  as  it  is  often  difficult  to  change  notes  of 
large  amount.  It  is  also  advisable  to  carry  1-2  fr.  in  copper  and  nickel  in 
a  separate  pocket  or  pouch. 

Money  Orders  payable  in  Italy,  for  sums  not  exceeding  iOl.,  are  granted 
by  the  British  Post  Office  at  the  following  rates:  up  to  il.,  id.;  61.,  Is.; 
iOl.,  Is.  6d. ;  201.,  2s.  9d.;  40J.,  5s.  3d.  These  are  payable  at  the  rate  of 
of  25  fr.  20  c.  per  il.  The  identity  of  the  receiver  must  be  guaranteed 
by  two  well-known  residents,  or  by  an  exhibition  of  the  passport.  The 
charge  for  money-orders  granted  in  Italy  and  payable  in  England  is  40c. 
per  U.  sterling.  —  Telegraph  Money  Orders  are  allowed  for  certain  places 
in  Italy  only. 

II.  Period  and  Plan  of  Tour. 
Season.  As  a  general  rule,  the  spring  and  autumn  months  are 
the  best  season  for  a  tour  in  North  Italy,  especially  April  and  May 
or  September  and  October.  Winter  in  Lombardy  (apart  from  a  few 
favoured  spots  on  the  shores  of  the  lakes)  and  Piedmont  is  generally 
a  much  colder  season  than  it  is  in  England,  but  the  Ligurian  Riviera 
(Genoa  excepted)  affords  pleasant  and  sheltered  quarters.  The 
height  of  summer  can  hardly  be  recommended  for  travelling.  The 
scenery,  indeed,  is  then  in  perfection,  and  the  long  days  are  hailed 
with  satisfaction  by  the  enterprising  traveller ;  but  the  fierce  rays  of 
an  Italian  sun  seldom  fail  to  impair  the  physical  and  mental  energies. 

PLAN  OF  TOUR.  xill 

Flan.  The  following  short  itinerary ,  heginning  and  ending  at 
Milan,  though  very  far  from  exhausting  the  beauties  of  North  Italy, 
includes  most  of  the  places  usually  visited ,  with  the  time  required 
for  a  glimpse  at  each. 

Ifilan  (R.  22),  and  excursion  to  Pavia  (the  Certosa,  p.  162)  .  .  .  2V» 
To  the  Logo  di  CoTno,  Lago  di  Lugano,  and  Lago  Maggiore  (RR.  26, 

27,  31)  and  on  to  Turin 3 

Turin  (R.  7) 1 

From  Turin  to  Genoa  (R.  11) Va 

Genoa  (R.  181,  and  excursion  to  Pegli  (Villa  Pallavicini,  p.  95)       .     21/2 
Nervi  (p.  107 1,   Santa   Margheriia  (p.  110),   and  Rapallo  (p.  112)  or 

Settri  Levante  (p.  114);  R.  20 IV2 

Via  Spetia  to  Pisa,  see  R.  20;  Pisa  (R.  60) I'/a 

Via  Lucca  and  Pislaia  to  Florence,  see  R.  63 1 

Florence  (R.  64) 5 

From  Florence  to  Bologna  (R.  57) '/« 

Bologna  (R.  56),  with  excursion  to  Ravenna  (R.  58) 21/2 

From  Bologna  via  Ferrara  to  Padua  (R.  54) 1 

[Or  to  Modena  (R.  53)  and  Parma  (R.  51),  see  R.  50  .     .     .     .     .     .     l'/2 

From  Modena  via  Mantua   to  Verona   (see  R.  42)   and  via   Vicema 

to  Padna  (see  R.  43)] IV2] 

Padua  (R.  44),  and  thence  to  Venice 1 

Venice  (R.  47)     .^ 4 

From  Venice  (via   Vicenza)  to    Verona  (R.  41),  see  R.  43     ....     2 
[Excursion  to  Mantua  (p.  257),  when  the  way  fi-om  Modena  to  Verona 

via  Mantua  is  not  adopted 1] 

Lago  di  Oarda  (R.  40) 1V» 

From  Desenzano  via  Brescia  (R.  38)  and  Bergamo  to  Milan  (RR.37,  34)    2 

To  those  who  -wish  to  visit  only  a  part  of  North  Italy  (whether 
the  eastern  or  western),  the  following  itineraries  may  be  recom- 
mended :  — 

a.  Eastern  Part,  starting  from  the  Brenner  Railway.  Days 

From  Mori  to  Riva  (p.  237),  Lago  di  Garda  (R.  40) IV2 

Verona  (R.  41) 1 

Excursion  to  Mantua  (p.  257) 1 

From  Verona  via   Yicenza  (p.  2G5)  to  Padua 1 

Padua  (R.  44),  and  thence  to  Venice 1 

Venice  (R.  47) 4 

From  Venice  via  Ferrara  (R.  55)  to  Bologna 1 

Bologna  (R.  56) IV2 

Excursion  to  Ravenna  (R.  58) i 

From  Bologna  to  Modena  (R.  53)  and  Parma  (R.  51),  see  R.  50  .     .     IV2 

From  Parma  via  Piacenza  (p.  358)  to  Milan V2 

Milan  (R.  21),  and  excursion  to  Pavia  (the   Certosa,  p.  162)    .    .     .     2V2 
Lago  Maggiore,  Lago  di  Lugano,  Lago  di  Como  (RR.  26,  27,  31),  and 
from  Lecco  via  Bergamo  and  Brescia  (R.  34)  to  Verona       .     .     .     4'/2 

Western  Part,  starting  from  the  St.  Gotthard  or  Spliigen. 


Lago  di  Como,  Lago  di  Lugano,  Lago  Maggiore  (RR.  26,  27,  31)     .  3 

To  Turin  fR.  16) V2 

Turin  (R.  7),  and  thence  to  Genoa  (R.  11) IV2 

Genoa  (R.  18),  and  excursion  to  Pegli  (Villa  Pallavicini,  p.  95)      .  21/2 

Excursion  to  San  Remo  and  Bordighera  (R.  19) 2 

From  Genoa  via  Voghera  and  Pavia  (Certota,  p.  162)  to  Milan    .     .  1 

Milan  (R.  22) 2 


III.   Language. 

It  Is  quite  possible  for  persons  entirely  ignorant  of  Italian  and 
French  to  travel  through  Italy  with  tolerable  comfort ;  but  such  trav- 
ellers cannot  conveniently  deviate  from  the  ordinary  track,  and 
are  moreover  invariably  made  to  pay  ^alla  Jnglese'  by  hotel-keepers 
and  others,  i.  e.  considerably  more  than  the  ordinary  charges.  French 
is  very  useful,  as  the  Italians  are  very  partial  to  that  language  ;  but 
for  those  who  desire  the  utmost  possible  freedom,  and  dislike  being 
imposed  upon,  a  slight  acquaintance  with  the  language  of  the  country 
is  indispensable.  Those  who  know  a  little  Italian ,  and  who  take 
the  usual  precaution  of  ascertaining  charges  beforehand  (^con- 
trattare  ,  bargain)  in  the  smaller  hotels  ,  in  dealings  with  drivers, 
gondoliers,  guides,  etc.,  and  in  shops,  will  rarely  meet  with  attempts 
at  extortion  in  Northern  Italy. t 

lY.  Passports.   Custom  House.    Luggage. 

Passports,  though  not  required  in  Italy,  are  occasionally  useful, 
as  for  example,  in  obtaining  the  delivery  of  registered  letters.  The 
countenance  and  help  of  the  English  and  American  consuls  can,  of 
course,  be  extended  to  those  persons  only  who  can  prove  their 
nationality.  Cyclists  and  motorists  should  always  carry  passports. 
The  Italian  police  authorities  are  generally  civil  and  obliging. 

Passports  may  be  obtained  direct  from  the  Foreign  Office  (fee  2«  )  or 
through  C.  Smith  Jt  Son,  23  Craven  St.,  Charing  Cross  (charge  4*.,  inclnd 
ing  agent's  fee);  Bnss,  i  Adelaide  St,  Striind  (is);  Cook  &  Son,  Ludgate 
Circus  (3*.  Gd.)  ;  and  Blacklock  &  Co.  ('Bradshaw's  Guides'),  59  Fleet  St.  (5<.). 

Custom  House.  The  examination  of  luggage  at  the  Italian 
frontier  railway-stations  is  generally  lenient,  but  complaints  are 
sometimes  made  as  to  a  deficiency  of  official  courtesy  at  diligence 
and  steamer  stations.  Tobacco  and  cigars  (only  ten  pass  free),  playing 
cards,  and  matches  are  the  articles  chiefly  sought  for.  The  custom- 
house receipts  should  be  preserved,  as  travellers  are  sometimes  chal- 
lenged by  the  excise  officials  in  the  interior.  At  the  gates  of  most 
of  the  Italian  towns  a  tax  (dazio  consumo)  is  levied  on  comestibles, 
but  travellers'  luggage  is  passed  at  the  barriers  (limite  daziario)  on 
a  simple  declaration  that  it  contains  no  such  articles. 

Luggage.  If  possible ,  luggage  should  never  be  sent  to  Italy 
by  goods-train ,  as  it  is  liable  to  damage  ,  pilferage ,  and  undue 
custom-house  detention.  If  the  traveller  is  obliged  to  forward  it  in 
this  way,  he  should  employ  a  trustworthy  agent  at  the  frontier  and 

+  A  few  words  on  i)i&  pronunciation  may  be  acceptable  to  persons  un- 
acquainted with  the  language.  C  before  e  and  «  is  pronounced  like  the 
English  ch;  g  before  «  and  t  like  j.  Before  other  vowels  c  and  g  are 
hard.  Ch  and  jrA,  which  generally  precede  «  or  i,  are  hard.  Sc  before  « 
or  i  is  pronounced  like  sh;  gn  and  gl  between  vowels  like  ny5f  and  \ji. 
His  silent.  The  vowels  a,  «,  i,  o,  u  are  pronounced  ah,  a,  ee,  o,  oo.  —  In  ad- 
dressing persona  of  the  educated  classes  'Lei',  with  the  3rd  pers.  sing., 
should  always  be  employed  (addressing  several  at  once,  'loro'  with  the 
3rd  pers.  pi).     'Voi'  is  used  in  addressing  waiters,   drivers,  etc. 


send  him  the  keys.  As  a  nile  it  is  advisable,  and  often  in  the  end 
less  expensive ,  never  to  part  from  one's  luggage ,  and  to  super- 
intend the  custom-house  examination  in  person  (comp.  p.  xviiij. 

V.  Public  Safety.   Beggars. 

Public  Safety  in  Northern  Italy  is  on  as  stable  a  footing  as  to  the 
N.  of  the  Alps.  Travellers  will  naturally  avoid  lonely  quarters 
after  night-fall,  just  as  they  would  at  home.  The  policeman  in  the 
town  is  called  Ouardia;  the  gendarme  in  the  country,  Carabiniere 
(black  coat  with  red  facings  and  cocked  hat).  No  one  may  carry 
weapons  without  a  licence,  on  pain  of  imprisonment.  Armi  in- 
sidiose,  i.e.  concealed  weapons  (sword-sticks;  even  knives  with 
spring-blades,  etc.),  are  absolutely  prohibited. 

Begging  (accattonaggio),  always  one  of  those  national  nuisances 
to  which  the  traveller  in  Italy  must  accustom  himself,  has  recently 
somewhat  increased,  especially  in  Tuscany,  owing  partly  to  growing 
poverty,  but  largely  also  to  the  misplaced  generosity  of  travellers. 
As  the  profits  of  street- beggars  too  frequently  go  for  the  support  of 
able-bodied  loafers,  travellers  should  either  give  nothing,  or  restrict 
their  charity  to  the  obviously  infirm.  Gratuities  to  children  are 
entirely  reprehensible.  —  Importunate  beggars  should  be  dismissed 
with  'niente'  or  by  a  gesture  of  negation. 

VI.    Gratuities.   Guides. 

Gratuities.  —  The  traveller  should  always  be  abundantly 
supplied  with  copper  and  nickel  coin  in  a  country  where  trifling 
donations  are  in  constant  demand.  Drivers,  guides,  and  other  per- 
sons of  the  same  class  invariably  expect,  and  often  demand  as  their 
right,  a  gratuity  (buona  mano ,  mancia,  da  bere,  botliglia,  caffe, 
sigaro)  in  addition  to  the  hire  agreed  on,  varying  according  to  circum- 
stances from  2-3  sous  to  a  franc  or  more.  The  traveller  need  have 
no  scruple  in  limiting  his  donations  to  the  smallest  possible  sums. 
The  following  hints  will  be  found  useful  by  the  average  tourist.  In 
private  collections  1-2  visitors  should  bestow  a  gratuity  of  i/j-l  f^., 
3-4  pers.  1-lVa  fr.  For  repeated  visits  25  c.  is  enough  for  a  single 
visitor.  For  opening  a  church-door,  etc.,  10-20  c.  is  enough,  but  if 
extra  services  are  rendered  (e.jr.  uncovering  an  altar-piece,  lighting 
candles,  etc.)  from  1/4  to  1  fr.  may  be  given.  The  Oustodi  of  all 
public  collections  where  an  admission-fee  is  charged  are  forbidden 
to  accept  gratuities.  —  In  hotels  and  restaurants  about  5-10  per 
cent  of  the  reckoning  should  be  given  in  gratuities,  or  less  if  service 
is  charged  for. 

Guides  (Quide,  sing,  la  Quida)  may  be  hired  at  6-10  fr.  per  day. 
The  most  trustworthy  are  those  attached  to  the  chief  hotels.  In 
some  towns  the  better  guides  have  formed  societies  as  'Guide 
patontate'  or  'GuMe  autorizzato".   Their  services  may  generally  well 


te  dispensed  with  by  those  who  are  not  pressed  for  time.  Purchases 
should  never  be  made,  nor  contracts  with  vetturini  or  other  persons 
drawn  up,  in  presence  or  with  the  aid  of  a  commissionnaire,  as  any 
such  intervention  tends  considerably  to  increase  the  prices. 

YII.   Sailways.    Steamboats. 

Bailways.  —  For  visitors  to  Northern  Italy  the  most  Important 
railways  are  the  Rete  Mediterranean  the  Rete  Adriatica,  and  the 
Ferrovie  Nord  Milano,  the  last  affording  quick  and  convenient  access 
to  the  Lake  of  Como  and  the  Lago  Maggiore,  though  it  is  not  in- 
cluded in  the  system  of  circular  tours  in  Italy.  The  rate  of  travelling 
is  very  moderate,  rarely  reaching  30  M.  per  hour.  The  first-class 
carriages  are  comfortable,  the  second  resemble  the  English  and  French, 
while  the  third  class  is  chiefly  frequented  by  the  lower  orders. 

Among  the  expressions  with  which  the  railway-traveller  will  soon 
become  familiar  are  —  'si  cambia  treno'  (change  carriages),  ^fermata'  (halt; 
'quanti  minuti  di  fermataV,  how  long  do  we  stop  here?),  ''essere  in  coin- 
cidenzci'  (to  make  connection),  and  '■uscita'  (egress).  Fare  il  biglietto  means  to 
take  a  ticket.  Qiieslo  poslo  ^ preso ?  Is  this  seat  engaged?  Dove  parte  il  treno 
per  Veneziai'  Where  dues  the  train  for  Venice  start?  Quale  rvtaiaf  Which 
line?  The  station-master  is  called  ^capostazicne'';  the  guard,  conduttore. 
Smoking-compartments  are  labelled  '■pei  fumatorf,  those  for  non-smokers 
'■vietato  di  /umare\ 

The  international  trains  de  Z«a;e  are  generally  available  for  long-distance 
travellers  only.  The  mail  trains  are  called  Treni  Direilissimi  (Ist  and 
2nd  class  only ;  sometimes  with  dining  and  sleeping  cars)  and  the  ordinary 
expresses  Treni  Diretti.  The  Treni  Accele.rati  are  somewhat  faster  than  the 
Treni  Omnibus.  The  Treni  Misli  are  composed  partly  of  passenger-carriages 
and  partly  of  goods-waggons.  The  fares  of  the  Rete  Adriatica  and  Rete 
Mediterranea  are  (for  the  three  classes)  12.75,  8.93,  and  5.80  c.  per  kilometre 
by  the  express-trains,  and  11.60,  8.12,  and  5.22  c.  by  the  slow  trains.  In 
addition  to  this  there  is  a  government  tax  of  3  per  cent,  on  all  fares  above 
90  c.  (included  in  the  fares  given  in  the  railway  time-tables),  and  there  is 
also  a  stamp-duty  of  5  c.  on  each  ticket. 

The  best  Time  Table  is  the  Orario  JJfficiale  delle  Strade  Ferrate, 
delle  Tramvie^  della  Navigazione  e  delle  Messaggerie  postali  del  Regno, 
published  by  the  Fratelli  Pozzo  at  Turin  (price  1  fr.).  Smaller 
editions  are  issued  at  80  c,  50c.,  and  20  c.  —  Railway  time  is  that 
of  Central  Europe. 

Tickets.  At  the  larger  towns  it  is  better,  when  possible,  to  take 
the  tickets  at  the  town-agencies  (agenzia  di  cilta)  of  the  railway.  At 
the  stations  the  traveller  will  find  it  convenient  to  have  as  nearly 
as  possible  the  exact  fare  ready  in  his  hand.  In  addition  to  the  fare 
proper  there  is  a  tax  of  5  c.  on  each  ticket.  'Mistakes'  are  tome- 
times  made  by  the  ticket-clerks.  —  It  is  important  to  be  at  the 
station  early  in  the  case  of  terminal  stations ;  at  other  stations  the 
trains  are  frequently  late.  The  ticket-office  at  large  stations  is  open 
40  min.,  at  small  stations  20  min.  before  the  departure  of  the  train. 
Ticket-holders  alone  have  the  right  of  admission  to  the  waiting- 
rooms.  At  the  end  of  the  journey  tickets  are  given  up  at  the  usc^a. 
—  Holders  of  tickets  for  distances  over  124  M.  may  break  the 


journey  once,  those  with  tickets  for  over  310  M.  twice;  bnt  the 
ticket  must  be  shown  to  the  capostazione  on  leaving  the  train,  and 
again  presented  at  the  ticket-office  to  be  stamped  before  the  journey 
is  resumed. 

Rktuen  Tickets  (Biglietti  di  andata-ritorno)  for  distances  up  to 
100  kilometres  (62  M.)  are  valid  for  one  day  only,  up  to  200  kil. 
for  2  days,  up  to  300  kil.  for  3  days,  and  beyond  300  kil.  for  4  days. 
Rut  those  issued  on  Saturdays  and  the  eves  of  festivals  are  avail- 
able for  three,  those  issued  on  Sundays  and  festivals  for  two  days 
at  least.    These  tickets  do  not  allow  the  journey  to  be  broken. 

CmcuLAR  Tour  Tickets  from  London  to  Italy,  with  fixed  itine- 
raries, are  issued  in  considerable  variety  by  the  South-Eastern  and 
Chatham  and  the  London,  Brighton,  &  South  Coast  Railway  Com- 
panies. The  so-called  'Rdndubise  Tickets'  (biglietti  combinabili 
mterndzionali),  with  routes  arranged  to  meet  the  wishes  of  particular 
travellers,  are  also  convenient.  These  tickets  (books  of  coupons) 
arc  not  issued  for  distances  under  600  kil.  (373  M.),  reckoned  from 
the  first  Continental  station  reached  from  England.  Those  for 
distances  up  to  2000  kil.  are  valid  for  46  days,  for  2001-3000  kil. 
for  60  (lays,  and  beyond  that  distance  for  90  days.  These  inter- 
national tickets  allow  of  no  free  luggage,  but  permit  the  journey 
to  be  broken  without  formality  at  any  of  the  stations  named  in  them. 
If  the  traveller  alight  at  other  stations  he  must  at  once  apply  to  the 
capostazione  for  recognition  of  the  break  of  journey.  Some  express 
trains  are  not  available  for  short  distances  by  the  holders  of  these 
tickets  (comp.  p.  107,  etc.).  —  Tickets  of  both  the  above-mentioned 
kinds  and  full  information  may  be  procured  in  London  (at  the 
principal  stations  of  the  southern  railways  and  at  the  ordinary  tourist- 
agencies),  in  Paris,  and  at  the  chief  towns  of  Germany  and  Switzer- 
land. —  Those  with  whom  economy  is  an  object  may  save  a  good  deal 
by  taking  return-tickets  to  the  Swiss  frontier,  travelling  third  class 
in  Switzerland,  and  then  taking  circular-tour  tickets  in  Italy. 

These  tickets  have  to  be  signed  by  tlie  traveller  and  require  to  be 
stamped  at  each  fresh  starting-point  with  the  name  of  the  next  station 
at  which  the  traveller  intends  to  halt.  This  may  be  done  either  at  the 
city-nfDce  or  at  the  railway -station  (usually  at  a  special  ticket-oflice, 
laliclled  'viaggi  circolari''),  If  the  traveller  makes  up  his  mind  en  route 
to  alight  before  or  beyond  the  station  for  which  his  ticket  has  been  stamped, 
he  must  at  once  apply  to  the  capostazione  of  the  station  where  he  leaves 
the  train  for  recognition  of  the  break  in  the  journey  Caccerlare  il  cam- 
hiamento  di  destinaziom').  When  the  traveller  quits  the  prescribed  route, 
intending  to  rejoin  it  at  a  point  farther  on,  he  has  also  to  procure  an 
^annotazione^  at  the  station  where  he  alights,  enabling  him  to  resume  his 
circular  tour  after  his  digression  ('■vale  per  yiprendere  alia  siazione  .  .  .  it 
viagyio  interrotto  a  .  .  .').  If  this  ceremony  be  neglected  the  holder  of  the 
ticket  is  required  to  pay  fnll  fare  for  the  omitted  portion  of  the  route  for 
which  the  ticket  is  issued. 

Grnbral  Tickets.  The  so-called  Biglietti  di  Abbonamento  Speciale 
or  General  Season  Tickets  entitle  the  holder  to  travel  at  will  during 
a  given  time  over  the  Italian  railways  and  thus  preserv«  his  free- 

Babdbkbr.    Italy  1.    13th  Edit.  b 

xviii  STEAMERS. 

dom  of  movement  better  than  the  circular  tour  tickets.  The  general 
season  tickets  are  issued  only  at  some  of  the  principal  stations  (such 
as  Florence,  Milan,  Turin,  Bologna,  Genoa,  Pisa,  and  Leghorn),  but  a 
form  of  application  may  be  obtained  at  any  station.  The  applicant  must 
pay  1  fr.  wheTi  ordering  the  ticket  and  at  the  same  time  furnish  an 
unmounted  photograph  of  himself.  The  ticket  is  issued  at  the  chief 
stations  2hrs.,at  the  smaller  stations  about 24 hrs.  after  the  application. 

Luggage.  No  luggage  is  allowed  free ,  except  small  articles 
taken  by  the  passenger  into  his  carriage  ;  the  rate  of  charge  is  4'/2  c 
for  100  kilogrammps  per  kilometre.  Travellers  v?ho  can  confine  their 
impedimenta  to  articles  which  they  can  carry  themselves  and  take  into 
the  carriages  with  them  will  be  spared  much  expense  and  annoyance. 
Those  who  intend  to  make  only  a  short  stay  at  a  place,  especially 
when  the  town  or  village  lies  at  some  distance  from  the  railway, 
had  better  leave  their  heavier  luggage  at  the  station  till  their  return 
(dare  in  deposito ,  or  depositare ;  5  c.  per  day  for  each  piece,  min- 
imum 10  c.)  or  forward  it  to  the  final  destination.  At  small  stations 
the  traveller  should  at  once  look  after  his  luggage  in  person.  —  The 
luggage-ticket  is  called  lo  scontrino.  Porters  (facchini)  who  convey 
luggage  to  and  from  the  carriage  are  entitled  to  6-20  c.  per  package 
by  tariff;   and  attempts  at  extortion  should  be  firmly  resisted. 

As  several  robberies  of  passengers'  luggage  have  been  perpetrated  in 
Italy  without  detection,  it  is  as  well  that  articles  of  great  value  should 
not  be  entrusted  to  the  safe-keeping  of  any  trunk  or  portmanteau,  however 
strong  and  secure  it  may  seem  (comp.  p.  xiv).  —  Damaged  trunks  may  be 
secured  by  leaden  seals  (piomhare)  for  5  c.  each  package. 

The  enormous  weight  of  the  large  trunks  used  by  some  travellers  not 
infrequently  causes  serious  injury  to  the  porters  ivho  have  to  handle  them. 
Heavy  articles  should  therefore  always  be  placed  in  the  smaller  packages. 

Italian  Kailwat  IlESTAnEANTS ,  especially  those  at  frontier-stations, 
leave  much  to  be  desired.  Luncheon-baskets  (3-4  fr.)  may  be  obtained 
at  some  of  the  larger  stations. 

Passengers  by  night-trains  from  the  larger  stations  may  hire  pillows 
[cutcino,  guanciale;  1  fr.,  for  abroad  2  fr.).  These  must  not  be  removed 
from  the  compartment. 

Steamers.  The  time-tables  of  the  steamer-routes  are  given  in 
the  larger  railway-guide  mentioned  at  p.  xvi;  but  changes  are  so 
frequent  that  enquiries  on  the  spot  are  always  advisable. 

On  the  Italian  Lakes  the  tickets  are  usually  issued  on  board 
the  steamer.  Passengers  embarking  at  intermediate  stations  receive 
checks  which  they  show  on  purchasing  their  tickets.  There  is  no 
extra  charge  for  embarking  or  disembarking  at  small-boat  stations. 
The  railways  issue  tickets  including  the  lake-journey.  Return- 
tickets  do  not  usually  permit  of  the  journey  being  broken.  On 
Sundays  in  summer  the  boats  are  frequently  crowded  by  excur- 
sionists. —  The  steamers  occasionally  leave  the  smaller  stations  as 
much  as  10  min..  in  advance  of  the  scheduled  times,  but  they  are 
much  more  frequently  late. 

In  the  proper  season  a  steamer  trip  on  the  Mediterranean,  especially 
between  Genoa,  Spezia,  and  Leghorn,  or  on  the  Adriatic,  between  Venice 
and  Trieste,  is  a  very  charming  experience.    Tickets  should   be  taken  in 

CYCLING.  xix 

person  at  the  steamboat-agencies.  Ladies  should  travel  first-class,  but 
gentlemen  of  modest  requirements  will  find  the  second  cabin  very  fair. 
The  steward  expects  a  gratuity  of  about  1  fr.  per  day,  or  more  if  the  trav- 
eller has  given  him  extra  trouble.  —  The  inadequate  arrangements  for 
embarking  and  disembarking  give  great  annoyance.  The  tariff  is  usually 
l-l'/a  fr.  for  each  person,  including  luggage;  but  the  passengers  are  generally 
left  at  the  mercy  of  the  boatmen,  who  often  make  extortionate  demands. 
The  traveller  should  not  enter  the  boat  until  a  clear  bargain  has  been 
made  for  the  transport  of  himself  and  his  impedimenta,  and  should  not 
pay  until  everything  lias  been  deposited  on  deck  or  on  shore.  Small  articles 
of  luggage  should  be  kept  in  one's  own  hands. 

VUI.  Cycling  and  Motoring. 

The  environs  of  Milan,  Turin,  Verona,  and  Bologna,  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  the  Italian  Lakes,  and  the  Riviera  all  offer  many  attrac- 
tions for  the  cyclist  and  motorist.  The  roads  are  good  on  the  whole, 
though  often  very  dusty  in  summer  (especially  In  the  N.  Italian 
plain)  and  correspondingly  muddy  in  wet  weather.  —  English  riders 
should  remember  that  the  rule  of  the  road  in  Italy  is  the  reverse  of 
that  in  England:  keep  to  the  right  on  meeting,  to  the  left  in  over- 
taking another  vehicle. 

The  unattached  Cyclist  on  entering  Italy  with  Ms  wheel  must 
deposit  42  fr.  60  c.  with  the  custom-house  authorities,  which  sum 
is  returned  to  him  (though  sometimes  not  without  difficulties!  when 
he  quits  the  country.  Members  of  well-known  cyclist  associations, 
such  as  the  Cyclists^  Touring  Club  (London;  47  Victoria  St.,  S.W.) 
or  the  Touring  Club  de  France  (Paris ;  10  Place  de  la  Bourse),  are, 
however,  spared  this  formality,  on  conditions  explained  in  the 
handbooks  of  these  clubs.  A  certificate  of  re-exportation  (certificato 
di  scarico)  should  always  he  obtained,  as  otherwise  the  club  of 
which  the  cyclist  is  a  member,  may  be  called  upon  subsequently  to 
pay  the  duty  as  above.  —  On  the  railways  cycles  are  treated  as  ordinary 
passengers'  luggage  (p.  xviii).  Valises  should  not  be  left  strapped 
to  cycles  when  sent  by  rail,  owing  to  the  risk  of  theft  (p.  xviii). 

Motor  Cars  entering  Italy  are  liable  to  pay  a  customs-duty 
(varying  from  ca.  200  fr.  to  ca.  600  fr.  according  to  the  weight  of  the 
car),  which  is  returned  when  the  car  quits  the  country.  A  licence 
for  the  car  and  a  driver's  licence  are  necessary,  but  those  issued  by 
foreign  countries  are  accepted  if  lodged  within  five  days  at  a  pro- 
vincial prcfettura  for  registration.  Petrol  is  easily  obtained  in  North 
Italy  (3-5  fr.  per  gallon). 

members  o{  the  Touring  Club  Italiano  (Milan,  Via  Jlonte  Napoleone  14  : 
entrance  fee  2  fr.,  annual  subscription  5  fr.)  C(mimand  advantageous  terms 
at  numerous  hotels,  besides  having  access  to  the  special  information  and 
maps  of  the  club.  One  of  its  best  guides  is  L.  V.  Bertarellis  Guida  Itinerario 
dellc  Strade  di  grande  Comunicazione  dell'  Italia  {3rd  ed.;  Milan,  1900), 
with  numerous  maps  and  plans.  It  also  publishes  road-maps  at  Is.  Gd. 
each  (Sheet  1,  Lombardia,  Piemonte,  e  Liguria;  Sheet  2,  Veneto). 

IX.  Hotels. 

First  Class  Hotels,  comfortably  fitted  up,  are  to  be  found  at 
all  the  principal  resorts  of  travellers  in  Northern  Italy,  most  of  them 



having  fixed  charges:  room  3-10  fr.  for  each  person,  light  75  c.  to 
IV2  fr.,  attendance  (exclusive  of  the  'facchino'  and  portier)  1  fr., 
luncheon  (colazione,  dejeuner)  3-5  fr.,  dinner  (pranzo,  diner)  5-8  fr. 
The  charge  for  dinner  does  not  include  wine,  which  is  usually  dear  and 
often  poor.  For  a  prolonged  stay  an  agreement  may  generally  be  made 
with  the  landlord  for  pension  at  a  more  moderate  rate.  Visitors  are 
expected  to  dine  at  the  table-d'hote  ;  otherwise  the  charge  for  rooms 
is  apt  to  be  raised.  The  charges  for  meals  furnished  in  private  rooms 
or  at  unusual  times  are  much  higher.  Other  'extras'  are  also  dear. 
The  cuisine  is  a  mixture  of  French  and  Italian.  During  the  season 
and  at  the  more  frequented  resorts  it  is  advisable  to  engage  rooms 
in  advance,  especially  if  arriving  in  the  evening.  It  is  advisable  to 
prepay  the  answer,  to  prevent  disappointment  on  arrival.  Gentlemen 
travelling  alono  may  leave  their  luggage  at  the  station  until  rooms 
have  been  secured.  The  charge  for  the  use  of  the  hotel-omnibus 
from  the  station  to  the  hotel  is  so  high  (1-2  fr.  each),  that  it  is 
often  cheaper  to  take  a  cab.  It  is  also  easier  for  those  who  use  a  cab  to 
proceed  to  another  hotel,  should  they  not  like  the  rooms  offered  them. 

The  Second  Class  Hotels  (Alberghi;  in  the  S.  districts,  also  Lo- 
eande)  are  less  comfortable  and  thoroughly  Italian  in  their  arrange- 
ments. The  charges  are  little  more  than  one-half  of  the  above :  room 
1-5,  attendance  1/2,  omnibus  ^2"!  fr.  They  have  no  table-d'hote,  but 
there  is  generally  a  trattoria  connected  with  the  house,  where  refresh- 
ments 5  la  carte,  or  a  dinner  a  prezzo  fisso,  may  be  procured.  Fair 
native  wines,  usually  on  draught,  are  furnished  in  these  houses  at 
moderate  prices.  Morning  coffee  is  usually  taken  at  a  cafe  and  not 
at  the  inn.  It  is  customary  to  make  enquiries  beforehand  as  to  the 
charges  for  rooms ,  not  forgetting  the  servizio  e  candela ;  and  the 
price  of  the  dinner  (if  not  h  la  carte)  should  also  be  agreed  upon 
(2-4  fr.,  with  wine  21/2-41/2  fr-)-  These  inns  will  often  be  found 
convenient  and  economical  by  the  voyageur  en  gar(on,  and  the  better 
houses  of  this  class  may  even  be  visited  by  ladies,  when  at  home  in 
Italian ;  the  new-comer  should  frequent  hotels  of  the  first  class  only. 

Hotels  Gabnis  are  to  be  found  in  most  of  the  larger  towns, 
with  charges  for  rooms  similar  to  those  in  the  second-class  hotels. 

As  matches  are  rarely  found  in  hotels,  the  guest  should  provide  himself 
with  a  supply  of  the  wax-matches  (cerini)  sold  in  the  streets  (1-2  boxes 
10-15  c).     Soap  is  also  a  high-priced  'extra'. 

Money  or  objects  of  value  should  either  be  can-ied  on  the  traveller's 
person  or  left  with  the  landlord  in  exchange  for  a  receipt. 

The  Pensions  of  the  larger  towns  and  resorts  also  receive  passing 
travellers.  The  charge  is  about  the  same  as  that  of  the  second-class 
inns  and  usually  includes  table-wine.  As,  however,  the  price  of 
dejeuner  is  usually  (though  not  universally)  included  in  the  fixed 
daily  charge,  the  traveller-has  either  to  sacrifice  some  of  the  best  hours 
for  visiting  the  galleries  or  to  pay  for  a  meal  he  does  not  consume. 

For  a  prolonged  stay  in  one  place  families  will  find  it  much 
cheaper  to  hire  Private  Apartments  and  do  their  own  housekeep- 

REST  AUK  ANTS.  xxi 

iiig.  A  rent  lower  than  that  first  asked  for  is  often  accepted.  M'hen 
a  whole  suite  of  apartments  is  hired,  a  written  contract  on  stamped 
paper  should  be  drawn  up  with  the  aid  of  someone  acquainted 
with  the  language  and  customs  of  the  place  (e. p.  a  banker),  in  order 
that  'misunderstandings'  may  be  prevented.  A  payment  of  part  of 
the  rent  in  advance  is  a  customary  stipulation;  but  such  payments 
should  never  be  made  until  after  the  landlord  has  redeemed  all  his 
undertakings  with  regard  to  repairs,  furnishing,  etc.  For  single 
travellers  a  verbal  agreement  with  regard  to  attendance,  linen,  stoves 
and  carpets  in  winter ,  a  receptacle  for  coal ,  and  other  details  will 
generally  suffice.    Comp.  p.  xxx. 

The  popular  idea  of  cleanliness  in  Italy  is  behind  the  age ;  but 
the  traveller  in  the  N.  part  of  the  country  will  rarely  suffer  from  this 
short-coming  even  in  hotels  of  the  second  class,  though  those  who 
quit  the  beaten  track  must  be  prepared  for  privations.  Iron  bedsteads 
should  if  possible  be  selected,  as  they  are  less  likely  to  harbour  the 
enemies  of  repose.  Insect-powder  (polvere  insetticida  or  contra  gli 
insetti)  or  camphor  somewhat  repels  their  advances. 

The  zamare,  or  musquitoes,  are  a  source  of  great  annoyance,  and  often 
of  suffering,  during  summer  and  autumn  and.  on  the  Riviera,  even  in 
winter.  Only  a  few  parts  of  N.  Italy  (e.g.  Piedmont,  the  \V.  lakes,  and 
Bologna)  are  free  from  this  pest,  which  is  always  worst  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  plantations,  canals,  or  ponds.  Between  June  and  October  the 
night  should  never  be  spent  in  malarial  districts  (Colico,  Blorlara,  Pavia. 
Mantua,  Ferrara,  Ravenna),  where  the  female  of  the  Anopheles  Cloviger 
frequently  conveys  the  infection  of  malarial  fever  with  its  sting.  Small 
doses  of  quinine  may  be  used  as  a  prophylactic.  Windows  should  always 
be  carefully  closed  before  a  light  is  introduced  into  the  room.  Light  muslin 
curtains  (zamarieri)  round  the  beds,  masks  for  the  face,  and  gloves  are 
employed  to  ward  off  the  attacks  of  these  pertinacious  intruders.  The 
burning  of  pastilles  (fidibui  contro  le  zanzare;  in  Venice,  chiodi),  which  may 
be  purchased  of  the  principal  chemists,  is  efficacious,  but  is  accompanied 
by  a  scarcely  agreeable  odour.  A  weak  solution  of  carbolic  acid  in  water 
is  efficacious  in  allaying  the  discomforts  occasioned  by  the  bites. 

A  list  of  the  Italian  names  of  the  ordinary  articles  of  underclothing 
(la  biancheria)  will  be  useful  in  dealing  with  the  washerwoman:  Shirt 
(linen,  cotton,  woollen),  la  camicia  (di  tela,  di  cotone,  di  lana);  night-shirt, 
la  camicia  da  nolle;  collar,  i{  tolino,  il  colletio;  cuff,  il  poltino;  drawers, 
le  mutande;  woollen  under-shirt,  una  Jlanella  or  giubba  dijianella  or maglia; 
petticoat,  la  sottana;  stocking,  la  calza;  sock,  la  ealzetta;  handkerchief 
(silk),  il  fazolttto  (di  seta).  To  give  out  to  wash,  dare  a  bucato  (di  bucato, 
newly  washed);  washing  list,  la  nota;  washerwoman,  laundress,  la  tlira- 
trice,  la  lavandaia;  buttons,  •  bottoni. 

X.  Restaurants.  Caf6s.  Birrerie. 
Restaurants  (Ristoranti,  Trattorie)  are  frequented  between  1 1  a.m. 
and  2p.m.  for  luncheon  (coUazione)  and  between  6.30  and  8.30  p.m. 
for  dinner  (pranzo).  Meals  are  usually  served  alia  carta  at  moderate 
prices;  meals  a  prezzo  fisso  ( 2^2-5 fr.)  are  not  customary  except  in  a 
few  restaurants  largely  frequented  by  foreigners  and  are,  in  general, 
not  recommended.  When  there  is  no  bill  of  fare  the  waiter  ('rameriere^ 
will  recite  the  list  of  dishes.  If  too  importunate  in  his  recom- 
mendations or  suggestions  he  may  be  checked  with  the  word  ^basta\ 


The  diner  calls  for  his  bill  (which  should  he  carefully  scrutinized) 
with  the  words  'iJ  conto'.  The  waiter  expects  a  gratuity  of  ahout 
5  c.  for  each  franc  of  the  bill  (comp.  p.  xv).  —  Residents  for  some 
time  in  a  town  should  arrange  to  pay  a  fortnightly  or  monthly  sub- 
scription (''■pensione' )  at  a  lower  rate. 

List  of  the  ordinary  dishes  at  the  Italian  restaurants. 

Soglia,  a  kind  of  sole. 
Aragosta,  lobster.         ^ 
Ostriche^  oysters  (good  in  winter  only; 
comp.  p.  283). 

Antipa*(i,  relishes  taken  as  whets 
(such  as  sardines,  olives,  or  rad- 

Minestra  or  Zuppa^  soup. 

Brodo  or  Consumi^  broth  or  bouillon. 

Ztippa  alia  Santi,  soup  with  green 
vegetables  and  bread. 

Minestra  di  riso  con  piselli,  rice-soup 
with  peas. 

Risotto  (alia  Milanese),  a  kind  of  rice 
pudding  (rich). 

Paste  ascitttte,  niacearoni,  al  sugo  e 
al  lurro,  with  sauce  and  butter; 
ai  pomi  d^oro,  with  tomatoe>s. 

Saldme,  sausage  (usually  with  garlic, 

Polio,  fowl. 

AnUra,  duck. 

Polio  d''India,  or  diiido,  turkey. 

Stvfatino,  Cibreo,  ragout  (often  med- 

Crocchetti,  croquettes  of  rice  or  po- 

PoJpeltine,  small  meat-dumplings. 

Qnocchi,  small  dumplings  of  dough. 

Pasticcio,  pat^,  patty. 

Contorno  ,  Quat-niziom ,  garni.shing, 
vegetables,  usually  not  charged  for. 

Came  les$a,  boUiia,  boiled  meat;  in 
umido ,  alia  genovese,  with  sauce; 
ben  cotto ,  well-done;  al  tangue, 
air  inglete ,  underdone ;  ai  Jerri, 
cooked  on  the  gridiron. 

Manzo,  boiled  beef. 

Fritto,  una  Frittura,  fried  meat. 

Fritto  misto,  a  mixture  of  fried  liver, 
brains,  artichokes,  etc. 

Arrosto,  roasted  meat. 

Arrosto  di  vitello,  roast-veal. 

^w<ccoa,beefsteak(usually  mediocre). 

Maiale,  pork  (eaten  in  winter  only). 

Montone,  mutton. 

Agnello,  lamb. 

Capretto,  kid. 

Testa  di  vitello,  calf's  head. 

Figato  di  vitello,  calf's  liver. 

Bracidla  di  vitello,  veal-cutlet. 

Rognoni,  kidneys. 

Costoletta  alia  Milanese,  veal-cutlet 
baked  in  dough. 

Sgaloppe ,  veal  -  cutlet  with  bread- 

Palate,  potatoes. 

Petce,  fish. 

Friitta  di  mare,  mussels,  shell- fish,  etc. 

Fmiglii,  mushrooms. 

Presciutto,  ham. 

Uova,  eggs ;  a  la  cogue,  boiled  (ben  cotte, 

8oft-boileil,  dure,   hard-boiled);  al 

piatto,  poached. 
Polenta,  boiled  maize. 
lasalata,  salad. 
Carciofi,  artichokes. 
Aspdragi,  asparagus  (expensive). 
Spinaci,  spinach  (mediocre). 
Piselli,  peas. 
Lenticchie,  lentils. 

Broccoli,  or  Cavoli  fiori,  cauliflower. 
Gobbi,  Cardi,  artichoke  stalks   (with 

Zucchino,  marrow,  squash. 
Fare,  beans. 

Fagiolini,  Corneiti,  French  beans. 
Mostarda   franfese,    sweet    mustard 

(mixed  with  vinegar). 
Mottarda  inglese  or  Sendpe,  hot 

Sale,  salt. 
Pepe,  pepper. 
Dolce,  sweet  dish. 
Budino  (in  Florence),  pudding. 
Frittata,  omelette. 
Frutta,    Oiafdinetlo  di  friitta,    fruit- 
desert  ;  frutta  secfhc,  nuts,  raisins, 

almond.s,  etc. 
Crostata  di  frutti,  fruit-tart. 
Crostata  di  pasta  sfoglia,    a  kind  of 

Fragole,  strawberries. 
Pera,  pear. 
Mela,  apple. 

Pirsiche,  Pesche,  peaches. 
Uva,  bunch  of  grapes. 
Fiehi,  figs. 
Nispole,  medlars. 
Noei,  nuts. 
Litnone,  lemon. 
Arancio,  orange. 
Finocchio,  root  of  fennel. 
Pane  francese,  bread  made  with  yeast 

(the  Italian  is  made  without). 
Burro,  butter. 
Formaggio,  cheese  (Oorgonzola,  verde 

or  bianco,  and  Stracchino). 

CAFfiS.  xxiii 

Wine  (vino  dapasto,  tatle-wlne;  nero,  red;  bianco,  ■white;  dolce, 
pastoso,  amabUe,  sweet;  secco,  dry;  del  paese,  nostrano,  vrine  of  the 
country)  is  usually  served  in  open  hottles  one-half,  one  fourth,  or 
one  fifth  of  a  litre  (un  mezzo  litro;  un  quarto ;  un  quinto  or  bicchiere). 
Wines  of  a  better  quality  are  sold  in  ordinary  quarts  and  pints. 

In  the  NoKTH  of  Italy  the  following  are  the  best  wines:  the  care- 
fully manufactured  Piedmontese  brands,  Barolo,  Nebiolo,  Barbera,  and 
Orignolino  (an  agreeable  table-wine),  and  the  sparkling  Asti  spvmante ;  the 
Yaltellina  wines  (best  SasseUa);  the  Veronese  ValpoUcella,  an  effervescent 
red  wine;  the  Vincentine  Marzeinino  and  Bveijanze  (a  white  sweet  wine); 
the  Paduan  BagnoU;  in  the  province  of  Treviso,  Conegliaiio,  Rahoso  di  fiave. 
Prosecco,  and  Verdiso;  in  IMine,  lie/osco;  the  wine  of /yoioj/zia,  partly  from 
French  vineyards;  Lainbrvsco,  etc. 

In  I.iGCRiA  the  local  wines  of  the  Val  Polcevera  (best  Coronatd)  and  the 
Cinque  Terre  share  the  popularity  of  the  Piedmontese  and  Tuscan  vintages. 

In  TcscAsr  the  best  wine"^  (almost  all  red)  are:  Chianti  (best  Broglio), 
Rufina  (best  Pomino),  Nipozzdno,  Altumcna,  and  Carmignano,  and  Alealico 
(sweet).  Ovvielo  and  Montepulciano  are  produced  farther  to  the  south.  — 
In  Tuscany  the  ordinary  table-wine,  which  is  met  with  all  over  N.  Italy 
under  the  name  'Chianti',  is  generally  served  in  a  'fiasco',  or  straw-covered 
llask  holding  three  ordinary  bottles,  but  only  the  quantity  consumed  is  paid 
for.  Smaller  bottles  may  be  obtained:  mezzo  fiasco  Q/i),  quarto  fiasco  (^t), 
fiaschetto  or  oitavino  (}/»). 

Like  the  trattorie  with  'Cucina  alia  casallnga  ('homely  fare'), 
the  OsTERiE,  or  ordinary  wine-shops,  are  almost  exclusively  fre- 
quented hy  the  lower  ranks.  The  prices  are  often  inscribed  on  the 
outside  of  the  shop  ('6',  '7',  '8',  meaning  that  half  a  litre  costs  6, 
7,  or  8  soldi).  Some  of  the  better  wine-rooms  ( Fiaschetterie)  selling 
Tuscan  wines  provide  also  very  tolerable  meals. 

Cafes  are  frequented  for  breakfast  and  luncheon,  and  in  the 
evening  by  numerous  consumers  of  ices,  coffee,  beer,  vermouth  (usu- 
ally with  Seltzer  water),  etc.  The  tobacco  smoke  is  often  very  dense. 

Caffi  nero,  or  coffee  without  milk,  is  usually  drunk  (15-25  c.  per  cup). 
Caffi  latte  is  coflfee  mixed  with  milk  before  served  (25-50  c;  ''cappuccino", 
or  small  cup,  cheaper).  Chocolate  (cioccolata)  costs  25-50  e.  Roll  (pane)  5, 
with  butter  (pane  e  burro)  20  c.     Cakes  or  biscuits  (paste)  5-15  c. 

Ices  (gelato)  of  every  possible  variety  are  supplied  at  the  cafes  at 
30-90  c.  per  portion;  or  half  a  portion  (i/iezza)  may  be  ordered.  Sorbetto, 
or  half-frozen  ice,  and  spremuto,  lemonade  flavoured  with  fruit-syrup,  are 
much  in  vogue  in  the  forenoon.  Oranita  is  water-ice  (limonata,  lemon ; 
aranciata,  orange;  di  caffi,  coffee).  Oassosa,  aerated  lemonade,  is  also  fre- 
quently ordered.  The  waiters  expect  a  sou  or  more,  according  to  the  amount 
of  the  payment. 

The  principal  Parisian  and  Viennese  newspapers  (giornali)  are  to  be 
found  at  all  the  larger  cafds,  English  less  often.  Italian  papers  (5-10  c.) 
are  everywhere  offered  by  newsvendors.  The  Corriera  delta  Sera  (p.  130) 
givea  most  of  the  foreign  despatches.  The  Roman  papers  Giornale  d" Italia 
and  Tribuna  also  are  much  read  in  Tuscany. 

Birrerie,  corresponding  to  the  French  'Brasseries',  are  now  found 
in  all  the  larger  towns  and  chief  resorts  of  visitors.  Munich,  Pilsen, 
or  Gratz  beer  may  generally  be  procured  at  these.  A  small  glass 
(piccola  tazza)  costs  30-40  c,  a  large  glass  (generally  holding  un 
mezzo  litro^  50-60  c.   Luncheon  may  usually  be  obtained  at  these. 

Cigars  (Sigari)  in  Italy  are  a  monopoly  of  Government,  and 
usually  bad.    Italians  prefer  strong  cigars,  e.y.  Toscani,  Napoletani, 


Cavours  (long  10  c,  short  71/2  <^0'  ^^  Virginias  (7^2.  12,  or  15  c). 
Milder  varieties  are  Brancas  (5  c),  Sellas  (7  c),  Orimaldis  (10  c), 
Medianitos  and  Minghettis  (15  c),  and  Trahucoa  (20  c).  Good  Manila 
Cigars  (20-30  c.)  and  Havanna  Cigars  (40c.-l  fr.  20  c.)  may  be 
bought  at  the  better  shops  in  the  large  towns,  and  also  foreign 
Cigarettes.  —  Travellers  who  import  their  own  cigars,  paying  the 
heavy  duty,  should  keep  the  customs  receipt,  as  they  are  liable  to 
be  challenged,  e.g.  by  the  octroi  officials  (p.  xiv).  —  Passers  by 
are  at  liberty  to  avail  themselves  of  the  light  burning  in  every  tobac- 
conist's, without  making  any  purchase. 

XI.   Sights.  Theatres.  Shops. 

The  larger  Churches  are  open  in  the  morning  till  12,  and  generally 
again  from  2,  3,  or  4  to  7  p.m.,  while  the  most  important  are  often 
open  the  whole  day.  Many  of  the  smaller  churches  are  open  only 
till  8  or  9  a.m.  Yisitors  may  inspect  the  works  of  art  even  during 
divine  service ,  provided  they  move  about  noiselessly ,  and  keep 
aloof  from  the  altar  where  the  clergy  are  officiating.  On  the  occasion 
of  festivals  and  for  a  week  or  two  before  Easter  the  works  of  art 
are  often  entirely  concealed  by  the  temporary  decorations.  Those 
always  covered  are  shown  by  the  verger  (sagrestano),  who  expects 
30-50  c.  from  a  single  traveller,  more  from  a  party  (p.  xv). 

Museoms,  picture-galleries,  etc.,  are  usually  open  from  9  or  10 
to  4  o'clock.  All  the  collections  which  belong  to  government  are 
open  free  on  Sun.  and  holidays,  but  on  week-days  a  charge  is  usually 
made.  Gratuities  are  forbidden.  These  collections  are  closed  on  the 
following  public  holidays:  New  Year's  Day,  Epiphany  (6th  Jan.), 
Festival  of  the  Annunciation  (25th  Mar.),  Easter  Sunday,  Ascension 
Day  (Ascensione),  Whitsunday,  Fete  de  Dieu  (Corpus  Ghristi),  the 
Festa  dello  Statute  (first  Sunday  in  June),  Assumption  of  the  Virgin 
(Assunzione;  15th  Aug.),  Nativity  of  the  Virgin  (8th  Sept.),  All 
Saints'  Day  (1st  Nov.),  and  Christmas  Day;  also  the  birthdays  of 
the  king  (11th  Nov.)  and  queen  (8th  Jan.).  The  arrangements, 
however,  vary  in  different  places.    For  Florence,  see  p.  463. 

Artists,  archseologists,  and  scholars,  on  making  application  to  the 
Ministry  of  Education  in  Rome  (Minisiero  della  I'ubblica  Istruzione)  on  a 
stamped  form  (1  fr.  20  c),  receive  free  tickets  (tessera  di  libera  ingresso), 
valid  all  over  the  country.  For  a  single  town  the  application  is  made  to 
the  Director  of  the  Gallery  (stamp  60  c).  The  application  must  be  ac- 
companied by  an  unmounted  photograph  and  by  a  certificate  from  a 
university  or  some  similar  body,  countersigned  by  an  Italian  consul  in 
the  applicant's  country  or  by  an  ambassador  (not  consul)  in  Italy.  A 
similar  permesso  is  required  by  those  who  wish  to  copy,  draw,  or  photo- 
graph (except  with  a  hand-camera)  in  any  of  the  museums. 

Theatres.  Performancesbegin  at  8, 8.30,  or  9,  and  terminate  at  mid- 
night or  later.  In  the  large  theatres,  in  which  the  season  (stagione) 
frequently  lasts  only  from  St.  Stephen's  Day  (Dec.  26th)  to  the  end 
of  the  Carnival,  operas  and  ballets  are  exclusively  performed.  The 
first  act  of  an  opera  is  usually  succeeded  by  a  ballet  of  three  acts 


or  more.  The  pit  (platea),  to  which  the  ^biglietto  d'ingresio'  gives 
access,  has  standing-room  only ;  for  seats  additional  tickets  must 
be  taken  (usually  in  advance  in  the  larger  towns).  A  hox  (palco  di 
primo,  secondo,  terzo  ordine),  which  must  always  be  secured  in  ad- 
vance, is  the  pleasantest  place  for  ladies  or  for  a  party  of  several 
persons.  Evening  dress  is  generally  worn  in  the  boxes.  Other  re- 
served seats  are  the  poltrone  (front  stalls)  and  the  posti  distinti  or  sedie 
(rear  stalls).  In  some  of  the  larger  theatres  good  seats  may  be  ob- 
tained in  the  anfiteatro  or  prima  galleria.  The  theatre  is  the  usual 
evening-resort  of  the  Italians,  who  seldom  observe  strict  silence 
during  the  performance  of  the  orchestra.  The  intervals  between  the 
acts  are  usually  very  long.  Cloak-rooms  are  found  only  in  a  few  of 
the  best  theatres.  Gentlemen  usually  wear  their  hats  until  the 
curtain  rises. 

Shops.  Fixed  prices  have  of  late  become  much  more  general 
ill  N.  Italy,  but  a  reduction  may  usually  be  obtained  on  purchases 
of  large  amount.  The  traveller's  demeanour  should  be  polite  but 
decided.  Purchases  should  never  be  made  in  presence  of  a  valet- 
de-place  or  through  the  agency  of  a  hotel-employee.  These  indivi- 
duals, by  tacit  agreement,  receive  a  commission  on  the  puichase- 
money,  which  of  course  comes  out  of  the  purchaser's  pocket.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  presence  of  an  Italian  friend  is  a  distinct  advantage. 

An  active  trade  is  driven  in  spurious  antiquities,  especially  in  Venice 
and  Florence.  Ancient  works  of  art  should  never  be  purchased  without 
a  written  guarantee  of  their  authenticity.  The  'lucky  discoveries'  offered 
by  the  suialler  dealers  are  usually  nothing  but  traps  for  the  unwary. 

Some  caution  is  necessary  in  buying  articles  to  be  sent  home.  The 
full  amount  should  never  be  paid  until  the  package  has  arrived  and  its 
contents  have  been  examined.  If  the  shopkeeper  does  not  agree  to  a  written 
agreement  as  to  the  method  of  packing,  the  means  of  transport,  and  com- 
pensation for  breakages,  it  is  advisable  to  cut  the  transaction  short.  The 
transmission  of  large  objects  should  be  entrusted  to  a  goods-agent. 

XII.  Post  Office.  Telegraph. 

In  the  larger  towns  the  Post  Office  is  open  daily  from  8  a.m.  to 
8  or  9.30  p.m.  (also  on  Sundays  and  holidays);  in  smaller  places 
it  is  generally  closed  in  the  middle  of  the  day  for  two  or  three  hours. 

Letters  (whether  ^poste  restante\  Italian  ^ferma  in  posta  ,  or  to 
the  traveller's  hotel)  should  be  addressed  very  distinctly,  and  the 
name  of  the  place  should  be  in  Italian.  The  surname  (cognome  • 
Christian  name,  nome)  should  be  underlined.  "When  asking  for  let- 
ters the  traveller,  should  show  his  visiting-card  instead  of  pronounc- 
ing his  name.  Postage-stamps  (francobolli)  are  sold  at  the  post- 
oflices  and  tobacco-shops.  The  mail-boxes  (buca  or  cassetta)  are  lab- 
elled 'per  le  lettere\  for  letters,  and  ^per  le  stampe,  for  printed  matter. 

Lettkhs  of  15  grammes  (i  2  oz.,  about  the  weight  of  three  sous)  by 
town-post  6  c,  to  the  rest  of  Italy  20  c,  abroad  (per  resicro)  25  c.  The 
penalty  (segnatatta)  for  insufficiently  prepaid  letters  is  double  the  defi- 
ciency. —  Post  Cards  (cartolina  poUale)  for  town-pust  5  c,  for  the  rest 
of  Italy  and  abroad  10  c,   reply-cards  (con  ritposta  pagala),  inland  16  c., 

xxvi  CLIMATE. 

abroad  20  c.  —  Lettek  Cards  (biglietto  pottale)  for  town-post  5  c,  for  the 
rest  of  Italy  20  c,  for  abroad  25  c.  —  Book  Packets  (statnpe  soito  fascia), 
2  c.  per  50  grammes,  for  abroad  5  c.  —  Registration  Fee  (raccomanda- 
zione)  for  letters  for  the  same  town  and  printed  matter  10  c,  otherwise 
25  c.  The  packet  or  letter  must  be  inscribed  '■raccom(tndata\  —  Post  Office 
Orders,  see  p.  xii.  Sums  not  exceeding  25  fr.  may  be  sent  within  Italy 
by  the  so-called  cartolina  vaglia  (fee  10  c.  for  1-5  fr.  and  5  c.  for  each  5  ff. 
more).  Money  may  also  be  transmitted  by  telegraph.  To  secure  registered 
letters  or  the  payment  of  money  orders,  the  stranger  must  show  his  pass- 
port or  be  identified  by  two  witnesses  known  to  the  postal  authorities. 
It  is  therefore  often  convenient  to  arrange  to  have  the  money  sent  to 
one's  landlord. 

Parcel  Post.  Parcels  not  exceeding  5  kg.  (11  lbs.)  in  weight  or  20  cubic 
decimetres  in  size  (longest  dimension  not  more  than  60  centimetres,  or 
about  2  ft.)  may  be  sent  by  post  in  Italy  for  60  c. ;  to  England,  via  France, 
2  fr.  75  c.  The  parcels  must  be  carefully  packed  and  sealed  and  may  not 
contain  anything  in  the  shape  of  a  letter.  Parcels  for  abroad  must  be 
accompanied  by  two  customs  -  declarations  on  forms  for  the  purpose. 
Articles  not  liable  to  duty  (such  as  flowers,  etc.)  are  best  sent  as  samples 
of  no  value  (campione  sema  valore)  in  Italy  2  c.  per  60  gr.,  abroad  10  c. 
up  to  50  gr.,  then  5  c.  for  each  50  gr.  more. 

Telegrams.  For  telegrams  to  foreign  countries  the  following 
rate  per  word  is  charged  in  addition  to  an  initial  payment  of  1  fr.  : 
Great  Britain 26,  France  14,  Germanyl4,  Switzerland 6-14,  Anstria 
6-14,  Belgium  19,  HoUand  23,  Denmark  23,  Russia  42,  Sweden 
26,  Norway  34  c.  To  America  from  33/4  fr.  per  word  upwards,  ac- 
cording to  the  state.  Within  the  kingdom  of  Italy,  15  words 
1  fr.,  each  additional  word  5  c.  Telegrams  with  special  haste  (tele- 
grammi  urgenti),  which  take  precedence  of  all  others,  may  he  sent 
at  thrice  the  above  rates. 

XIII.    Climate.  Winter  Stations.  Seaside  Resorts.  Health. 

It  is  a  common  error  on  the  part  of  those  who  visit  Italy  for  the 
first  time  to  believe  that  beyond  the  Alps  the  skies  are  always  blue 
and  the  breezes  always  balmy.  It  is  true  that  the  traveller  who 
has  crossed  the  Spliigen,  the  Brenner,  or  the  St.  Gotthard  in  winter, 
and  finds  himself  in  the  district  of  the  N.  Italian  lakes,  cannot  fail 
to  remark  what  an  admirable  barrier  against  the  wind  is  afforded 
by  the  central  chain  of  the  Alps.  The  average  winter-temperature 
(December,  January,  and  February)  here  is  37-40° Fahr.  as  compared 
■with  28-32°  on  the  N,  side  of  the  mountains.  Places  nestling  close 
to  the  S.  base  of  the  Alps,  such  as  Locarno  (winter-temperature 
37°  Fahr.),  Pallanza  (38.5°),  Arco  (38.75°),  and  Oardone^Riviera 
(40°),  thus  form  an  excellent  intermediate  stage  between  the  bleak 
winter  of  N.  Europe  and  the  semi-tropical  climate  of  the  Riviera  or  S. 
Italy.  A  peculiarity  of  the  climate  here  is  afforded  by  the  torrents  of 
rain  which  maybe  expected  about  the  equinoctial  period.  The  masses 
of  warm  and  moisture-laden  clouds  driven  northwards  by  the  S.  wind 
break  against  the  Alpine  chain,  and  discharge  themselves  in  heavy 
showers,  which  fill  the  rivers  and  occasion  the  inundations  from 

CLIMATE.  xxvii 

which  Lombardy  not  unfrequently  suffers.  If,  however,  the  trav- 
eller continues  his  journey  towards  the  S.  through  the  plain  of  Lom- 
bardy he  again  enters  a  colder  and  windy  region.  The  whole  plain 
of  the  Po,  enclosed  by  snow-capped  mountains,  exhibits  a  climate 
of  a  thoroughly  continental  character;  the  summer  is  as  hot  as  that 
of  Sicily,  while  the  winter  is  very  cold,  the  mean  temperature 
being  below  35"  Fahr.  or  about  equal  to  that  of  the  lower  Rhine. 
In  Milan  the  thermometer  sometimes  sinks  below  zero.  Changes 
of  weather,  dependent  upon  the  direction  of  the  wind,  are  fre- 
quent; and  the  humidity  of  the  atmosphere,  occasioned  in  part  by 
the  numerous  canals  and  rice-marshes,  is  also  very  considerable. 
A  prolonged  residence  in  Turin  or  Milan  should  therefore  be  avoided 
by  invalids,  while  even  robust  travellers  should  be  on  their  guard 
against  the  trying  climate.  As  we  approach  the  Adriatic  Sea  the 
climate  of  the  Lombard  plain  loses  its  continental  character  and 
approximates  more  closely  to  that  of  the  rest  of  the  peninsula.  The 
climatic  peculiarities  of  Venice  are  described  at  p.  287. 

As  soon  as  we  cross  the  mountains  which  bound  the  S.  margin 
of  the  Lombard  plain  and  reach  the  Mediterranean  coast,  we  tind  a 
remarkable  change  in  the  climatic  conditions.  Here  an  almost  un- 
interrupted series  of  winter-resorts  extends  along  the  Ligurian 
Riviera  as  far  S.  as  Leghorn,  and  these  are  rapidly  increasing 
both  in  number  and  popularity.  The  cause  of  the  mild  and  pleas- 
ant climate  at  these  places  is  not  far  to  seek.  The  Maritime 
Alps  and  the  Ligurian  Apennines  form  such  an  admirable  screen 
on  the  N.,  that  the  cold  N.  winds  which  pass  these  mountains  do 
not  touch  the  district  immediately  at  their  feet,  but  are  first  per- 
ceptible on  the  sea  6-10  M.  from  the  coast.  It  is  of  no  unfrequent 
occurrence  in  the  Riviera  that  the  harbours  are  perfectly  smooth 
while  the  open  sea  is  agitated  by  a  brisk  tempest.  Most  of  the  towns 
and  villages  on  the  coast  lie  in  crescent -shaped  bays,  opening 
towards  the  S.,  while  on  the  landward  side  they  are  protected  by 
an  amphitheatre  of  hills.  These  hills  are  exposed  to  the  full  force 
of  the  sun's  rays,  and  the  limestone  of  which  they  are  composed 
absorbs  an  immense  amount  of  heat.  It  is  therefore  not  to  be 
wondered  at  that  these  hothouses  of  the  Riviera  show  a  higher  tem- 
perature in  winter  than  many  places  much  farther  to  the  S,  Thus, 
while  the  mean  temperature  of  Rome  in  the  three  coldest  months  is 
46°  Fahr.,  that  of  the  Riviera  is  48-50°  (Nervi  48°,  San  Remo  60°; 
Pisa,  on  the  other  hand,  only  42"). 

It  would,  however,  be  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  this  strip  of 
coast  is  entirely  free  from  wind.  The  rapid  heating  and  cooling  of 
the  strand  produces  numerous  light  breezes,  while  the  rarefaction 
of  the  masses  of  air  by  the  strength  of  the  sun  gives  rise  to  strong 
currents  rushing  in  from  the  E.  and  W.  to  supply  the  vacuum. 
The  most  notorious  of  these  coast-winds  is  the  Mistral,  which  is 
at  its  worst  at  Avignon  and  other  places  in  the  Rhone  Valley  (see 

xxviii  CLIMATE. 

Baedeker's  Southern  France).  The  N.E.  wind  on  the  contrary 
is  much  stronger  in  Alassio  and  San  Remo  than  on  the  coast  of 
Provence.  The  Scirocco  as  known  on  the  Ligurian  coast  is  by  no 
means  the  dry  and  parching  wind  experienced  in  Sicily  and  even 
at  Rome  ;  passing  as  it  does  over  immense  tracts  of  sea,  it  is  gener- 
ally charged  with  moisture  and  is  often  followed  by  rain. 

The  prevalent  belief  that  the  Riviera  has  a  moist  climate,  on 
account  of  its  proximity  to  the  sea,  is  natural  but  erroneous.  The 
atmosphere,  on  the  contrary,  is  rather  dry,  especially  in  the  "W. 
half  of  it,  while  the  humidity  rapidly  increases  as  we  approach 
the  Riviera  di  Levante.  The  same  holds  good  of  the  rainfall. 
While  San  Remo  has  45  rainy  days  between  November  and  April, 
Nervi  has  54,  and  Pisa  57.  The  average  number  of  rainy  days 
during  the  three  winter  months  in  the  Riviera  is  16.  Snow  is 
rarely  seen ;  it  falls  perhaps  once  or  twice  in  the  course  of  the 
winter,  but  generally  lies  only  for  a  few  hours,  while  many  years 
pass  without  the  appearance  of  a  single  snow-flake.  Fogs  are  very 
rare  on  the  Ligurian  coast;  but  a  heavy  dew-fall  in  the  evening  is 
the  rule.  In  comparison  with  the  Cisalpine  districts,  the  Riviera 
enjoys  a  very  high  proportion  of  bright,  sunny  weather. 

The  above  considerations  vnll  show  that  it  is  often  necessary  to 
discount  the  unpropitious  opinions  of  those  who  happen  to  have 
visited  the  Riviera  under  peculiarly  unfavourable  climatic  con- 
ditions. Not  only  do  the  ordinary  four  seasons  differ  from  each  other 
on  the  Riviera,  but  the  different  parts  of  winter  are  also  sharply 
discriminated.  A  short  rainy  season  may  be  counted  on  with  almost 
complete  certainty  between  the  beginning  of  October  and  the  middle 
of  November,  which  restricts,  but  by  no  means  abolishes,  open-air 
exercise.  Then  follows  from  December  to  February  usually  an  un- 
interrupted series  of  warm  and  sunshiny  days,  but  invalids  have 
sometimes  to  be  on  their  guard  against  wind.  March  here,  as  else- 
where in  the  south,  is  the  windiest  month  of  all,  but  is  much  less 
boisterous  in  the  Italian  part  of  the  Riviera  than  in  Provence. 
April  and  May  are  delightful  months  for  those  who  require  out-door 
life  in  a  warm  climate. 

The  mildness  of  the  climate  of  the  Riviera  requires,  perhaps,  no 
better  proof  than  its  rich  southern  vegetation.  The  Olive,  which  is 
already  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  N.  Italian  lakes,  here 
attains  its  full  growth,  while  the  Eucalyptus  globulus  (which  grows 
rapidly  and  to  an  astonishing  height),  the  Orange,  the  Lemon,  and 
several  varieties  of  Palms  also  flourish. 

The  geological  character  of  the  Riviera  is  also  of  sanitary  signi- 
ficance. The  prevailing  formation  is  limestone,  which  absorbs  the 
sun's  rays  with  remarkable  rapidity  and  radiates  it  with  equal  speed, 
thus  forming  an  important  factor  in  making  the  most  of  the  winter 
sunshine.     On  account  of  its  softness  it  is  also  extensively  used 

CLIMATE.  ,  Txix 

for  road-making,  and  causes  the  notorious  dust  of  the  Riviera,  which 
forms  the  chief  ohjection  to  a  region  frequented  by  so  many  per- 
sons with  weak  lungs.  The  authorities  of  the  various  health-resorts, 
however,  take  great  pains  to  mitigate  this  evil  as  far  as  practicable. 
After  heavy  rain  the  roads  are  apt  to  be  very  muddy. 

The  advantages  that  a  winter-residence  in  the  Riviera,  in  contra- 
distinction to  the  climate  of  northern  Europe,  offers  to  invalids  and 
delicate  persons,  are  a  considerably  warmer  and  generally  dry  at- 
mosphere, seldom  disturbed  by  storms,  yet  fresh  and  pure,  a  more 
cheerful  sky,  and  comparative  immunity  from  rain.  The  'invalid's 
day',  or  the  time  during  which  invalids  may  remain  in  the  open 
air  with  impunity,  lasts  here  from  10  a.m.  to  4  p.m.  The  general 
effect  of  a  prolonged  course  of  open-air  life  in  the  Riviera  may  be 
described  as  a  gentle  stimulation  of  the  entire  physical  organism. 
It  is  found  particularly  beneficial  for  convalescents,  the  debilitated, 
and  the  aged;  for  children  of  scrofulous  tendency  ;  and  for  the  mar- 
tyrs of  gout  and  rheumatism.  The  climati,c  cure  of  the  Riviera  is 
also  often  prescribed  to  patients  with  weak  chests,  to  assist  in  the 
removal  of  the  after-effects  of  inflammation  of  the  lungs  or  pleurisy, 
or  to  obviate  the  danger  of  the  formation  of  a  chronic  pulmonary 
discharge.  The  dry  and  frequently-agitated  air  of  the  Riviera  is, 
however,  by  no  means  suitable  for  every  patient  of  this  kind,  and 
the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  sea  is  particularly  unfavourable  to 
cases  of  a  feverish  or  nervous  character.  The  stimulating  effects  of 
the  climate  are  then  often  too  powerful ,  producing  sleeplessness 
and  unwholesome  irritation.  The  dry  air  of  the  Riviera  di  Ponente 
is  also  prejudicial  to  many  forms  of  inflammation  of  the  wind-pipe 
and  bronchial  tubes,  which  derive  benefit  from  the  air  of  Nervi, 
Pisa,  or  Ajaccio.  Cases  of  protracted  nephritis  or  diabetes,  on  the 
contrary,  often  obtain  considerable  relief  from  a  residence  here. 

The  season  on  the  Ligurian  coast  lasts  from  about  the  begin- 
ning of  October  to  the  middle  of  May.  In  September  it  is  still  too 
hot,  and  in  March  it  is  so  windy  that  many  patients  are  obliged  to 
retire  farther  inland.  Many  invalids  make  the  mistake  of  leaving 
the  Riviera  too  soon,  and  thus  lose  all  the  progress  they  have  made 
during  the  winter,  through  reaching  home  in  the  unfavourable  trans- 
ition period  between  winter  and  spring.  It  is  better  to  spend  April 
and  May  at  some  intermediate  station,  such  as  Pallanza,  Cannero, 
Locarno^  Lugano,  or  Oardone  Riviera. 

Good  opportunities  for  sea-bathing  are  offered  at  many  points 
on  the  Mediterranean  coast  of  N.  Italy,  such  as  Alassio,  Savona, 
Pegll,  Spezia,  Vinreggio,  Leghorn,  and  Venice.  The  Mediterranean  is 
almost  tideless ;  it  contains  about  41  per  cent  of  common  salt,  a  con- 
siderably higher  proportion  than  the  Atlantic ;  its  average  tempera- 
ture during  the  bathing-season  is  71°  Fahr,  The  bathing-season 
on  the  Ligurian  coast  begins  in  April,  or  at  latest  in  May,  and  lasts 

ixx  .  HEALTH. 

till  November,  being  thus  much  longer  than  the  season  at  any  English 

Most  travellers  must  in  some  degree  alter  their  mode  of  living 
whilst  in  Italy,  without  however  implicitly  adopting  the  Italian  style. 
Inhabitants  of  more  northern  countries  generally  become  unusually 
susceptible  to  cold  in  Italy,  and  therefore  should  not  omit  to  be  well 
supplied  with  warm  clothing  for  the  winter.  Woollen  underclothing  is 
especially  to  be  recommended.  A  cloak  or  shawl  should  be  carried  to 
neutralise  the  often  considerable  difference  of  temperature  between  the 
sunshine  and  the  shade.  In  visiting  picture-galleries  or  churches  on 
warm  days  it  is  advisable  to  drive  thither  and  walk  back ,  as  other- 
wise the  visitor  enters  the  cool  buUding  in  a  heated  state  and  has 
afterwards  no  opportunity  of  regaining  the  desirable  temperature 
through  exercise.  Exposure  to  the  summer-sun  should  be  avoided 
as  much  as  possible.  According  to  a  Roman  proverb,  dogs  and  for- 
eigners (Inglesi)  alone  walk  in  the  sun.  Christians  in  the  shade.  Um- 
brellas, or  spectacles  of  coloured  glass  (grey,  concave  glasses  to  pro- 
tect the  whole  eye  are  best ),  may  be  used  with  advantage.  Blue  veils 
are  recommended  to  ladies.  Repose  during  the  hottest  hours  is  ad- 
visable, and  a  moderate  siesta  is  often  refreshing. 

Great  care  should  also  be  taken  in  the  selection  of  an  apartment. 
Carpets  and  stoves  are  indispensable  in  winter.  A  southern  aspect  in 
winter  is  an  absolute  essential  for  delicate  persons,  and  highly  desir- 
able for  the  robust.  The  visitor  should  see  that  all  the  doors  and 
windows  close  satisfactorily,  Windows  should  be  closed  at  night.  If 
there  is  the  slightest  suspicion  of  dampness  in  the  bed-clothes, 
recourse  should  be  had  to  the  warming-pan fmeitereii/woco  nellettoj. 

Health.  English  and  German  medical  men  are  to  be  met  with 
in  the  larger  cities,  and  in  most  of  the  wintering-stations  of  the  Ri- 
viera. English  and  German  chemists,  where  available,  are  recom- 
mended in  preference  to  the  Italian,  whose  drugs  are  at  once  dearer 
and  of  poorer  quality.  Foreigners  frequently  suffer  from  diarrhoea  in 
Italy,  which  is  generally  occasioned  by  the  unwonted  heat.  The 
homcpopathic  tincture  of  camphor  may  be  mentioned  as  a  remedy, 
but  regulated  diet  and  thorough  repose  are  the  chief  desiderata.  A 
small  portable  medicine-case,  such  as  those  prepared  and  stocked  with 
tabloid  drugs  by  Messrs.  Burroughs^  Wellcome,  ^'  Co.,  Holborn  Via- 
duct, London,  wiU  often  be  found  useful. 

E.  A.  Reynold  BaWs  'Mediterranean  Winter  Resorts'  (London;  5th  ed., 
1904)  may  be  consulted  for  farther  particulars. 

Italian  Art. 

A  Historical  Sketch  by  Professor  Anton  Springer. 

One  of  the  primary  objects  of  the  enlightened  traveller  in  Italy 
is  usually  to  form  some  acquaintance  with  its  treasures  of  art. 
Even  those  whose  usual  avocations  are  of  the  most  prosaic  ^J!Z^Z'^ 
nature  unconsciously  become  admirers  of  poetry  and  art  m 
Italy.  The  traveller  here  finds  them  so  interwoven  with  scenes  of 
everyday  life,  that  he  encounters  their  influence  at  every  step,  and 
involuntarily  becomes  susceptible  to  their  power.  A  single  visit 
can  hardly  suffice  to  enable  any  one  justly  to  appreciate  the 
numerous  works  of  art  he  meets  with  In  the  course  of  his  tour,  nor 
can  a  guide-book  teach  him  to  fathom  the  mysterious  depths  of 
Italian  creative  genius,  the  past  history  of  which  is  particularly  at- 
tractive; but  the  perusal  of  a  few  remarks  on  this  subject  will  be 
found  materially  to  enhance  the  pleasure  and  facilitate  the  researches 
of  even  the  most  unpretending  lover  of  art.  Works  of  the  highest  class, 
the  most  perfect  creations  of  genius,  lose  nothing  of  their  charm  by 
being  pointed  out  as  specimens  of  the  best  period  of  art;  while 
those  of  inferior  merit  are  invested  with  far  higher  interest  when 
they  are  shown  to  be  necessary  links  in  the  chain  of  development, 
and  when,  on  comparison  with  earlier  or  later  works,  their  relative 
defects  or  superiority  are  recognised.  The  following  observations, 
therefore,  will  hardly  be  deemed  out  of  place  in  a  work  designed  to 
aid  the  traveller  in  deriving  the  greatest  possible  amount  of  enjoy- 
ment and  instruction  from  his  sojourn  in  Italy. 

The  two  great  epochs  in  the  history  of  art  which  principally 

arrest  the  attention  are  those  of  Classic  Antiquity,  and  of  the  ^      „,     „n, 
A  o  1  ...  ■,  ■,  r,  Classic  A  N9 

Ibth  century,  the  culminating  period  of  the  so-called  itcnctis-     Renais- 

sance.    The  intervening  space  of  more  than  a  thousand  years       sance 

is  usually,  with  much  unfairness,   almost  entirely  ignored ;      eriod.s. 

for  this  interval  not  only  continues  to  exhibit  vestiges  of  the  first 

epoch,  but  gradually  paves  the  M'ay  for  the  second.    It  is  a  common 

error  to  suppose  that  in  Italy  alone  the  character  of  ancient  art  can 

be  thoroughly  appreciated.   This  idea  dates  from  the  period  when  no 

precise  distinction  was  made  between  Greek  and  Roman  art,    when 

the  connection  of   the  former  with  a  particular  land  and  nation, 

and  the  tendency  of  the  latter  to  pursue   an   independent   course 

were  alike  overlooked.     Now ,   however ,  that  we  are   acquainted 

with    more     numerous     Greek    originals,     and    have    acquired   a 

deeper   insight   into  the   development  of  Hellenic  art,   an  iudis- 

xixii  ITALIAN  ART. 

criminate  confusion  of  Greek  and  Roman  styles  is  no  longer  to  te 
Geeek  and  apprehended.  We  are  now  -well  aware  that  the  highest  per- 
RoMAN  fection  of  ancient  architecture  is  realised  in  the  Hellenic 
Styles  dis-  temple  alone.  The  Doric  order,  in  which  majestic  gravity  is 
TrNGuisHED.  gxpresscd  by  massive  proportions  and  by  a  symmetrical  de- 
coration, which  at  the  same  time  subserves  a  practical  purpose, 
and  the  Ionic  structure,  with  its  lighter  and  more  graceful  char- 
acter, exhibit  a  creative  spirit  entirely  different  from  that  mani- 
fested in  the  sumptuous  Roman  edifices.  Again,  the  most  valuable 
collection  of  ancient  sculptures  in  Italy  is  incapable  of  affording  so 
admirable  an  insight  into  the  development  of  Greek  art  as  the  sculp- 
tures of  the  Parthenon  and  other  fragments  of  Greek  temple- archi- 
tecture preserved  in  the  British  Museum.  But,  while  instruction  is 
afforded  more  abundantly  by  other  than  Italian  sources,  ancient  art 
is  perhaps  thoroughly  admired  in  Italy  alone ,  where  works  of  art 
encounter  the  eye  with  more  appropriate  adjuncts,  and  where  climate, 
scenery,  aTid  people  materially  contribute  to  intensify  their  impres- 
siveness.  An  additional  facility,  moreover,  is  afforded  by  the  circum- 
stance ,  that  in  accordance  with  an  admirable  custom  of  classic 
antiquity  the  once  perfected  type  of  a  plastic  figure  was  not  again 
arbitrarily  abandoned,  but  rigidly  adhered  to,  and  continually  re- 
produced. Thus  in  numerous  cases,  where  the  more  ancient  Greek 
original  had  been  lost,  it  was  preserved  in  subsequent  copies;  and 
even  in  the  works  of  the  Roman  imperial  age  Hellenic  creative  talent 
is  still  reflected. 

This  supremacy  of  Greek  intellect  in  Italy  was  established  in  a 
Greece  twofold  manner.  In  the  first  place  Greek  colonists  intro- 
sopREME  IK  duced  their  ancient  native  style  into  their  new  homes.  This 
^^'^-  is  proved  by  the  existence  of  several  Doric  temples  in  Sicily, 
by  the  so-called  Temple  of  Neptune  at  Paestum,  as  well  as  by  the 
ruins  at  Metapontum.  But,  in  the  second  place,  the  art  of  the  Greeks 
did  not  attain  its  universal  supremacy  in  Italy  till  a  later  period, 
when  Hellas,  nationally  ruined,  had  learned  to  obey  the  dictates  of 
her  mighty  conqueror,  and  the  Romans  had  begun  to  combine  with 
their  political  superiority  the  reflnements  of  more  advanced  culture. 
The  ancient  scenes  of  artistic  activity  in  Greece  (Athens  for  example) 
became  re-peopled  at  the  cost  of  Rome;  Greek  works  of  art  and 
Greek  artists  were  introduced  into  Italy;  and  ostentatious  pride  in 
the  magnificence  of  booty  acquired  by  victory  led  by  an  easy  transi- 
tion to  a  taste  for  such  objects.  To  surround  themselves  with  artistic 
decoration  thus  gradually  became  the  universal  custom  of  the  Ro- 
mans, and  the  foundation  of  public  monuments  came  to  be  regarded 
as  an  indispensable  duty  of  government. 

Although  the  Roman  works  of  art  of  the  imperial  epoch  are 

Roman     deficient  in  originality  compared  with  the  Greek  ,  yet  their 

Architec-  authors  never  degenerate  into  mere  copyists,  or  entirely  re- 

TDRE.     nounce  independent  effort.   This  remark  applies  especially  to 

ITALIAN  ART.  xxxiil 

their  Architbctukb.  Independently  of  the  Greeks,  the  ancient  Italian 
nations,  and  with  them  the  Romans,  had  acquired  a  knowledge  of 
stone-cutting,  and  discovered  the  method  of  constructing  arches 
and  vaulting.  With  this  technically  and  important 
art  they  aimed  at  combining  Greek  forms,  the  column  supporting 
the  entablature.  The  sphere  of  architecture  was  then  gradually  ex- 
tended. One  of  the  chief  requirements  was  now  to  construct  edifices 
with  spacious  interiors,  and  several  stories  in  height.  No  precise 
model  was  afforded  by  Greek  architecture,  and  yet  the  current 
Greek  forms  appeared  too  beautiful  to  be  lightly  disregarded.  The 
Romans  therefore  preferred  to  combine  them  with  the  arch-prin- 
ciple, aTid  apply  this  combination  to  their  new  architectural  designs. 
The  individuality  of  the  Greek  orders,  and  their  originally  un- 
alterable coherence  were  thereby  sacrificed,  and  divested  of  much 
of  their  importance;  that  which  once  possessed  a  definite  organic 
significance  frequently  assumed  a  superti<-ial  and  decorative  charac- 
ter: but  the  aggregate  effect  is  always  imposing.  Attention  must  be 
directed  to  the  several-storied  structures,  in  which  the  tasteful  as- 
cending gradation  of  the  component  parts,  from  tlu:  more  massive 
(Doric)  to  the  lighter  (Corinthian),  chiefly  anests  the  eye;  and  the 
vast  and  artistically  vaulted  interiors,  as  well  as  the  structures  of  a 
merely  decorative  description,  must  also  be  examined,  in  order  that 
the  chief  merits  of  Roman  art  may  be  understood.  In  the  use  of 
columns  in  front  of  closed  wal's  (e.?.  as  members  of  a  facade),  in 
the  construction  of  domes  above  circular  interiors,  and  of  cylindrical 
and  groined  vaulting  over  oblong  spaces,  the  Roman  edifices  have 
served  as  models  to  posterity,  and  the  imitations  have  often  fallen 
short  of  the  originals. 

It  is  true  that  in  the  districts  to  which  this  Tolume  of  the  Hand- 
book is  devoted,  the  splendour  and  beauty  of  ancient  art  is  not  so 
pr^nninently  illustrated  as  in  Rome  or  S.  Italy.  Nevertheless  N. 
Italy  also  contains  many  interesting  relics  of  Roman  architecture 
(such  as  the  Amphitheatre  at  Verona,  the  Triumphal  Arches  a.tAosta 
and  Susa,  etc.),  and  the  traveller  will  find  ample  food  for  his  ad- 
miration in  the  antique  sculptures  in  the  collections  at  Turin,  Brescia, 
Mantua,  and  Florence.  —  Upper  Italy  and  Tuscany  stand,  on  the 
other  hand,  in  the  very  forefront  of  the  artistic  life  of  the  middle 
ages  and  early  Renaissance,  and  Venice  may  boast  of  having  brilliant- 
ly unfolded  the  glories  of  Italian  painting  at  a  time  when  that  art 
had  sunk  at  Rome  to  its  nadir.  In  order,  however,  to  place  the 
reader  at  a  proper  point  of  view  for  appreciating  the  development 
of  art  in  N.  Italy,  it  is  necessary  to  give  a  sketch  of  the  progress 
of  Italian  art  in  general  from  the  early  middle  ages  onwards. 

In  the  4th  century  the  heathen  world,   which  had  long  been  in 
a  tottering  condition,  at  length  became  Christianised,  and  a    chkistiam 
new  period  of  art  began.    This  is  sometimes  erroneously  re-       rrKioD 
garded  as  the   result  of  a    forcible   rupture    from    ancient      '^'  ■'^^' 

Baedeker.   Italy  I.   13th  Edit.  C 

xxxiv  ITALIAN  ART. 

Roman  art,  and  a  sudden  and  spontaneous  invention  of  a  new  style. 
But  the  eye  and  the  hand  adhere  to  custom  more  tenaciously  than 
the  mind.  While  new  ideas,  and  altered  views  of  the  character  of 
the  Deity  and  the  destination  of  man  were  entertained,  the  wonted 
forms  were  still  necessarily  employed  in  the  expression  of  these 
thoughts.  Moreover  the  heathen  sovereigns  had  by  no  means  been 
unremittingly  hostile  to  Christianity  (the  most  bitter  persecutions 
did  not  take  place  till  the  3rd  century),  and  the  new  doctrines  were 
permitted  to  expand,  take  deeper  root,  and  organise  themselves  in 
the  midst  of  heathen  society.  The  consequence  was,  that  the  trans- 
ition from  heathen  to  Christian  ideas  of  art  was  a  gradual  one,  and 
that  in  point  of  form  early  Christian  art  continued  to  follow  up  the 
lessouo  of  the  ancient.  The  best  proof  of  this  is  afforded  by  the 
paintings  in  the  Roman  Catacombs,  the  burial-places  of  the  early 
Christian  community.  In  these  the  artistic  principles  of  pagan 
antiquity  are  adhered  to,  alike  in  decorative  forms,  design,  choice 
of  colour,  grouping  of  figures,  and  treatment  of  subject.  Even  the 
Sarcophagus  Sculptures  of  the  4th  and  5th  centuries  differ  in 
purport  only,  and  not  in  technical  treatment,  from  the  type  exhibited 
in  the  tomb-reliefs  of  heathen  Rome.  Five  centuries  elapsed  be- 
fore a  new  artistic  style  sprang  up  in  painting  and  in  the  greatly 
neglected  plastic  arts.  Meanwhile  architecture  had  developed  itself 
commensurately  with  the  requirements  of  Christian  worship,  and, 
in  connection  with  the  new  modes  of  building,  painting  acquired  a 
different  character. 

The  term  Basilica  Style  is  often  emplojed  to  designate  early 
Chukch  Christian  architecture  down  to  the  10th  century.  The  Roman 
Arouitec-  forensic  basilicas,  which  are  proved  to  have  existed  in  the 
TUBE.  fQjj^  Qf  most  of  the  towns  of  the  Roman  empire,  served  as 
courts  of  judicature  and  public  assembly-halls.  The  belief  that 
these  were  afterwards  fitted  up  for  the  purposes  of  Christian  worship 
is  now  exploded,  but  in  their  main  features  they  served  as  models 
for  the  construction  of  Christian  churches.  After  the  4th  cent, 
the  following  became  the  established  type  of  the  Christian  bas- 
ilica. In  front  is  a  quadrangular  fore- court  (atrium),  of  the  same 
width  as  the  basilica  itself,  surrounded  with  an  open  colonnade 
and  provided  with  a  fountain  (cantharus)  for  the  ablutions  of  the 
devout.  This  forms  the  approach  to  the  interior  of  the  church, 
which  Txsually  consisted  of  a  nave  and  two  aisles,  the  latter  lower 
than  the  former,  and  separated  from  it  by  two  rows  of  columns,  the 
whole  terminating  in  a  semicircle  (apsis).  In  front  of  the  apse  there 
was  sometimes  a  transverse  space  (transept);  the  altar,  surmounted 
by  a  columnar  structure,  occupied  a  detached  position  in  the  apse ; 
the  space  in  front  of  it,  bounded  by  cancelli  or  railings,  was 
destined  for  the  choir  of  officiating  priests,  and  contained  the  two 
pulpits  (ambones)  where  the  gospel  and  epistles  were  read.  Un- 
like the  ancient  temples ,    the  early-Christian  basilicas  exhibit  a 

ITALIAN  ART.  xxxv 

neglect  of  external  architecture,  the  chief  importance  being  at- 
tached to  the  interior,  the  decorations  of  which,  however,  especially 
in  early  mediaeval  times,  were  often  procured  by  plundering  the 
ancient  Roman  edifices,  and  transferring  the  spoil  to  the  churches 
with  little  regard  to  harmony  of  style  and  material.  The  most  ap- 
propriate ornaments  of  the  churches  were  the  metallic  objects,  such 
as  crosses  and  lustres,  and  the  tapestry  bestowed  on  them  by  papal 
piety ;  while  the  chief  decoration  of  the  walls  consisted  of  mosaics, 
especially  those  covering  the  background  of  the  apse  and  the 
'triumphal'  arch  which  separates  the  apse  from  the  nave.  The 
mosaics,  as  far  at  least  as  the  material  was  concerned,  were  of  a 
sterling  monumental  character ,  and  contributed  to  give  rise  to  a 
new  style  of  pictorial  art;  iu  them  ancient  tradition  was  for  the 
lirst  time  abandoned,  and  the  harsh  and  austere  style  erroneously 
termed  Byzantine  gradually  introduced. 

Christian  art  originated   at  Rome ,    but   its    development   was 
actively  promoted  in  other  Italian  districts,  especially  at  Ravenna, 
where  during  the  Ostrogothic  supremacy  (493-539),  as  well 
as  under    the    succeeding  Byzantine    empire,    architecture      g^i'^''*'^ 
was  zealously  cultivated.    The  basilica-type  was  there  more 
highly  matured,   the  external  architecture  enlivened  by  low  arches 
and  projecting  buttresses,   and  the  capitals  of  the  columns  in  the 
interior  appropriately  moulded  with  reference  to  the  superincumb- 
ent arches.     There ,   too ,   the    art  of   mosaic  painting  was  sedu- 
lously  cultivated,  exhibiting  in  its  earlier  specimens  (in  the  Bap- 
tistery of  the  Orthodox  and  Tomb  of  Qalla  Placidia)  greater  technical 
excellence  and   better  drawing  thaii  the  contemporaneous  Roman 
works.    At  Ravenna  the  Western  style  also  appears  in  combination 
with  the  Eastern,  and  the  church  of  San  Vitale  (dating  from  547j 
may  be  regarded  as  a  fine  example  of  a  Byzantine  structure. 

The  term  'Btzantink'  is  often  misapplied.  Every  work  of  the 
so-called  dark  centuries  of  the  middle  ages,  everything  in  archi- 
tecture that  intervenes  between  the  ancient  and  the  Gothic,  every- 
thing in  painting  which  repels  by  its  uncouth  ,  ill-proportioned 
forms,  is  apt  to  be  termed  Byzantine ;  and  it  is  commonly  supposed 
that  the  practice  of  art  in  Italy  was  entrusted  exclusively  to  By- 
zantine hands  from  the  fall  of  the  Western  Empire  to  an  ad- 
vanced period  of  the  13th  century.  This  belief  in  the  universal 
and  unqualified  prevalence  of  the  Byzantine  style,  as  well  as  the 
idea  that  it  is  invariably  of  a  clumsy  and  lifeless  character,  is 
entirely  unfounded.  The  forms  of  Byzantine  architecture  are 
at  least  strongly  and  clearly  defined.  While  the  basilica  is  a 
long -extended  hall,  over  which  the  eye  is  compelled  to  range 
until  it  finds  a  natural  resting-place  iu  the  recess  of  the  apse, 
every  Byzantine  structure  may  be  circumscribed  with  a  curved 
line.  The  aisles ,  which  in  the  basilica  run  parallel  with  the 
nave,     degenerate    in    the    Byzantine    style   to    narrow    and    in- 

xxxvl  ITALIAN  ART. 

significant  passages ;  the  apse  loses  its  intimate  connection  with 
the  nave,  being  separated  from  it;  the  most  conspicuous  feature 
in  the  huilding  consists  of  the  central  square  space ,  bounded 
by  four  massive  pillars  which  support  the  dome.  These  are  the 
essential  characteristics  of  the  Byzantine  style,  which  culminates 
in  the  magnificent  church  of  St.  Sophia  at  Constantinople,  and  pre- 
vails throughout  Oriental  Christendom,  but  in  the  West,  including 
Italy  only,  occurs  sporadically.  With  the  exception  of  the  churches 
of  San  Vitale  at  Ravenna,  and  St.  Mark  at  Venice,  the  edifices  of 
Lower  Italy  alone  show  a  frequent  application  of  this  style. 

The  Byzantine  imagination  does  not  appear  to  have  exercised  a 

Growth    greater  influence  on  the  growth  of  other  branches  of  Italian 

OF  Art  is  art  than  on  architecture.     A  brisk  traffic  in  works  of  art 

Italy,  was  carried  on  by  Venice,  Amalfi,  and  other  Italian  towns, 
with  the  Levant;  the  position  of  Constantinople  resembled  that  of 
the  modern  Lyons ;  silk  wares ,  tapestry ,  and  jewellery  were  most 
highly  valued  when  imported  from  the  Eastern  metropolis.  By- 
zantine artists  were  always  welcome  visitors  to  Italy ,  Italian  con- 
noisseurs ordered  works  to  be  executed  at  Constantinople,  chiefly 
those  in  metal ,  and  the  superiority  of  Byzantine  workmanship 
was  universally  acknowledged.  All  this,  however,  does  not  justify 
the  inference  that  Italian  art  was  quite  subordinate  to  Byzantine. 
On  the  contrary ,  notwithstanding  various  external  influences,  it 
un_derwent  an  independent  and  unbiassed  development,  and  never 
entirely  abandoned  its  ancient  principles.  A  considerable  interval 
indeed  elapsed  before  the  fusion  of  the  original  inhabitants  with 
the  early  mediaeval  immigrants-  was  complete,  before  the  aggregate 
of  difi'erent  tribes ,  languages ,  customs,  and  ideas  became  blended 
into  a  single  nationality,  and  before  the  people  attained  sufficient 
concentration  and  independence  of  spirit  to  devote  themselves 
successfully  to  the  cultivation  of  art.  Unproductive  in  the  pro- 
vince of  art  as  this  early  period  is ,  yet  an  entire  departure  from 
native  tradition,  or  a  serious  conflict  of  the  latter  with  extraneous 
innovation  never  took  place.  It  may  be  admitted ,  that  in  the 
massive  columns  and  cumbrous  capitals  of  the  churches  of  Upper 
Italy ,  and  in  the  art  of  vaulting  which  was  developed  here  at  an 
early  period ,  symptoms  of  the  Germanic  character  of  the  inhabit- 
ants are  manifested,  and  that  in  the  Lower  Italian  and  especially 
Sicilian  structures ,  traces  of  Arabian  and  Norman  influence  are 
unmistakable.  In  the  essentials,  however,  the  foreigners  continue 
to  be  the  recipients ;  the  might  of  ancient  tradition  and  the 
national  idea  of  form  might  be  repressed  but  they  could  not  be 

About  the  middle  of  the  11th  century  a  zealous  and  promis- 

RoMAN-  ^^S  artistic  movement  took  place  in  Italy ,  and  the  seeds 
ESQUE  were  sown  which  three  or  four  centuries  later  yielded  so 
Style,    luxuriant  a  growth.     As  yet  nothing  was  matured,  nothing 

ITALIAN  ART.  xxxvii 

completed,  the  aim  was  obscure,  the  resources  insufficient ;  mean- 
while architecture  alone  satisfied  artistic  requirements ,  the  at- 
tempts at  painting  and  sculpture  being  barbarous  in  the  ex- 
treme ;  these,  however,  were  the  germs  of  the  subsequent  devel- 
opment of  art  observable  as  early  as  the  11th  and  12th  centuries. 
This  has  been  aptly  designated  the  Romanesque  period  (11th- 
13th  cent."!,  and  the  then  prevalent  forms  of  art  the  Ro- 
manesque Style.  As  the  Romance  languages ,  notwithstanding 
alterations,  additions,  and  corruptions,  maintain  their  filial  rela- 
tion to  the  language  of  the  Romans,  so  Romanesque  art,  in 
spite  of  its  rude  and  barbarous  aspect,  reveals  its  immediate 
descent  from  the  art  of  that  people.  The  Tuscan  towns  were  the 
principal  scene  of  the  prosecution  of  medieval  art.  There  an  in- 
dustrial population  gradually  arose,  treasures  of  commerce  were 
collected,  independent  views  of  life  were  acquired  in  active  party 
conflicts,  loftier  common  interests  became  interwoven  with  those 
of  private  life,  and  education  entered  a  broader  and  more  enlight- 
ened track;  and  thus  a  taste  for  art  also  was  awakened,  and 
aesthetic  perception  developed  itself.  When  Italian  architecture 
of  the  Romanesque  period  is  examined,  the  difference  between  it& 
character  and  that  of  contemporaneous  northern  works  is  at  once 
apparent.  In  the  latter  the  principal  aim  is  perfection  in  the 
construction  of  vaulting.  French,  English,  and  German  churches 
are  unquestionably  the  more  organically  conceived,  the  individual 
parts  are  more  inseparable  and  more  appropriately  arranged.  But 
the  subordination  of  all  other  aims  to  that  of  the  secure  and  ac- 
curate formation  of  the  vaulting  does  not  admit  of  an  unrestrained 
manifestation  of  the  sense  of  form.  The  columns  are  apt  to  be 
heavy,  symmetry  and  harmony  in  the  constituent  members  to  be 
disregarded.  On  Italian  soil  new  architectural  ideas  are  rarely 
found,  constructive  boldness  not  being  here  the  chief  object ;  on  the 
other  hand,  the  decorative  arrangements  are  richer  and  more  grate- 
ful, the  sense  of  rhythm  and  symmetry  more  pronounced.  The  cath- 
edral of  Pisa  or  the  church  of  San  Miniato  near  Florence,  both 
founded  as  early  as  the  11th  century,  may  be  taken  as  an  example 
of  this.  The  interior  with  its  rows  of  columns ,  the  mouldings 
throughout,  and  the  flat  ceiling  recall  the  basilica-type ;  while  the 
exterior,  especially  the  facade  destitute  of  tower,  with  the  small 
arcades  one  above  the  other,  and  the  variegated  colours  of  the  courses 
of  stone,  presents  a  tine  decorative  effect.  At  the  same  time  the  con- 
struction and  decoration  of  the  walls  already  evince  a  taste  for  the 
elegant  proportions  which  we  admire  in  later  Italian  structures; 
the  formation  of  the  capitals,  and  the  design  of  the  outlines  prove 
that  the  precepts  of  antiquity  were  not  entirely  forgotten.  A  pe- 
culiar conservative  spirit  pervades  the  medieval  architecture  of 
Italy;  artists  do  not  aim  at  an  unknown  and  remote  object; 
the  ideal  which  they  have  in  view ,   although  perhaps  instinctive- 

xxxvili  ITALIAN  ART. 

ly  only,  lies  in  the  past;  to  conjure  up  tliis,  and  bring  about 
a  Renaissance  of  the  antique,  appears  to  be  the  goal  of  their 
aspirations.  They  apply  themselves  to  their  task  with  calmness 
and  concentration,  they  indulge  in  no  bold  or  novel  schemes,  but 
are  content  to  display  their  love  of  form  in  the  execution  of  details. 
What  architecture  as  a  whole  loses  in  historical  attraction  is 
compensated  by  the  beauty  of  the  individual  edifices.  While 
the  North  possesses  structures  of  greater  importance  in  the  develop- 
ment of  art,  Italy  boasts  of  a  far  greater  number  of  pleasing  works. 
There  is  hardly  a  district  in  Italy  which  does  not  boast  of 
interesting  examples  of  Romanesque  architecture.     At  Verona  we 

Roman-    ^^Y  mention  the  famous  church  of  St.  Zeno,  with  its  sculp- 

ESQUE  tured  portals.  In  the  same  style  are  the  cathedrals  of  Fer- 
Churcues  fara,  Modena.  Parma,  and  Piacenza,  the  church  of  Sant'  Am- 
brogio  at  Milan.,  with  its  characteristic  fore-court  and  facade,  and 
that  of  San  Michele  at  Pavia.  Tuscany  abounds  with  Romanesque 
edifices.  Among  these  the  palm  is  due  to  the  cathedral  of  Pisa,  a 
church  of  spacious  dimensions  in  the  interior,  superbly  embellished 
with  its  marble  of  two  colours  and  the  rows  of  columns  on  its  facade. 

.  To  the  same  period  also  belong  the  neighbouring  Leaning  Tower  and 
the  Baptistery.  The  churches  of  Lucca  are  copies  of  those  at  Pisa. 
Those  of  Florence,  however,  such  as  the  octagonal,  dome-covered 
Baptistery  and  the  above-mentioned  church  of  San  Miniato,  exhibit 
an  independent  style. 

The  position  occupied  by  Italy  with  regard  to  Gothic  archi- 
tecture is  thus  rendered  obvious.     She  could  not  entirely 

Style"  ignore  its  iivfiuence,  although  incapable  of  according  an  un- 
conditional reception  to  this,  the  highest  development  of 
vault-architecture.  Gothic  was  introduced  into  Italy  in  a  mature 
and  perfected  condition.  It  did  not  of  necessity,  as  in  France, 
develop  itself  from  the  earlier  (Romanesque)  style,  its  progress 
cannot  be  traced  step  by  step;  it  was  imported  by  foreign  architects 
and  adopted  as  being  in  consonance  with  the  tendency  of  the  age ; 
it  found  numerous  admirers  among  the  mendicant  orders  of  monks 
and  the  humbler  classes  of  citizens,  but  could  never  quite  dis- 
engage itself  from  Italianising  influences.  It  was  so  far  transformed 
that  the  constructive  constituents  of  Gothic  are  degraded  to  a  de- 
corative office,  and  the  national  taste  thus  became  reconciled  to  it. 
The  cathedral  of  Milan  cannot  be  regarded  as  a  fair  specimen  of 
Italian  Gothic,  but  this  style  must  rather  be  sought  for  in  the 
mediaeval  cathedrals  of  Florence,  Siena,  Orvieto,  in  the  church  of 
San  Petronio  at  Bologna,  and  in  numerous  secular  edifices,  such 
as  the  Loggia  dei  Lanzi  at  Florence,  the  communal  palaces  of 
towns  in  Central  Italy,  and  the  palaces  of  Venice.  An  acquaintance 
with  true  Gothic  construction,  so  contracted  notwithstanding  all  its 
apparent  richness,  so  exclusively  adapted  to  practical  requirements, 
can  certainly  not  be  acquired  from  these  cathedrals.     The  spacious 

ITALIAN  ART.  xxxix 

interior,  inviting,  as  it  were,  to  calm  enjoyment,  while  the  cath- 
edrals of  the  north  seem  to  produce  a  sense  of  oppression,  the  pre- 
dominance of  horizontal  lines,  the  playful  application  of  pointed 
arches  and  gables ,  of  flnials  and  canopies  ,  prove  that  an  organic 
coherence  of  the  different  architectural  distinguishing  members  was 
here  but  little  considered.  The  characteristics  of  Gothic  architecture, 
the  towers  immediately  connected  with  the  facade,  and  the  promi- 
nent flying  buttresses  are  frequently  wanting  in  Italian  Gothic  edi- 
fices, ■ —  whether  to  their  disadvantage,  it  may  be  doubted.  It  is  not 
so  much  the  sumptuousness  of  the  materials  which  disposes  the 
spectator  to  pronounce  a  lenient  judgment,  as  a  feeling  that  Italian 
architects  pursued  the  only  course  by  which  the  Gothic  style  could 
be  reconciled  vnth  the  atmosphere  and  light,  the  climate  and  natural, 
features  of  Italy.  Gothic  lost  much  of  its  peculiar  character  in  Italy, 
but  by  these  deviations  from  the  customary  type  it  there  became 
capable  of  being  nationalised,  especially  as  at  the  same  period  the 
other  branches  of  art  also  aimed  at  a  greater  degree  of  nationality,  and 
entered  into  a  new  combination  with  the  fundamental  trait  of  the 
Italian  character,  that  of  retrospective  adherence  to  the  antique. 

The  apparently  sudden  and  unprepared-for  revival  of  ancient 
ideals  in  the  13th  century  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  phenomena 
in  the  history  of  art.  The  Italians  themselves  could  only  revivai. 
account  for  this  by  attributing  it  to  chance.  The  popular  of  Ancient 
story  was  that  the  sculptor  Niccolo  Pisano  (ca.  1206-80)-'^»f  Ideals. 
was  induced  by  an  inspection  of  ancient  sarcophagi  to  exchange  the 
prevailing  style  for  the  ancient,  and  indeed  in  one  case  we  can  trace 
back  a  work  of  his  to  its  antique  prototype.  We  refer  to  a  relief  on 
the  pulpit  in  the  Baptistery  at  Pisa,  several  figures  in  which  are 
borrowed  from  a  Bacchus  vase  still  preserved  in  the  Gampo  Santo 
of  that  city  (pp.  430-433).  Whether  Niccolo  Pisano  was  a  member 
of  a  local  school  or  was  trained  under  foreign  influences  we  are  as 
yet  unable  to  determine.  His  sculptures  on  the  pulpits  in  the 
Baptistery  of  Pisa  and  the  Cathedral  of  Siena  introduce  us  at  once 
into  a  new  world.  It  is  not  merely  their  obvious  resemblance  to  the 
works  of  antiquity  that  arrests  the  eye ;  a  still  higher  charm  is 
exercised  by  the  peculiarly  fresh  and  direct  life  that  animates  the 
separate  figures.  By  his  son,  Oiovanni  Pisano  (ca.  1250- ca. 13281  and 
his  followers  of  the  Pi$an  School,  ancient  characteristics  were  placed 
in  the  background,  and  importance  was  attached  solely  to  life  and 
expression  [e.g.  reliefs  on  the  fa(;ade  of  the  Cathedral  at  Orvieto). 
Artists  now  began  to  impart  to  their  compositions  the  impress  of  their 
own  peculiar  views,  and  the  public  taste  for  poetry,  which  had  already 
strongly  manifested  itself,  was  now  succeeded  by  a  love  of  art  also. 

From  this  period  (14th  century)  therefore  the  Italians  date  the 
origin  of  their  modern  art.   Contemporaneous  writers  who  ob-     jijg,j  „p 
served  the  change  of  views,  the  revolution  in  sense  of  form,     Modeum 
and  the  superiority  of  the  more  recent  works  in  life  and  ex-        ^^"'^ 


pression,  warmly  extolled  their  anthors,  and  zealously  proclaimed 
how  greatly  they  surpassed  their  ancestors.  But  succeeding  genera- 
tions hegan  to  lose  sight  of  this  connection  between  ancient  and 
modern  art.  A  mere  anecdote  was  deemed  sufficient  to  connect 
Giotto  di  Bondone  (r267?-1337),  the  father  of  modern  Italian  art, 
with  Giovanni  Cimabub  (d.  after  1302),  the  most  celebrated  re- 
presentative of  the  earlier  style.  (Cimabue  is  said  to  have  watched 
Giotto,  when,  as  a  shepherd-boy,  relieving  the  monotony  of  his 
office  by  tracing  the  outlines  of  his  sheep  in  the  sand,  and  to  have 
received  him  as  a  pupil  in  consequence.)  But  it  was  forgotten 
that  a  revolution  in  artistic  ideas  and  forms  had  talcen  place  at 
Rome  and  Siena  still  earlier  than  at  Florence,  that  both  Cimabue 
and  his  pupil  Giotto  had  numerous  professional  brethren,  and 
that  the  composition  of  mosaics,  as  well  as  mural  and  panel- 
painting,  was  still  successfully  practised.  Subsequent  investigation 
has  rectified  these  errors,  pointed  out  the  Roman  and  Tuscan  mosaics 
as  works  of  the  transition-period,  and  restored  the  Sienese  master 
Diircio  (ca.  1300),  who  was  remarkable  for  his  sense  of  the  beauti- 
ful and  the  expressiveness  of  his  figures,  to  his  merited  rank. 
Giotto,  however,  is  fully  entitled  to  rank  in  the  highest  class.  The 
amateur,  who  before  entering  Italy  has  become  acquainted  with 
Giotto  from  insignificant  easel-pictures  only,  often  arbitrarily 
attributed  to  this  master ,  and  even  in  Italy  itself  encounters 
little  else  than  obliquely  drawn  eyes ,  clumsy  features ,  and 
cumbrous  masses  of  drapery  as  characteristics  of  his  style,  will 
regard  Giotto's  reputation  as  ill-founded.  He  will  be  at  a  loss 
to  comprehend  why  Giotto  is  regarded  as  the  inaugurator  of  a 
new  era  of  art,  and  why  the  name  of  the  old  Florentine  master 
is  only  second  in  popularity  to  that  of  Raphael.  The  fact  is  that 
Giotto's  Giotto's  celebrity  is  not  due  to  any  single  perfect  work  of 
Influence,  art.  His  indefatigable  energy  in  different  spheres  of  art,  the 
enthusiasm  which  he  kindled  in  every  direction,  and  the  develop- 
ment for  which  he  paved  the  way,  must  be  taken  into  consideration, 
in  order  that  his  place  in  history  may  be  understood.  Even  when, 
in  consonance  with  the  poetical  sentiments  of  his  age,  he  embodies 
allegorical  conceptions,  as  poverty,  chastity,  obedience,  or  displays 
to  us  a  ship  as  an  emblem  of  the  Church  of  Christ,  he  shows  a 
masterly  acquaintance  with  the  art  of  converting  what  is  perhaps 
in  itself  an  ungrateful  idea  into  a  speaking,  lifelike  scene. 
Giotto  is  an  adept  in  narration,  in  imparting  a  faithful  reality  to 
his  compositions.  The  individual  figures  in  his  pictures  may  fail 
to  satisfy  the  expectations,  and  even  earlier  masters ,  such  as 
Duccio,  may  have  surpassed  him  in  execution,  but  intelligibility 
of  movement  and  dramatic  efl'ect  were  first  naturalised  in  art  by 
Giotto.  This  is  partly  attributable  to  the  luminous  colouring 
employed  by  him  instead  of  the  dark  and  heavy  tones  of  his 
predecessors,    enabling    him  to  impart  the  proper   expression    to 


his  artistic  and  novel  conceptioua.  On  these  grounds  there- 
fore Giotto,  so  versatile  and  so  active  in  the  most  extended  spheres, 
was  accounted  the  purest  type  of  his  century,  and  succeeding 
geTierations  founded  a  regular  school  of  art  in  his  name.  As 
in  the  case  of  all  the  earlier  Italian  painters,  so  Iti  that  of  Giotto 
and  his  successors,  an  opinion  of  their  true  merits  can  be  formed 
from  their  mural  paintings  alone.  The  intimate  connection  of  the 
picture  with  the  architecture,  of  which  it  constituted  the  living 
ornament,  compelled  artists  to  study  the  rules  of  symmetry  and 
harmonious  composition,  developed  their  sense  of  style,  and,  as 
extensive  spaces  were  placed  at  their  disposal,  admitted  of  broad 
and  unshackled  delineation.  Almost  every  church  in  Florence 
boasted  of  specimens  of  art  in  the  style  of  Giotto,  and  almost  ev- 
ery town  in  Central  Italy  in  the  I4th  century  practised  some 
branch  of  art  akin  to  Giotto's.  The  most  valuable  works  of  this  style 
are  preserved  in  the  churches  of  Santa  Croce  (especially  the  choir 
chapels )  and  Santa  Maria  Novella  at  Florence.  Beyond  the  precincts 
of  the  Tuscan  capital  the  tinest  works  of  Giotto  are  to  be  found  at 
Assist  and  in  the  Madonna  deW  Arena  at  Padua,  where  about  1306 
he  executed  a  representation  of  scenes  from  the  lives  of  the  Virgin 
and  the  Saviour.  The  Campo  Santo  of  Pisa  (p.  430 )  affords  specimens 
of  the  handiwork  of  his  pupils  and  contemporaries.  In  the  works 
on  the  walls  of  this  unique  national  museum  the  spectator  cannot 
fail  to  be  struck  by  their  tinely-conceived,  poetical  character  (e.^. 
the  Triumph  of  Death),  their  sublimity  (Last  .Judgment,  Trials  of 
Job),  or  tlieir  richness  in  dramatic  effect  (History  of  St.  Rainerus, 
and  of  the  Martyrs  Ephesus  and  Potitus). 

In  the  loth  century,  as  well  as  in  the  14th,  Florence  continued 
to  take  the  lead  amongst  the  capitals  of  Italy  in  matters  of  art. 
Vasari  attributes  this  merit  to  its  pure  and  delicious  atmo-  Florence 
sphere,  which  he  regards  as  highly  conducive  to  intelligence  a  Cradle 
and  retinemenc.  The  fact,  however,  is,  that  Florence  did  not  *^*'  •*^''^- 
itself  prodi)(-e  a  greater  number  of  eminent  artists  than  other  places. 
During  a  long  period  Siena  successfully  vied  with  her  in  artistic 
fertility,  and  Upper  Italy  in  the  14th  century  gave  birth  to  the  two 
painters  Jacopo  d'Avanzo  and  Altichibho  (paintings  in  the  Chapel 
of  San  Giorgio  in  Padua,  p.  275),  who  far  surpass  Giotto's  ordinary 
style.  On  the  other  hand,  no  Italian  city  afforded  in  its  political  in- 
stitutions and  public  life  so  many  favourable  stimulants  to  artistic 
imagination,  or  promoted  intellectual  activity  in  so  marked  a  degree, 
or  combined  ease  and  dignity  so  harmoniously  as  Florence.  What 
therefore  was  but  obscurely  expeiienced  in  the  rest  of  Italy,  and 
manifested  at  irregular  intervals  only,  was  generally  first  realised 
here  with  tangible  distinctness.  Florence  became  the  birthplace  of 
the  revolution  iTi  art  effected  by  Giotto,  and  Florence  was  the  home 
of  the  art  of  the  Renaissance,  which  began  to  prevail  soon  after  the 
beginning  of  the  1.5th  century  and  superseded  the  style  of  Giotto. 

xlii  ITALIAN  ART, 

Tlie  word  Renaissance  is  commonly  understood  to  designate  a 
Benais-  re^'ival  of  the  antique ;  but  while  ancient  art  now  began  to 
SANCE  influence  artistic  taste  more  powerfully,  and  its  study  to  be 
CuLTCKE.  luQj-g  zealously  prosecuted ,  the  essential  character  of  the 
Renaissance  consists  by  no  means  exclusively,  or  even  principally, 
in  the  imitation  of  the  antique ;  nor  must  the  term  be  confined 
merely  to  art ,  as  it  truly  embraces  the  whole  progress  of  civili- 
sation in  Italy  during  the  15th  and  I6th  centuries.  How  the 
Renaissance  manifested  itself  in  political  life,  and  the  different 
phases  it  assumes  in  the  scientific  and  the  social  world ,  cannot 
here  be  discussed.  It  may,  however,  be  observed  that  the  Re- 
naissance in  social  life  was  chiefly  promoted  by  the  'humanists', 
who  preferred  general  culture  to  great  professional  attainments, 
who  enthusiastically  regarded  classical  antiquity  as  the  golden 
age  of  great  men ,  and  who  exercised  the  most  extensive  in- 
fluence on  the  bias  of  artistic  views.  In  the  period  of  the  Re- 
naissance the  position  of  the  artist  with  regard  to  his  work  ,  and 
the  nature  and  aspect  of  the  latter  are  changed.  The  education  and 
taste  of  the  individual  leave  a  more  marked  impress  on  the  work  of 
the  author  than  was  ever  before  the  case ;  his  creations  are  pre-emin- 
ently the  reflection  of  his  intellect ;  his  alone  is  the  responsibility, 
his  the  reward  of  success  or  the  mortification  of  failure.  Artists 
now  seek  to  attain  celebrity,  they  desire  their  works  to  be  examined 
and  judged  as  testimonials  of  their  personal  endowments.  Mere 
technical  skill  by  no  means  satisfies  them,  although  they  are  far 
from  despising  the  drudgery  of  a  handicraft  (many  of  the  most  emin- 
ent quattrocentists  having  received  the  rudiments  of  their  education 
in  the  workshop  of  a  goldsmith);  the  exclusive  pursuit  of  a  single 
sphere  of  art  is  regarded  by  them  as  an  indication  of  intellectual 
poverty,  although  they  aim  at  mastering  the  technique  of  every 
branch.  They  work  simultaneously  as  painters  and  sculptors ,  and 
when  they  devote  themselves  to  architecture,  it  is  deemed  nothing 
unwonted  or  anomalous.  A  comprehensive  and  versatile  education, 
united  with  refined  personal  sentiments,  forms  their  loftiest  aim.  This 
they  attain  in  but  few  instances,  but  that  they  eagerly  aspired  to  it 
is  proved  by  the  biography  of  the  illustrious  Leon  Battista  Albeeti 
(1404-72),  who  is  entitled  to  the  same  rank  in  the  15th  century  as 
Leonardo  da  Vinci  in  the  16th.  Rationally  educated,  physically  and 
morally  healthy ,  keenly  alive  to  the  calm  enjoyments  of  life,  and 
possessing  clearly  defined  ideas  and  decided  tastes,  the  Renaissance 
artists  necessarily  regarded  nature  and  her  artistic  embodiment 
with  different  views  from  their  predecessors.  A  fresh  and  joyous  love 
of  nature  seems  to  pervade  the  whole  of  this  period.  She  not  only 
afforded  an  unbounded  field  to  the  scientific,  but  artists  also  strove 
to  approach  her  at  first  by  a  careful  study  of  her  various  phenom- 
ena. Anatomy,  geometry,  perspective,  and  the  study  of  drapery 
and  colour  are  zealously  pursued  and  practically  applied.    External 

ITALIAN  ART.  xliil 

truth,  fidelity  to  nature,  and  a  correct  rendering  of  real  life  in 
its  minutest  details  are  among  the  necessary  qualities  in  a 
perfect  work.  The  realism  of  the  representation  is,  however,  o,, '^i^'g '^^ . 
only  the  basis  for  the  expression  of  lifelike  character  and  naissance 
present  enjoyment.  The  earlier  artists  of  the  Renaissance  Artists  to 
rarely  exhibit  partiality  for  pathetic  scenes,  or  events  which  ^a'''°"'^- 
awaken  painful  emotions  and  turbulent  passions,  and  when  such 
incidents  are  represented,  they  are  apt  to  be  somewhat  exagger- 
ated. The  preference  of  these  masters  obviously  inclines  to  cheerful 
and  joyous  subjects.  In  the  works  of  the  15th  century  strict  faith- 
fulness, in  an  objective  sense,  must  not  be  looked  for.  Whether  the 
topic  be  derived  from  the  Old  or  the  New  Testament,  from  history  or 
fable,  it  is  always  transplanted  to  the  immediate  present,  and  adorn- 
ed with  the  colours  of  actual  life.  Thus  Florentines  of  the  genuine 
national  type  are  represented  as  surrounding  the  patriarchs,  visiting 
Elizabeth  after  the  birth  of  her  son,  or  witnessing  the  miracles  of 
Christ.  This  transference  of  remote  events  to  the  present  bears  a 
striking  resemblance  to  the  naive  and  not  unpleasing  tone  of  the 
chronicler.  The  development  of  Italian  art,  however,  by  no  means 
terminates  with  mere  fidelity  to  nature,  a  quality  likewise  displayed 
by  the  contemporaneous  art  of  the  North.  A  superficial  glance  at 
the  works  of  the  Italian  Renaissance  enables  one  to  recognise  the 
higher  goal  of  imagination.  The  carefully  selected  groups  of  digni- 
fied men ,  beautiful  women ,  and  pleasing  children  ,  occasionally 
without  internal  necessity  placed  in  the  foreground ,  prove  that  at- 
tractiveness was  pre-eminently  aimed  at.  This  is  also  evidenced  by 
the  early-awakened  enthusiasm  for  the  nude,  by  the  skill  in  dispos- 
ition of  drapery,  and  the  care  devoted  to  boldness  of  outline  and 
accuracy  of  form.  This  aim  is  still  more  obvious  from  the  keen 
sense  of  symmetry  observable  in  all  the  better  artists.  The  indi- 
vidual figures  are  not  coldly  and  accurately  drawn  in  conformity 
with  systematic  rules.  They  are  executed  with  refined  taste  and 
feeling ;  harshness  of  expression  and  unpleasing  characteristics  are 
sedulously  avoided,  while  in  the  art  of  the  North  (e.g.  in  wood-cuts 
and  engravings)  physiognomic  fidelity  is  usually  accompanied  by  ex- 
treme rigidity.  A  taste  for  symmetry  does  not  prevail  in  the  forma- 
tion of  the  individual  figure  only;  obedience  to  rhythmical  precepts 
is  perceptible  in  the  disposition  of  the  groups  also,  and  in  the  com- 
position of  the  entire  work.  The  intimate  connection  between  Italian 
painting  (^fresco)  and  architecture  naturally  leads  to  the  transference 
of  architectural  rules  to  the  province  of  pictorial  art,  whereby  not 
only  the  invasion  of  a  mere  luxuriant  naturalism  was  obviated,  but 
the  fullest  scope  was  afforded  to  the  artist  for  the  execution  of  his 
task.  For,  to  discover  the  most  e£fe<-tive  proportions,  to  inspire  life 
into  a  scene  by  the  very  rhythm  of  the  lineaments,  are  not  accom- 
plishments to  be  acquired  by  extraneous  aid;  precise  measurement 
and  calculation  are  here  of  no  avail ;  a  discriminating  eye,  refined 

xliv  ITALIAN  ART. 

taste,  and  a  creative  imagination,  wMcli  instinctively  divines  tlie 
appropriate  forms  for  its  design,  can  alone  excel  in  this  sphere  of  art. 
This  enthusiasm  for  external  heauty  and  just  and  harmonious  pro- 
portions is  the  essential  characteristic  of  the  art  of  the  Renaissance. 
Its  veneration  for  the  antique  is  thus  also  accounted  for.  At  first 
an  ambitious  thirst  for  fame  caused  the  Italians  of  the  15th  and  16th 
Study  centuries  to  look  back  to  classical  antiquity  as  the  era  of  illus- 
op  THK    trious  men,  and  ardently  to  desire  its  return.   Subsequently, 

Antiqdb.  however,  they  regarded  it  simply  as  an  excellent  and  appro- 
priate resource,  when  the  study  of  actual  life  did  not  suffice,  and  an 
admirable  assistance  in  perfecting  their  sense  of  form  and  symmetry. 
They  by  no  means  viewed  the  art  of  the  ancients  as  a  perfect  whole, 
or  as  the  product  of  a  definite  historical  epoch ,  which  developed 
itself  under  peculiar  conditions  ;  but  their  attention  was  arrested  by 
the  individual  works  of  antiquity  and  their  special  beauties.  Thus 
ancient  ideas  were  re-admitted  into  the  sphere  of  Renaissance  art. 
A  return  to  the  religious  spirit  of  the  Romans  and  Greeks  is  not  of 
course  to  be  inferred  from  the  ven  ration  for  the  ancient  gods  shown 
during  the  humanistic  period  ;  belief  in  the  Olympian  gods  was  ex- 
tinct; but  just  because  no  devitional  feeling  was  intermingled, 
because  the  forms  could  only  receive  life  from  creative  imagination, 
did  they  exercise  so  powerful  aTi  influence  on  the  Italian  masters. 
The  importance  of  mythological  characters  being  wholly  due  to  the 
perfect  beauty  of  their  forms  ,  they  could  not  fail  on  this  account 
pre-eminently  to  recommend  themselves  to  Renaissance  artists. 
These  remarks  will,  it  is  hoped,  convey  to  the  reader  a  general 
CHAEACTEii-idea  of  the  character  of  the  Renaissance.     Those  who  ex- 

isTics  OP  amine  the  architectural  works  of  the  15th  or  16th  century 
s^^'k  should  refrain  from  marring  their  enjoyment  by  the  not  al- 
Archi-    together  justifiable  reflection,  that  in  the  Renaissance  style 

TECTDKE.  jio  new  system  was  invented,  as  the  architects  merely  em- 
ployed the  ancient  elements,  and  adhered  principally  to  tradition 
in  their  constructive  principles  and  selection  of  component  parts. 
Notwithstanding  the  apparent  want  of  organisation,  however,  great 
beauty  of  form,  the  outcome  of  the  most  exuberant  imagination, 
will  be  observed  in  all  these  structures. 

Throughout  the  diversified  stages  of  development  of  the  suc- 
ceeding styles  of  Renaissance  architecture,  felicity  of  proportion  is 
invariably  the  aim  of  all  the  great  masters.  To  appreciate  their 
success  in  this  aim  should  also  be  regarded  as  the  principal  task  of 
the  spectator,  who  with  this  object  in  view  will  do  well  to  compare 
a  Gothic  with  a  Renaissance  structure.  This  comparison  will  prove 
to  him  that  harmony  of  proportion  is  not  the  only  effective  element 
in  architecture ;  for,  especially  in  the  cathedrals  of  Germany,  the 
exclusively  vertical  tendency,  the  attention  to  form  without  regard 
to  measure ,  the  violation  of  precepts  of  rhythm ,  and  a  disregard 
of  proportion  and  the  proper  ratio  of  the  open  to  the  closed  cannot 


fail  to  strike  the  eye.  Even  the  unskilled  amatenr  will  thus  be 
convinced  of  the  abrupt  contrast  between  the  mediaeval  and  the 
Renaissance  styles.  Thus  prepared,  he  may,  for  example,  proceed 
to  inspect  the  Pitti  Palace  at  Florence ,  which ,  undecorated  and 
unorganised  as  it  is,  would  scarcely  he  distinguishable  from  a  rude 
pile  of  stones,  if  a  judgment  were  formed  from  the  mere  description. 
The  artistic  cliarm  consists  in  the  simplicity  of  the  proportions, 
the  justness  of  proportion  in  the  elevation  of  the  stories ,  and  the 
tasteful  adjustment  of  the  wiiidows  in  the  vast  surface  of  the  fa- 
cade. That  the  architects  thoroughly  understood  the  aesthetic  effect 
of  symmetrical  proportions  is  proved  by  the  mode  of  construc- 
tion adopted  in  the  somewhat  more  recent  Florentiiie  palaces ,  in 
which  the  roughly  hewn  blocks  (rustica)  in  the  successive  stories 
recede  in  gradations,  and  by  their  careful  experiments  as  to  whether 
the  cornice  surmounting  the  structure  should  bear  reference  to  the 
highest  story ,  or  to  the  entire  facade.  The  same  bias  manifests 
itself  in  Bramante's  imagination;  and  when,  after  the  example  of 
Palladio  in  church-facades,  a  single  series  of  columns  was  sub- 
stituted for  those  resting  above  one  another,  symmetry  of  proportion 
was  also  the  object  in  view. 

From  the  works  of  Brunelleschi  (p.  xlvi),  the  greatest  master  of 
the  Early  Renaissance,  down  to  those  of  Andrea  Palladio  of  Vi- 
cenza  (p.  xl  viii ),  the  last  great  architect  of  the  Renaissance,  the  works 
of  all  the  architects  of  that  period  will  be  found  to  possess  many 
features  in  common.  The  style  of  the  15th  century  may,  however, 
easily  be  distinguished  from  that  of  the  16th.  The  Flor-  Earlt  Ek- 
entine  Pitti,  Riccardi,  and  Strozzi  palaces  are  still  based  on  naissance 
the  type  of  the  mediaeval  castle  ,  but  other  contemporary  creations 
show  a  closer  affinity  to  the  forms  and  articulation  of  antique  art. 
A  taste  for  beauty  of  detail ,  coeval  with  the  realistic  tendency  of 
painting,  produces  in  the  architecture  of  the  15th  century  an  exten- 
sive application  of  graceful  and  attractive  ornaments,  which  entirely 
cover  the  surfaces,  and  throw  the  real  organisation  of  the  edifice  into 
the  background.  For  a  time  the  true  aim  of  Renaissance  art  appears 
to  have  been  departed  from  ;  anxious  care  is  devoted  to  detail  instead 
of  to  general  effect;  the  re-application  of  columns  did  not  at  first 
admit  of  spacious  structures;  the  dome  rose  but  timidly  above  the 
level  of  the  roof.  But  this  attention  to  minutiae,  this  disregard  of 
effect  on  the  part  of  these  architects,  was  only,  as  It  were,  a  re- 
straining of  their  power,  in  order  the  more  completely  to  master, 
the  more  grandly  to  develop  the  art. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  the  Renaissance  palaces  (among  which 
that  of  Urbino,  mentioned  in  vol.  ii  of  this  Handbook,  has  always 
been  regarded  as  pre-eminently  typical)  are  more  attractive  than  the 
churches.  These  last,  however ,  though  destitute  of  the  venerable 
associations  connected  with  the  mediieval  cathedrals ,  hear  ample 
testimony  to  the  ability  of  their  builders.   The  churches  of  Northern 

xlvi  ITALIAN  ART. 

Italy  in  particular  are  worthy  of  examination.  The  first  early  Re- 
naissance work  constructed  in  this  part  of  the  country  was  the  facade 
of  the  Certosa  ofPavia,  a  superb  example  of  decorative  architecture. 
Besides  the  marble  edifices  of  this  period  we  also  observe  structures 
in  brick,  in  which  the  vaulting  and  pillars  form  prominent  features. 
The  favourite  form  was  either  circular  or  that  of  the  Greek  cross 
(with  equal  arms),  the  edifice  being  usually  crowned  with  a  dome, 
and  displaying  in  its  interior  an  exuberant  taste  for  lavish  enrich- 
ment. Of  this  type  are  the  church  of  the  Madonna  della  Croce  near 
Crema  and  several  others  at  Piacenza  and  Parma  (Madonna  della 
Steccata).  It  was  in  this  region  thatBEAMANXB  prosecuted  the  studies 
of  which  Rome  afterwards  reaped  the  benefit.  Among  the  secular 
buildings  of  N.  Italy  we  may  mention  the  Ospedale  Maggiore  at 
Milan,  which  shows  the  transition  from  Gothic  to  Renaissance.  The 
best  survey  of  the  palatial  edifices  built  of  brick  will  be  obtained 
by  walking  through  the  streets  of  Bologna  (p.  386). 

The  visitor  to  Venice  will  have  an  opportunity  of  tracing  within 
a  very  limited  space  the  progress  of  Renaissance  architecture.  The 
church  of  San  Znccaria  is  an  example  of  early  Renaissance  still  in 
conflict  with  Gothic,  while  the  richly  coloured  church  of  Santa  Maria 
dei  Miracoli  and  the  Scuola  di  San  Marco  exhibit  the  style  in  its 
perfection.  Foremost  among  the  architects  of  Venice  must  be 
mentioned  the  Lombardi,  to  whom  most  of  the  Venetian  buildings 
of  the  15th  cent,  are  attributed  ;  but  we  shall  afterwards  advert  to 
the  farther  progress  of  Venetian  architecture  (p.  xlviii).  One  of  the 
most  famous  architects  of  N.  Italy  was  Fra  Gioconuo  of  Verona 
(1435-1515),  a  monk,  a  philologist  (the  discoverer  of  the  letters 
of  the  younger  Pliny),  a  botanist,  an  engineer,  and  a  thoroughly 
well  trained  architect,  who  at  a  very  advanced  age,  after  the  death 
of  Bramante,  was  summoned  to  Rome  to  superintend  the  building 
of  St.  Peter's. 

Examples  of  early  Renaissance  architecture  abound  in  the  towns 
of  Tuscany.  At  Florence,  the  scene  of  Filippo  Brunbllbschi's 
labours  (1377-1446),  the  attention  is  chiefly  arrested  by  the  church 
of  San  Lorenzo  (1425),  with  its  two  sacristies  (the  earlier,  after 
1421,  by  Brunelleschi,  the  later  by  Michael  Angelo ,  which  it  is 
interesting  to  compare),  while  the  small  Cappella  dei  Pazzi  near 
Santa  Croce  is  also  noticeable.  The  Palazzo  Rucellai  is  also  import- 
ant as  showing  the  combination  of  pilasters  with  'rustica' ,  the 
greatest  advance  achieved  by  the  early  Renaissance.  Siena,  with  its 
numerous  palaces,  Pienza,  the  model  of  a  Renaissance  town,  and 
Vrbino  also  afford  excellent  examples  of  the  art  of  the  Quattrocen- 
tists,  but  are  beyond  the  limits  of  the  present  volume.  While  all 
these  different  edifices  possess  many  features  in  common,  they  may 
be  classed  in  a  number  of  groups,  difi'ering  in  material  and  various 
other  characteristics,  and  entirely  relieving  them  from  any  reproach 
of  monotony. 

ITALIAN  ART.  xlvii    • 

The  early  Renaissance  is  succeeded  hy  Bramantk's  epoch  (1444- 
1514),  with  which  began  the  golden  age  of  symmetrical  construc- 
tion. With  a  wise  economy  the  mere  decorative  portions  zenith 
were  circumscribed ,  while  greater  significance  and  more  of  the  Ee- 
marked  expression  were  imparted  to  the  true  constituents  naissanck. 
of  the  structure ,  the  real  exponents  of  the  architectural  design. 
The  works  of  the  Bramantine  era  are  less  graceful  and  attractive 
than  those  of  their  predecessors,  but  superior  in  their  well  defined, 
lofty  simplicity  and  finished  character.  Had  the  Church  of  St.  Peter 
been  completed  in  the  form  originally  designed  by  Bramante  ,  we 
could  have  pronounced  a  more  decided  opinion  as  to  the  ideal  of  the 
church-architecture  of  the  Renaissance.  The  circumstance  that  the 
grandest  work  of  this  style  has  been  subjected  to  the  most  varied 
alterations  (and  vastness  of  dimensions  was  the  principal  aim  of  the 
architects)  teaches  us  to  refrain  from  the  indiscriminate  blame  which 
80  commonly  falls  to  the  lot  of  Renaissance  churches.  It  must  at 
least  be  admitted  that  the  favourite  form  of  a  Greek  cross  with 
rounded  extremities,  crowned  by  a  dome,  possesses  concentrated 
unity,  and  that  the  pillar-construction  relieved  by  niches  presents 
a  most  majestic  appearance;  nor  can  it  be  disputed  that  in  the 
churches  of  the  Renaissance  the  same  artistic  principles  are  applied 
as  in  the  universally  admired  palaces  and  secular  edifices.  If  the 
former  therefore  excite  less  interest ,  this  is  not  due  to  the  in- 
feriority of  the  architects,  but  to  causes  beyond  their  control.  The 
great  masters  of  this  culminating  period  of  the  Reiiaissance  were 
Raphakl,  Baldassake  Peeuzzi,  the  younger  Antonio  da  Sangallo 
of  Rome,  Michble  Sanmicheli  of  Verona  (p.  245),  Jacopo  Sanso- 
vixo  of  Venice,  and  lastly  Michael  Angelo.  The  succeeding  gener- 
ation of  the  16th  century  did  not  adhere  to  the  style  introduced  by 
Bramante,  though  not  reduced  by  him  to  a  finished  system.  They 
aim  more  sedulously  at  general  effect,  so  that  harmony  among  the 
individual  members  begins  to  be  neglected  ;  they  endeavour  to  arrest 
the  eye  by  boldness  of  construction  and  striking  contrasts;  or  they 
borrow  new  modes  of  expression  from  antiquity,  the  precepts  of 
which  had  hitherto  been  applied  in  an  unsystematic  manner  only. 

The  traveller  will  become  acquainted  with  the  works  of  Bramante 
and  his  contemporaries  at  Rome  (see  vol.  ii  of  this  Hand-p^jjocs  Re 
book),  but  there  are  other  places  also  which  possess  important  naissanck 
examples  of  the  'High  Renaissance'  style.    At  Florence,  for  Buildings. 
example,    are   the  Palazzo  Pandolfini  and  the  Palazzo  Vguccioni, 
the  former  of  which  is  said  to  have  been  designed  by  Raphael  ;  the 
Court  of  the  Pitti  Palace  by  Bart.  Ammanati  ;  the  Palazzo  Serristori 
and  the  Palazzo  Bartolini  by  Baccio  d'Agnolo.     We  must  also 
mention  Mantua  as  the  scene  of  the  architectural  labours  of  Giulio 
Romano  (p.  258),    Verona  with  its  numerous  buildings  by  San- 
micheli le.g.   the  Palazzo  Bevilacqua') ,   and  Padua,    where  Gio- 
vanni Maeia  Falconktto  (1458-1534)  and  Anueea  Riccio,  or 

xlviii  ITALIAN  ART. 

properly  Briosco  (Cappella  del  Scmto)  flonrislied.  At  Venice  the  Re- 
naissance culminated  in  the  first  half  of  the  16th  cent,  in  the  -works 
of  the  Florentine  Jacopo  Sansovino  (properly  Tatti,  1486-1570), 
and  at  Oenon  in  those  of  Galeazzo  Alessi  (1512-1572)  of  Perugia 
(e.g.  Santa  Maria  di  Carignano). 

In  the  middle  and  latter  half  of  the  16th  cent,   Venice,  Qenoa, 
Archi-     *"•!  Vicenza  were  zealous  patrons  of  art.     To   this  period 

TECTURE  A I  heloHgs  Andeea  Palladio  of  Vicenza  (1518-80;  p.  265), 
Venice,  ^^q  jj^g^  qj  ^Ij^  great  Renaissance  architects,  whose  Venetian 
churches  (San  Giorgio  Magyiore  and  iJedcntorej and  Vicentine  palaces 
are  equally  celebrated.  The  fundamental  type  of  domestic  archi- 
tecture at  Venice  recurs  with  little  variation.  The  nature  of  the 
ground  afforded  little  s(;ope  for  the  caprice  of  the  architect, 
while  the  conservative  spirit  of  the  inhabitants  inclined  them  to 
adhere  to  the  style  established  by  custom.  Nice  distinctions  of  style 
are  therefore  the  more  observable,  and  that  which  emanated  from 
a  pure  sense  of  form  the  more  apprei'iable.  Those  who  have  been 
convinced  by  careful  liomparison  of  the  great  superiority  of  the 
Biblioteca  of  Sansovino  (in  the  Piazzetta;  p.  298)  over  the  new 
Procuratie  of  Scamozzi  (p.  293),  although  the  two  edifices  exactly 
correspond  in  many  respects,  have  made  great  progress  towards  an 
accurate  insight  into  the  architecture  of  the  Renaissance. 

Much,  however,  would  be  lost  by  the  traveller  who  devoted  his 
Minor       attention  exclusively  to  the  master-works  which  have  been 

WoKiis  OF  extolled  from  time  immemorial,  or  solely  to  the  great  mon- 
^^"^^  timental  structures.  As  even  the  insignificant  vases  (ma- 
jolicas,  manufactured  at  Pesaro,  Urbino ,  Gubbio,  Faenza,  and 
Castel- Durante)  testify  to  the  taste  of  the  Italians,  their  partiality 
for  classical  models,  and  their  enthusiasm  for  purity  of  form,  so 
also  in  inferior  works,  some  of  which  fall  within  the  province  of  a 
mere  handicraft,  the  peculiar  beauties  of  the  Renaissance  style  are 
often  detected  ,  and  charming  specimens  of  architecture  are  some- 
times discovered  in  remote  corners  of  Italian  towns.  Nor  must  the 
vast  domain  of  decorative  sculpture  be  disregarded,  as  such  works, 
whether  in  metal,  stone,  or  stucco.  Inlaid  or  carved  wood  (intarsia), 
often  verge  on  the  sphere  of  architecture  in  their  designs,  drawing, 
and  style  of  enrichment. 

On  the  whole  it  may  be  asserted  that  the  architecture  of  the  Re- 
naissance ,  which  in  obedience  to  the  requirements  of  modern  life 

ScuLPTDRE  manifests  its  greatest  excellence  in  secular  structures,  cannot 

OP  THE  Re-  fail  to   gratify  the  taste  of  the  most  superficial  observer. 

NAissANCE.  ^ith  the  sculpture  of  the  same  period,  however,  the  case  is 
different.  The  Italian  architecture  of  the  15th  and  16th  centuries 
still  possesses  a  practical  value  and  is  frequently  imitated  at  the 
present  day ;  and  painting  undoubtedly  attained  its  highest  con- 
summation at  the  same  period;  but  the  sculpture  of  the  Renais- 
sance does  not  appear  to  us  worthy  of  revival,  and  indeed  cannot 

ITALIAN  ART.  xlix 

compete  witli  that  of  antiquity.  Yet  the  plastic  art,  far  from 
enjoying  a  lower  degree  of  favour,  was  rather  viewed  by  the  ar- 
tists of  that  age  as  the  proper  ceutre  of  their  sphere  of  activity. 
Sculpture  was  the  first  art  in  Italy  which  was  launched  into  the 
stream  of  the  Renaissance,  in  its  development  it  was  ever  a  step 
in  advance  of  the  other  arts,  and  in  the  popular  opinion  possessed 
the  advantage  of  most  clearly  embodying  the  current  ideas  of  the 
age,  and  of  affording  the  most  brilliant  evidence  of  the  re-awakened 
love  of  art.  Owing  probably  to  the  closeness  of  the  connection  be- 
tween the  plastic  art  of  the  Renaissance  and  the  peculiar  national 
culture,  the  former  lost  much  of  its  value  after  the  decline  of  the 
latter,  and  was  less  appreciated  than  pictorial  and  architectural 
works,  in  which  adventitious  historical  origin  is  obviously  less  im- 
portant than  general  effect.  In  tracing  the  progress  of  the  sculpture 
of  the  Renaissance,  the  enquirer  at  once  encounters  serious  de- 
viations from  strict  precepts,  and  numerous  infringements  of  esthetic 
rules.  The  execution  of  reliefs  constitutes  by  far  the  widest  sphere 
of  action  of  the  Italian  sculptors  of  the  15th  century.  These, 
however,  contrary  to  immemorial  usage,  are  executed  in  a  pictorial 
style.  Lorenzo  Ghibbeti  (1381-1455),  for  example ,  in  his  cel- 
ebrated (eastern)  door  of  the  Baptistery  of  Florence,  is  not  satis- 
tied  with  grouping  the  figures  as  in  a  painting ,  and  placing  them 
in  a  rich  landscape  copied  from  nature.  He  treats  the  background 
in  accordance  with  the  rules  of  perspective ;  the  figures  at  a  dis- 
tance are  smaller  and  less  raised  than  those  in  the  foreground. 
He  oversteps  the  limits  of  the  plastic  art,  and  above  all  violates 
the  laws  of  the  relief-style,  according  to  which  the  figures  are 
always  represented  in  an  imaginary  space ,  and  the  usual  system 
of  a  mere  design  in  profile  seldom  departed  from.  In  like  manner 
the  painted  reliefs  in  terracotta  by  Luca  della  Robbia  (1399-148'2) 
are  somewhat  inconsistent  with  purity  of  plastic  form.  But  if 
it  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  sculptors  of  the  Renaissance  did  not 
derive  their  ideas  from  a  previously  defined  system,  or  adhere  to 
abstract  rules  ,  the  fresh  and  lifelike  vigour  of  their  works  (espe- 
cially those  of  the  15th  century)  will  not  be  disputed,  and  pre- 
judice will  be  dispelled  by  the  great  attractions  of  the  reliefs 
themselves.  The  sculpture  of  the  Renaissance  adheres  as  strictly 
as  the  other  arts  to  the  fundamental  principle  of  representation; 
scrupulous  care  is  bestowed  on  the  faithful  and  attractive  ren- 
dering of  the  individual  objects;  the  taste  is  gratified  by  express- 
ive heads,  graceful  female  figures,  and  joyous  children  ;  the  sculp- 
tors have  a  keen  appreciation  of  the  beauty  of  the  nude,  and 
the  importance  of  a  calm  and  dignified  flow  of  drapery.  In  their 
anxiety  for  fidelity  of  representation,  however,  they  do  not  shrink 
from  harshness  of  expression  or  rigidity  of  form.  Their  predi- 
lection for  bron/.e-castiTig,  an  art  which  was  less  in  vogue  in  the 
16th  cent.,  accords  with  their  love  of  individualising  their  charact- 
Baedkker.    Italy  I.    13th  Edit.  d 


ecs.  In  this  material,  decision  aud  pregiiaucy  of  form  are  expressed 
without  restraint,  and  almost,  as  it  were,  spontaneously.  Works  in 
marble  also  occur,  but  these  generally  trench  on  the  province  of 
decoration,  and  seldom  display  the  bold  and  unfettered  aspirations 
which  are  apparent  in  the  works  in  bronze. 

The  churches  have  always  afforded  the  most  important  field  for 
the  labours  of  the  Italian  sculptors,  some  of  them,  such  as  Santa 
Croce  at  Florence,  the  Frari  and  Santi  Oiovanni  e  Paolo  at  Venice, 
and  SanV  Antonio  at  Padua,  forming  very  museums  of  Renaissance 
sculpture.  At  the  same  time  many  of  the  wealthier  families  (the 
Medici  and  others)  embellished  their  mansions  with  statuary,  and 
the  art  of  the  sculptor  was  frequently  invoked  with  a  view  to  erect 
a  fitting  tribute  to  the  memory  of  some  public  benefactor  (such  as 
the  equestrian  statues  at  Venice  and  Padua^. 

At  Florence  ,  the  cradle  of  Renaissance  sculpture  ,  we  become 
ScDiPTous  acquainted  with  Ghiberti  and  Delia  Robbia,  who  have  been 
OF  TUE  Re-  already  mentioned,  and  with  the  famous  Donatello  (pro- 
NAissANCE.  perly  Donato  ui  Niccolo  ui  Betto  Baedi,  1386-1466),  who 
introduced  a  naturalistic  style,  which,  though  often  harsh,  is  full 
of  life  and  character.  The  Judith  Group  in  the  Loggia  de'  Lanzi 
is  an  exaggerated  and  unpleasing  example  of  this  style,  the  master 
having  aimed  at  the  utmost  possible  expressiveness,  while  the  lines 
and  contOTirs  are  entirely  destitute  of  ease.  Among  DonateUo's 
most  successful  works  on  the  other  hand  are  his  statue  of  St.  Oeorge 
and  his  Victorious  David  in  bronze  in  the  Museo  Nazionale  (p.  500), 
a  collection  invaluable  to  the  student  of  the  early  Renaissance.  The 
reliefs  on  the  two  pulpits  in  San  Lorenzo  and  the  sculptures  in  the 
sacristy  of  that  church  (p.  526)  should  also  be  inspected.  Dona- 
teUo's finest  works  out  of  Florence  are  his  numerous  sculptures  in 
Sant'  Antonio  at  Padua. 

The  next  sculptor  of  note  was  Andrea  Verrocchio  (1436-88). 
Most  of  the  other  masters  of  this  period  (Antonio  Rossellino,  Mino 
DA  FiESOLE,  Desiderio  DA  Settignano)  Were  chiefly  occu2ned  In 
the  execution  of  tombstones ,  aud  do  not  occupy  a  position  of 
much  importance ;  but  the  life  and  sense  of  beauty  which  charac- 
terise the  early  Renaissance  are  admirably  exemplified  in  the  works 
of  the  comparatively  imknown  Matteo  Civitali  of  Lucca  (p.  443). 
Important  Florentine  masters  of  the  first  half  of  the  Kith  cent, 
were  Giot.  Franc.  Rustici  (1474-1554),  who  was  perhaps  inspired 
by  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  and  particularly  Andrea  Sansovino  (1460- 
1529),  the  author  of  the  exquisite  group  of  Christ  and  the  Baptist  in 
the  Baptistery  at  Florence,  of  superb  monuments  at  Rome  (in  the 
choir  of  Santa  Maria  del  Popolo),  and  of  part  of  the  sculptures  which 
adorn  the  Santa  Casa  near  Ancona.  Northern  Italy  also  contributed 
largely  to  the  development  of  the  plastic  art.  The  Certosa  at  Pavia, 
for  example,  afforded  occupation  during  several  decades  to  numerous 
artists,  among  whom  the  most  eminent  were  Giovanni  Antonio 


Amauko  (creator  of  the  Cappelia  CoUeoni  at  Bergamo),  and,  at  a 
later  period,  Ckistofoho  Solaki,  sarnamed  II  Gobbo  ;  Venice 
abounds  in  works  by  the  Lomb.^kdi,  including  Alessandeo  Lbo- 
PARDi  (d.  15'22),  the  most  famous  sculptor  of  his  period;  Iliccio  or 
Bb,iosco  (p.  xlvii)  wrouuht  at  Padua;  Agostino  Busti,  il  Bambaia 
(ca.  1480-1548),  and  the  above-mentioned  Ckistofoeo  Solari,  were 
actively  engaged  at  Milan ;  and  Modena  afforded  employment  to 
Mazzoni  and  Begakblli  [p.  372),  artists  in  terracotta. 

Among  the  various  works  executed  by  these  masters,  Monumental 
Tombs  largely  predominate.  While  these  monuments  are  often  of 
a  somewhat  bombastic  character ,  they  afford  an  excellent  illus- 
tration of  the  high  value  attached  to  individuality  and  personal 
culture  during  the  Renaissance  period.  We  may  perhaps  also  fre- 
quently take  exception  to  the  monotony  of  their  style,  which 
remained  almost  unaltered  for  a  whole  century,  but  we  cannot  fail 
to  derive  genuine  pleasure  from  the  inexhaustible  freshness  of 
imagination  and  richness  of  detail  displayed  within  so  narrow  limits. 

As  museums  cannot  convey  an  adequate  idea  of  the  sculpture 
of  the  loth  century,  so  the  picture  galleries  will  not  afford  an 
accurate  insight  into  the  painting  of  that  period.  Sculp-  painting 
tures  are  frequently  removed  from  their  original  position,  of  tue  Cim- 
many  of  those  belonging  to  the  Florentine  churches,  for  qijecento. 
example ,  having  been  of  late  transferred  to  museums ;  but  mural 
paintings  are  of  course  generally  inseparable  from  the  walls  which 
they  adorn.  Of  the  frescoes  of  the  15th  century  of  which  a  record  has 
been  preserved,  perhaps  one-half  have  been  destroyed  or  obliterated, 
but  those  still  extant  are  the  most  instructive  and  attractive  ex- 
amples of  the  art  of  this  period.  The  mural  paintings  in  the  church 
of  Santa  Maria  del  Carmine  (Cappelia  Brancacci)  at  Florence  (p.  537) 
are  usually  spoken  of  as  the  earliest  specimens  of  the  painting  of 
the  Renaissance.  On  material  grounds  the  classification  is  justifiable, 
as  this  cycle  of  pictures  may  be  regarded  as  a  programme  of  the 
earlier  art  of  the  Renaissance,  the  importance  of  which  it  served  to 
maintain,  even  during  the  age  of  Raphael.  Here  the  beauty  of  the 
nude  was  first  revealed,  and  here  a  calm  dignity  was  for  the  first 
time  imparted  to  the  individual  figures,  as  well  as  to  the  general 
arrangement ;  and  the  transformation  of  a  group  of  indifferent  specta- 
tors in  the  composition  into  a  sympathising  choir,  forming  as  it  were 
a  frame  to  the  principal  actors  in  the  scene,  was  first  successfully 
effected.  It  is,  therefore,  natural  that  these  frescoes  should  still  be 
regarded  as  models  for  imitation,  and  that,  when  the  attention  of 
connoisseurs  was  again  directed  during  the  18th  century  to  the 
beauties  of  the  pre-Raphaelite  period,  the  works  of  Masolino  (?) 
and  Masaccio  (1401-28)  should  have  been  eagerly  rescued  from 

A.  visit  to  the  churches  and  convents  of  Florence  is  well  calculated 
to  convey  an  idea  of  the  subsequent  rapid  development  of  the  art  of 



painting,  and  of  the  diversified  aud  widely  ramifling  tendences, 
which  originally  had  their  root  in  one  and  the  same  impulse  or 
principle.  The  ancient  convent  otSanf  ApoUonia  (p.  5251  contains 
the  most  important  works  of  Andeea  del  Castagno  (1390-1457), 
who  is  second  only  to  Masaccio  as  a  representative  of  the  older 
generation.  In  the  Dominican  monastery  of  San  Marco  reigns  the  pious 
and  peaceful  genius  of  Fea  Giovanni  Angelico  da  Fiesolk  (1387- 
1455),  who,  though  inferior  to  his  contemporaries  in  dramatic  power, 
vies  with  the  best  of  them  in  his  depth  of  sentiment  and  his  sense  of 
beauty,  as  expressed  more  particularly  by  his  heads,  and  who  in 
his  old  age  displayed  his  well-matured  art  in  the  frescoes  of  the 
chapel  of  St.  Nicholas  in  the  Vatican.  Most  important  and  extensive 
works  are  those  of  Domenico  Ghielandaio  (1449-94) :  viz. 
^J^r.fJ^^t'^  the  frescoes  in  Santa  TrinitSi,  and  those  in  the  choir  of  Santa 
Maria  Novella,  which  in  sprightliness  of  conception  and  in 
grace  of  representation  are  hardly  surpassed  by  any  other  work  of 
the  same  period.  (The  traveller  will  find  it  very  instructive  to 
compare  the  former  of  these  works  with  the  mural  paintings  of 
Giotto  in  Santa  Croce,  which  also  represent  the  legend  of  St.  Francis, 
and  to  draw  a  parallel  between  Ghirlaiidaio's  Last  Supper  in  the 
church  of  Ognissanti,  and  the  work  of  Leonardo  da  Yinci.) 

Although  the  Tuscan  painters    exhibit  their  art  to  its   fullest 

extent  in  their  mural  paintings,  their  easel-pictures  are  also  well 

worthy  of  most  careful  examination  ;  for  it  was  chiefly  through  these 

that  they  gradually  attained  to  perfection  in  imparting  beauty  and 

dignity  to  the  human  form.  Besides  the  two  great  Florentine  galleries 

(Ufflzi  and  Pitti),  the  collection  of  the  Academy  (p.  520)  is  also  well 

calculated  to  afford  a  survey  of  the  progress  of  Florentine  painting. 

Beyond  the  precincts  of  Florence,  Bbnozzo  Gozzoli's  charming 

scenes  from  the  Old  Testament  on  the  northern  wall  of  the  Campo 

Painting  in  Santo  of  Pisa  (p.  431),  truly  forming  biblical  genre-pictures, 

oTnEEPAKTs  aud  hls  scenes  from  the  life  of  St.  Augustine  in  San  Oimi- 

op  TuscANT.  gnano,  Filippo  Lippi's  frescoes  at  Prato  (p.  455),   Pieeo 

DELLA  Feancesca's  Finding  of  the  Cross  in  San  Francesco  at  Arezzo 

(p.  562),   and  lastly  LucA  Signoeelli's  representation  of  the  Last 

Day  in  the  Cathedral  at  Orvieto,   afford  a  most  admirable  review  of 

the  character  and  development  of  Renaissance  painting  in  Central 

Italy.     Those  who  cannot  conveniently  visit  the  provincial  towns 

will  find  several  of  the  principal  masters  of  the  15th  century  united 

in  the  mural  paintings  of  the  Sistine  Chapel  at  Rome,  where  Sandeo 

Botticelli  (1446-1510),  a  pupil  of  the  elder  Lippi,  Cosimo  Rosselli, 

Dom.  Ghirlandaio,  Signorelli,  and  Perugino  (p.  liii)have  executed  a 

number  of  rich  compositions  from  the  life  of  Moses  and  that  of  Christ. 

But  an  acquaintance  with  the  Tuscan  schools  alone  can  never 

suffice  to  enable  one  to  form  a  judgment  respecting  the  general 

Othek         progress  of  art  in  Italy.     Chords  which  are  here  but  slightly 

Schools,      touched  vibrate  powerfully  in  Upper  Italy.    The  works  of 


Anpeba  Mantbgna.  (1431-1506 ;  at  Padua  and  Mantna)  derive 
much  interest  from  having  exercised  a  marked  influence  on  the 
German  masters  Holhein  andDiirer,  and  snrpass  all  the  other  works 
of  his  time  in  fidelity  to  nature  and  excellence  of  perspective 
(pp.  251,  277).  —  The  earlier  masters  of  the  Venetian  School  (Vita- 
BiNi,  Crivelh)  were  to  some  extent  adherents  of  the  Paduan  school, 
to  which  Mantegna  belonged,  hut  the  peculiar  Venetian  style,  mainly 
founded  on  local  characteristics,  and  admirably  successful  in  its  rich 
portraiture  of  noble  and  dignified  personages,  was  soon  afterwards 
elaborated  by  Gbntile  Bellini  (1429-1507)  and  his  brother  Gio- 
vanni (1430-1516),  sons  of  Giacomo.  —  The  Umlrian  School  also, 
which  originated  at  Gubbio,  and  is  admirably  represented  early  m 
the  15th  century  by  Ottaviano  Nklli,  blending  with  the  Tuscan 
school  in  Gkntilb  da  Fabeiano  (ca.  1370-1428)  and  culminating 
in  its  last  masters  Pibtbo  Vanxicci,  surnamed  Pertjgino  (1446- 
1524),  and  Bbrnakdino  Betti,  surnamed  Pinturicchio  (1454- 
1513),  merits  attention,  not  only  because  Raphael  was  one  of  its 
adherents  during  his  first  period ,  but  because  it  supplements  the 
broader  Florentine  style,  and  notwithstanding  its  peculiar  and  limit- 
ed bias  is  impressive  in  its  character  of  lyric  sentiment  and  relig- 
ious devotion  (e.  g.  Madonnas). 

The  fact  that  the  various  points  of  excellence  were  distributed 
among  different  local  schools  showed  the  necessity  of  a  loftier  union. 
Transcendent  talent  was  requisite  in  order  harmoniously  to  ukion  of 
combine  what  could  hitherto  be  viewed  separately  only,  different 
The  loth  century ,  notwithstanding  all  its  attractiveness.  Schools. 
shows  that  the  climax  of  art  was  still  unattained.  The  forms  em- 
ployed, graceful  and  pleasing  though  they  be,  are  not  yet  lofty  and 
pure  enough  to  be  regarded  as  embodiments  of  the  highest  and 
noblest  conceptions.  The  figures  still  present  a  local  colouring, 
having  been  selected  by  the  artists  as  physically  attractive ,  rather 
thaji  as  characteristic  and  expressive  of  their  ideas.  A  portrait  style 
still  predominates ,  the  actual  representation  does  not  appear 
always  wisely  balanced  with  the  internal  significance  of  the  event, 
and  the  dramatic  element  is  insufficiently  emphasised.  The  most 
abundant  scope  was  therefore  now  afforded  for  the  labours  of  the 
great  triumvirate,  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  Michael  Angelo  Buonar- 
roti, and  Raphael  Santi,  by  whom  an  entirely  new  era  was  in- 

Leonardo's  (1452-1519)  remarkable  character  can  only  be  thor- 
oughly understood  after  prolonged  study.  His  comprehensive 
genius  was  only  partly  devoted  to  art;  he  also  directed  Leonardo 
his  atteTition  to  scientific  and  practical  pursuits  of  an  entirely  da  Vinci. 
different  nature.  Refinement  and  versatility  may  be  described  as 
the  goal  of  his  aspirations;  a  division  of  labour,  a  partition 
of  individual  tasks  were  principles  unknown  to  him.  He  laid, 
as  it  were ,  his    entire  personality   into  the  scale  in  all  that  he 

liv  ITALIAN   ART. 

undertook.  He  regarded  careful  physical  training  as  scarcely  less 
important  than  comprehensive  culture  of  the  mind ;  the  vigour  of 
his  imagination  served  also  to  stimulate  the  exercise  of  his  intellect; 
and  his  minute  observation  of  nature  developed  his  artistic  taste  and 
organ  of  form.  One  is  frequently  tempted  to  regard  Leonardo's 
works  as  mere  studies,  in  which  he  tested  his  powers,  and  which 
occupied  his  attention  so  far  only  as  they  gratified  his  love  of 
investigation  and  experiment.  At  all  events  his  personal  impor- 
tance has  exercised  a  greater  influence  than  his  productions  as 
an  artist,  especially  as  his  prejudiced  age  strenuously  sought  to 
obliterate  all  trace  of  the  latter.  Few  of  Leonardo's  works 
have  been  preserved  in  Italy,  and  these  sadly  marred  by  neglect. 
A  reminiscence  of  his  earlier  period ,  when  he  wrought  under 
Andrea  Vkerocchio  at  Florence,  and  was  a  fellow-pupil  of  Lo- 
renzo Di  Credi,  is  the  Annunciation  in  the  Ufflzi  (^p.  490) ,  if  it 
be  a  genuine  work.  Several  oil-paintings,  portraits  (e.  g.  the  two 
fine  works  in  the  Ambrosiana  at  Milan,  p.  152),  Madonnas,  and 
imaginative  works  are  attributed  to  his  Milan  period,  although 
careful  research  inclines  us  to  attribute  them  to  his  pupils.  Un- 
adulterated pleasure  may,  however,  be  taken  in  his  drawings  in 
the  Ambrosiana,  the  Venice  Academy  (p.  309),  and  the  Ufflzi.  Two 
unfinished  paintings,  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi  in  the  Ufflzi  (p.  490 ), 
which  bears  ample  testimony  to  the  fertility  of  his  imagination,  and 
the  St.  Jerome  in  the  Vatican,  afford  an  insight  into  his  technique. 
The  best  idea  of  his  reforms  in  the  art  of  colouring  is  obtained  by 
an  attentive  examination  of  the  works  of  the  Milan  school  (Luini, 
Salaino  ;  p.  133),  as  these  are  far  better  preserved  than  the  only 
undoubted  work  of  Leonardo's  Milan  period  in  Italy:  the  Last 
Supper  in  Santa  Maria  delle  Grazie  (p.  154).  Although  now  a  total 
wreck,  it  is  still  well  calculated  to  convey  an  idea  of  the  new 
epoch  of  Leonardo,  especially  to  those  who  have  studied  Morghen's 
engraving  of  the  picture.  The  spectator  should  first  examine  the 
delicate  equilibrium  of  the  composition,  and  observe  how  the  in- 
dividual groups  are  complete  in  themselves,  and  yet  simultaneously 
point  to  a  common  centre  and  impart  a  monumental  character  to 
the  work ;  then  the  remarkable  physiognomical  fidelity  which 
pervades  every  detail,  the  psychological  distinctness  of  character, 
and  the  dramatic  life,  together  with  the  calmness  of  the  entire 
bearing  of  the  picture.  He  will  then  comprehend  that  with  Leonardo 
a  new  era  in  Italian  painting  was  inaugurated,  that  the  devel- 
opment of  art  had  attained  its  perfection. 

The  accuracy  of  this  assertion  will  perhaps  be  doubted  by  the 

amateur  when  he  turns  from  Leonardo  to  Michael  Angelo  (1475- 

MicHAEL     1564).    On  the  one  hand  he  hears  Michael  Angelo  extolled 

Akgelo.     as  the  most    celebrated   artist  of   the  Renaissance ,    while 

on  the  other  it  is  said  that  he  exercised  a  prejudicial  influence 

on  Italian  art,   and  was  the  precursor  of  the  decline  of  sculpture 


and  painting.  Nor  is  an  inspection  of  this  illustrious  master's 
works  calculated  to  dispel  the  doubt.  Unnatural  and  arhitrary 
features  often  appear  in  juxtaposition  with  what  is  perfect,  pro- 
foundly significant,  and  faithfully  conceived.  As  in  the  case  of 
Leonardo,  we  shall  find  that  it  is  only  by  studying  the  master's  bio- 
graphy that  we  can  obtain  an  explanation  of  these  anomalies ,  and 
reach  a  true  appreciation  of  Michael  Angelo's  artistic  greatness. 
Educated  as  a  sculptor,  he  exhibits  partiality  to  the  nude ,  and 
treats  the  drapery  in  many  respects  differently  from  his  professional 
brethren.  But,  like  them,  his  aim  is  to  inspire  his  figures  with  life, 
and  he  seeks  to  attain  it  by  imparting  to  them  an  imposing  and  im- 
pressive character.  At  the  same  time  he  occupies  an  isolated  position, 
at  variance  with  many  of  the  tendencies  of  his  age.  Naturally  pre- 
disposed to  melancholy,  concealing  a  gentle  and  almost  effeminate 
temperament  beneath  a  mask  of  austerity,  Michael  Angelo  was  con- 
firmed in  his  peculiarities  by  the  political  and  ecclesiastical  circum- 
stances of  his  time,  and  wrapped  himself  up  within  the  depths  of 
his  own  absorbing  thoughts.  His  sculpture  most  clearly  manifests 
that  profound  sentiment  to  which,  however,  he  often  sacrificed  sym- 
metry of  form.  His  figures  are  therefore  anomalous ,  exhibiting  a 
grand  conception,  but  no  distinct  or  tangible  thoughts,  and  least  of 
all  the  traditional  ideas.  It  is  difficult  now  to  fathom  the  hidden 
sentiments  which  the  master  intended  to  embody  in  his  statues  and 
pictures ;  his  imitators  seem  to  have  seen  in  them  nothing  but  massive 
and  clumsy  forms,  and  soon  degenerated  into  meaningless  mannerism . 
The  deceptive  effect  produced  by  Michael  Angelo's  style  is  best  ex- 
emplified by  some  of  his  later  works.  His  Moses  in  San  Pietro  in 
Vincoli  is  of  impossible  proportions;  such  a  man  can  never  have 
existed ;  the  small  head,  the  huge  arms,  and  the  gigantic  torso  are 
utterly  disproportionate  ;  the  robe  which  falls  over  the  celebrated 
knee  could  not  be  folded  as  it  is  represented.  Nevertheless  the 
work  is  grandly  impressive ;  and  so  also  are  the  Monuments  of  the 
Medici  in  the  New  Sacristy  of  San  Lorenzo  at  Florence  (p.  628), 
in  spite  of  the  forced  attitude  and  arbitrary  moulding  of  some  of 
the  figures.  Michael  Angelo  only  sacrifices  accuracy  of  detail  in 
order  to  enhance  the  aggi-egate  effect.  Had  so  great  and  talented  a 
master  not  presided  over  the  whole,  the  danger  of  an  inflated  style 
would  have  been  incurred,  the  forms  selected  would  have  been 
exaggerated,  and  a  professional  mannerism  would  have  been  the 
result.  Michael  Angelo's  numerous  pupils,  in  their  anxiety  to 
follow  the  example  of  his  Last  Judgment  in  the  Sistine,  succeeded 
only  in  representing  complicated  groups  of  unnaturally  foreshort- 
ened nude  figures,  while  Baccio  Bandinelli,  thinking  even  to  surpass 
Michael  Angelo,  produced  in  his  group  of  Hercules  and  Cacus  (in 
the  Piazza  della  Signoria  at  Florence )  a  mere  caricature  of  his  model. 
Michael  Angelo  lived  and  worked  at  Florence  and  Rome  alter- 
nately. We  find  him  already  in  Rome  at  the  age  of  21  years  (1496), 


as  Florence,  after  the  banishment  of  the  Medici,  offered  no  favour- 
able field  for  the  practice  of  art.  Here  he  chiselled  the  Pietii  and 
the  Bacchus.  In  the  beginning  of  the  16th  cent,  he  returned  to  his 
home,  where  he  produced  his  David  and  began  work  on  the  cycle 
of  frescoes  destined  for  the  great  hall  of  the  Palazzo  Vecchio 
(^Battle  Cartoon,  see  p.  473).  In  1505  the  Pope  recalled  him  to 
Rome,  but  the  work  entrusted  to  him  there,  the  Tomb  of  Julius  II., 
was  at  this  time  little  more  than  begun.  The  Ceiling  Paintings  in 
the  Sistine  Chapel  absorbed  his  whole  attention  from  1508  to  1512. 
After  the  death  of  Julius,  his  monument  was  resumed  on  a  more 
extensive  scale.  The  commands  of  the  new  pope,  Leo  X.,  however, 
who  wished  to  employ  the  artist  for  the  glorification  of  his  own 
family,  soon  brought  the  ambitiously  designed  memorial  once  more 
to  a  standstill.  From  1516  onwards  Michael  Angelo  dwelt  at  Carrara 
and  Florence,  occupied  at  first  with  the  construction  and  embellish- 
ment of  the  Facade  of  San  Lorenzo,  which  was  never  completed, 
and  then  with  the  Tombs  of  the  Medici.  This  work  also  advanced 
very  slowly  towards  maturity,  and  at  last  the  artist,  disgusted  with 
the  tyranny  of  the  Medici,  set  up  in  their  places  those  of  the  statues 
which  were  finished,  and  migrated  to  Rome  (about  1534).  His  first 
work  here  was  the  Last  Judgment  in  the  Sistine  Chapel,  his  next 
the  erection  of  the  scanty  fragments  of  the  tomb  of  Pope  Julius. 
His  last  years  were  mainly  devoted  to  architecture  (St.  Peter's). 

Amateurs  will  best  be  enabled  to  render  justice  to  Michael 
Angelo  by  first  devoting  their  attention  to  his  earlier  works, 
among  which  in  the  province  of  sculpture  the  group  of  the  PietSl 
in  St.  Peter's  occupies  the  highest  rank.  The  statues  of  Bacchus 
and  David  (at  Florence;  pp.  500,521)  likewise  do  not  transgress 
the  customary  precepts  of  the  art  of  the  Renaissance.  Paintings  of 
Michael  Angelo's  earlier  period  are  rare ;  the  finest,  whether  con- 
ceived in  the  midst  of  his  youthful  studies,  or  in  his  maturer  years, 
is  unquestionably  the  ceiling-painting  in  the  Sistine.  The  architec- 
tural arrangement  of  the  ceiling,  and  the  composition  of  the  several 
pictures  are  equally  masterly  ;  the  taste  and  discrimination  of  the 
painter  and  sculptor  are  admirably  combined.  In  God  the  Father, 
Michael  Angelo  produced  a  perfect  type  of  its  kind ;  he  under- 
stood how  to  inspire  with  dramatic  life  the  abstract  idea  of  the 
act  of  creation,  which  he  conceived  as  motion.  In  the  prophets  and 
sibyls,  notwithstanding  the  apparent  monotony  of  the  fundamental 
intention  (foreshadowing  of  the  Redemption) ,  a  great  variety  of 
psychological  incidents  are  displayed  and  embodied  in  distinct 
characters.  Lastly,  in  the  so-called  Ancestors  of  Christ,  the  forms 
represented  are  the  genuine  emanations  of  Michael  Angelo's  genius, 
pervaded  by  his  profound  and  sombre  sentiments,  and  yet  by  no 
means  destitute  of  gracefulness  and  beauty.  The  decorative  figures 
also  which  he  designed  to  give  life  to  his  architectural  frame-work 
are  v^onderfully  beautiful  and  spirited.    The  Last  Judgment,  which 


was  executed  nearly  thirty  years  later  (in  1534-41),  is  not  nearly 
so  striking  as  the  ceiling-paintings,  owing  in  a  great  measure  to  its 
damaged  condition.  —  Among  Michael  Angelo's  pupils  were  Sebas- 
tian DEL  PioMBO  (pp.  Ixi,  291),  Maecbllo  Vsnusti,  and  Danible 


Whether  the  palm  he  due  to  Michael  Angelo  or  to  Raphael  (1483- 
1520)  among  the  artists  of  Italy  is  a  question  which  formerly  gave 
rise  to  vehement  discussion  among  artists  and  amateurs.  „ 
The  admirer  of  Michael  Angelo  need,  however,  hy  no  means 
he  precluded  from  enjoying  the  works  of  Raphael.  We  now  know 
that  it  is  far  more  advantageous  to  form  an  acquaintance  with 
each  master  in  his  peculiar  province,  than  anxiously  to  weigh 
their  respective  merits  ;  and  the  more  minutely  we  examine  their 
works,  the  more  firmly  we  are  persuaded  that  neither  in  any  way 
obstructed  the  progress  of  the  other ,  and  that  a  so-called  higher 
combination  of  the  two  styles  was  impossible.  Michael  Angelo's 
unique  position  among  his  contemporaries  was  such,  that  no  one, 
Raphael  not  excepted,  was  entirely  exempt  from  his  influence; 
but  the  result  of  preceding  development  was  turned  to  the  best 
account ,  not  by  him ,  but  by  Raphael ,  whose  susceptible  and 
discriminating  character  enabled  him  at  once  to  combine  diiTerent 
tendencies  within  himself,  and  to  avoid  the  faults  of  his  pre- 
decessors. Raphael's  pictures  are  replete  with  indications  of  pro- 
found sentiment,  but  his  imagination  was  so  constituted  that  he  did 
not  distort  the  ideas  which  he  had  to  embody  in  order  to  accommo- 
date them  to  his  own  views,  but  rather  strove  to  Identify  himself 
with  them,  and  to  reproduce  them  with  the  utmost  fidelity.  In  the 
case  of  Raphael,  therefore,  a  knowledge  of  his  works  and  the  en- 
joyment of  them  are  almost  inseparable,  and  it  is  difficult  to  point 
out  any  single  sphere  with  which  he  was  especially  familiar.  He 
presents  to  us  with  equal  enthusiasm  pictures  of  the  Madonna,  and 
the  myth  of  Cupid  and  Psyche;  in  great  cyclic  compositions  he  is 
as  brilliant  as  in  the  limited  sphere  of  portrait-painting ;  at  one 
time  he  appears  to  attach  paramount  importance  to  strictness  of 
style,  architectural  arrangement,  symmetry  of  groups,  etc. ;  at  other 
times  one  is  tempted  to  believe  that  he  regarded  colour  as  his  most 
effective  auxiliary.  His  excellence  consists  in  his  rendering  equal 
justice  to  the  most  varied  subjects,  and  in  each  case  as  unhesitat- 
ingly pursuing  the  right  course,  both  in  his  apprehension  of  the 
idea  and  selection  of  form,   as  if  he  had  never  followed  any  other. 

Little  is  known  of  Raphael's  private  life ,  nor  is  it  known  by 
what  master  he  was  trained  after  the  death  of  Oiovanni,  his  father 
(1494).  In  1500  he  entered  the  studio  of  Perugino  (p.  liii),  and 
probably  soon  assisted  in  the  execution  of  some  of  the  works  of  his 
prolific  master.  Of  Raphael's  early  or  XJmhrian  period  there  are 
examples  in  the  V^atican  Gallery  (Coronation  of  Mary)  and  the  P>rera 
at  Milan  {Sposalizio  of  the  Madonna,  1504).    On  settling  at  Florence 


(1504)  Raphael  did  not  at  first  abandon  the  style  he  had  learned  at 
Perugia,  and  which  he  had  carried  to  greater  perfection  than  any 
of  the  other  Umbrian  masters.  Many  of  the  pictures  he  painted 
there  show  that  he  still  followed  the  precepts  of  his  first  master ; 
but  he  soon  yielded  to  the  influence  of  his  Florentine  training. 
After  the  storm  raised  by  Savonarola  had  passed  over,  glorious  days 
were  in  store  for  Florence.  Leonardo,  after  his  return  from  Milan, 
and  Michael  Angelo  were  engaged  here  on  their  cartoons  for  the 
decoration  of  the  great  hall  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio  (p.  4731;  and  it 
was  their  example,  and  more  particularly  the  stimulating  influence 
of  Leonardo,  that  awakened  the  genius  and  called  forth  the  highest 
energies  of  all  their  younger  contemporaries. 

The   fame  of  the  Florentine  school  was  at  this  period  chiefly 
Raphael's    maintained  by  Fba  Baktolomeo  (1475-1517)  and  Anukea 
Florentine    del  Sarto  (1487-1531).      The  only  works  of  Bartolomeo 
CoNTEMPOE-  which  we  know  are  somewhat  spiritless  altar-pieces,  but  they 
*^"*'^"        exhibit  in  a  high  degree  the  dignity  of  character,  the  tran- 
quillity of  expression,  and  the  architectural  symmetry  of  grouping 
in  which  he  excelled.   His  finest  pictures  are  the  Christ  with  the  four 
Saints,  the  Descent  from  the  Cross  (or  Pietk),  the  St.  Mark  in  the  Pitti 
Gallery,  and  the  Madonna  in  the  cathedral  at  Lucca.    The  traveller 
would  not  do  justice  to  Andrea  del  Sarto,  a  master  of  rich  colouring, 
were  he  to  confine  his  attention  to  that  artist's  works  in  the  two 
great  Florentine  galleries.     Sarto's   Frescoes   in    the   Anniinziata 
(p.  510)  and  in  the  Scalzo  (History  of  John  the  Baptist,  p.  524)  are 
among  the  finest  creations  of  the  cinquecento.    Such,   too,  was  the 
stimulus  given  to  the  artists  of  this  period  by  their  great  contem- 
poraries at  Florence  that  even  those  of  subordinate  merit  have  occa- 
sionally produced  works  of  the  highest  excellence,   as,  for  instance, 
the  Salutation  of  Albeetinblli  and  the  Zenobius  pictures  of  Ri- 
DOLFO  Ghielandaio  in  the  Uffizi.     The  last  masters  of  the  local 
Florentine  school  were  Pontormo  and  Angelo  Bronzing. 

Raphael's  style  was  more  particularly  influenced  by  his  relations 
to  Fra  Bartolomeo,  and  the  traveller  will  find  it  most  interesting 
to  compare  their  works  and  to  determine  to  what  extent  each  derived 
suggestions  from  the  other.  The  best  authenticated  works  in 
Italy  of  Raphael's  Florentine  period  are  the  Madonna  del  Granduca 
(Pitti),  the  Madonna  del  CardeWino  (Uffizi),  the  Entombme7it(^Ga\. 
Borghese  in  Rome) ,  the  Predelle  in  the  Vatican ,  the  portraits  of 
Angelo  and  Maddalena  Doni  (Pitti) ,  and  the  Portrait  of  Himself 
(Uffizi;  p.  485).  The  Portrait  of  a  Lady  in  the  Pitti  gallery  is  of 
doubtful  origin,  and  the  Madonna  del  Baldacchino  in  the  same  gal- 
lery was  only  begun  by  Raphael. 

When  Raphael  went  to  Rome  in   1508  he  found  a  large  circle 

Raphael's    ^^  notable  artists  already  congregated  there.    Some  of  these 

Roman       were  deprived  of  their  employment  by  his  arrival,  including 

Pekiod.      Giovanni  Antonio  Bazzi,   surnamed  II  Sodoma  (ca.  1477- 


1549),  whose  frescoes  in  the  Farnesina  (unfortunately  not  now 
accessible)  vie  with  Raphael's  works  in  tenderness  and  grace.  A 
still  more  numerous  circle  of  pupils,  however,  soon  assembled  around 
Raphael  himself,  siich  as  Giulio  Romano,  Pkbin  del  Vaga,  An- 
DBEA  DA  Saleeno,  Polidoro  DA  Cahavaggio,  Timoteo  Viti  or 
DELLA  ViTB,  Garofalo,  Franc.  Penni,  and  Giovanni  da  Udine. 
Attended  by  this  distinguished  retinue ,  Raphael  enjoyed  all  the 
honours  of  a  prince,  although  ,  in  the  Roman  art  world,  Bramante 
(p.  xlvii)  and  Michael  Angela  occupied  an  equally  high  rank.  The 
latter  did  not,  however,  trench  on  Raphael's  province  as  a  painter 
so  much  as  was  formerly  supposed,  and  the  jealousy  of  each  other 
which  they  are  said  to  have  entertained  was  probably  chiefly  confined 
to  their  respective  followers.  Raphael  had  doubtless  examined  the 
ceiling  of  the  Sistine  with  the  utmost  care,  and  was  indebted  to 
Michael  Angelo  for  much  instruction ;  but  it  is  very  important  to 
note  that  he  neither  followed  in  the  footsteps,  nor  suffered  his  native 
genius  to  be  biassed  in  the  slightest  degree  by  the  example  of  his 
great  rival.  A  signal  proof  of  this  independence  is  afforded  by  the 
Sibyls  which  he  painted  in  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  della  Pace  in 
1514,  and  which,  though  conceived  in  a  very  different  spirit  from 
the  imposing  figures  in  the  Sistine,  are  not  the  less  admirable.  In 
order  duly  to  appreciate  the  works  produced  by  Raphael  during  his 
Roman  period,  the  traveller  should  chiefly  direct  his  attention  to 
the  master's  frescoes.  The  Stanze  in  the  Vatican,  the  Tapestry,  the 
Logge,  the  finest  work  of  decorative  art  in  existence,  the  Dome 
Mosaics  in  Santa  Maria  del  Popolo  (Capp.  Chigi),  and  the  Galatea 
and  Myth  of  Psyche  in  the  Farnesina  together  constitute  the  treasure 
bequeathed  to  Rome  by  the  genius  of  the  prince  of  painters.  (Far- 
ther particulars  as  to  these  works  will  be  found  in  the  second  volume 
of  this  Handbook.) 

Many,  and  some  of  the  best ,  of  Raphael's  easel-pictures  of  his 
Roman  period  are  now  beyond  the  Alps.  Italy,  however,  still  pos- 
sesses the  Madonna  della  Sedia ,  the  most  mundane,  but  most 
charming  of  his  Madonnas  (Pitti),  the  Madonna  delV  Impannata 
(Pitti),  the  Madonna  col  Divino  Amore  (Naples),  the  Madonna  di 
Foligno  and  the  Transfiguration  (in  the  Vatican),  St.  Cecilia  (Bo- 
logna), and  the  Young  St.  John  (Uffizi).  The  finest  of  his  portraits 
are  those  of  Pope  Julius  II.  (Uffizi)  and  Leo  X.  with  two  Cardinals 
(Pitti).  Besides  these  works  we  must  also  mention  the  so-called 
Fornarina  (in  the  Pal.  Barberini  at  Rome),  and  the  Portrait  of  a 
Lady  (Pitti,  No.  245),  which  may  represent  the  same  original  and 
also  recalls  the  Sistine  Madonna. 

After  Raphael's  death  the  progress  of  art  did  not  merely  come 
to  a  standstill,  but  a  period  of  rapid  Decline  set  in.  The  conquest 
and  plundering  of  Rome  in  1527  entirely  paralysed  all  artistic  effort 
for  a  time.  At  first  this  misfortune  proved  a  boon  to  other  parts  of 
Italy.    Raphael's  pupils  migrated  from  Rome  to  various  provincial 


towns.    GiuLio  Romano,  for  example,   entered  the  service  of  the 

Dnke  of  Mantna,  embellished  his  palace  with  paintings,  and 
^Dkcli^nb.''  designed  the  Palazzo  del  Te  (p.  262),  while  Perin  del  Vaga 

settled  at  Genoa  (Pal.  Doria).  These  offshoots  of  Raphael's 
school,  however,  soon  langnlshed,  and  ere  long  ceased  to  exist. 

The  NoETHEEN  Schools  of  Italy  ,  on  the  other  hand  ,  retained 
their  vitality  and  Independence  for  a  somewhat  longer  period.  At 
Bologna  the   local  style,    modified    by  the   influence  of  Raphael, 

was  successfully  practised  by  Raet.  Ramenghi  ,  surnamed 
^^;°^°^^y"'' Bagnacavallo  (1484-1542).     Ferrara   boasted   of  Dosso 

Dossi  (ca.  1479-1542)  and  Bknvenuto  Tisi,  surnamed  Garo- 
PALO  (1481-1559).  At  Verona  the  reputation  of  the  school  was 
maintained  by  Feancksco  Caeoto  (1470-1546)  and  Paolo  Moeanua, 
surnamed  Cavazzola  (1486-1522). 

The  most  important  works  produced  in  Northern  Italy  were  those 

of  Antonio  Allegei,  surnamed  Correggio  (1494-1534),   and  of 

CouREGGio    *'^®  Venetian  masters.     Those  who  visit  Parma  after  Rome 

and  Florence  will  certainly  be  disappointed  with  the  pic- 
tures of  Correggio.  They  will  discover  a  realistic  tendency  in  his 
works,  and  they  will  observe,  not  only  that  his  treatment  of  space 
(as  in  the  perspective  painting  of  domes)  is  unrefined ,  but  that 
his  individual  figures  possess  little  attraction  beyond  mere  natural 
charms,  and  that  their  want  of  repose  is  apt  to  displease  and  fatigue 
the  eye.  The  fact  is,  that  Correggio  was  not  a  painter  of  all-em- 
bracing genius  and  far-reaching  culture ,  but  merely  an  adept  in 
chiaroscuro,  who  left  all  the  other  resources  of  his  art  undeveloped. 
In  examining  the  principal  works  of  the  VKNETLiN  School,  how- 
ever, the  traveller  will  experience  no  such  dissatisfaction  (comp. 

p.  290).   From  the  school  of  Giovanni  Bellini  ( p.  lii)  emanated 
SclfooL"    *^e  greatest  representatives  of  Venetian  painting  —  Gioe- 

GioNE,  properly  Barbarblli  (  1477?-1510),  whose  works 
have  unfortunately  not  yet  been  sufficiently  well  identified,  the 
elder  Palma  (1480-1528)  ,  and  Tiziano  Vecellio  (1477-1576),  who 
for  nearly  three  quarters  of  a  century  maintained  his  native  style  at 
its  culminating  point.  These  masters  are  far  from  being  mere  colo- 
rists;  nor  do  they  owe  their  peculiar  attraction  to  local  inspiration 
alone.  The  enjoyment  of  life  and  pleasure  which  they  so  happily 
pourtray  is  a  theme  dictated  by  the  culture  of  the  Renaissance  (a 
.  culture  possessed  in  an  eminent  degree  by  Titian,  as  indicated  by 
his  intimacy  with  the  'divine'  Aretino).  Their  serene  and  joyous 
characters  often  recall  some  of  the  ancient  gods,  showing  the  manner 
in  which  the  artists  of  the  Renaissance  had  profited  by  the  revived 
study  of  the  antique.  Properly  to  appreciate  Titian  it  is  of  impor- 
tance to  remember  how  much  of  his  activity  was  displayed  in  the 
service  of  the  different  courts.  His  connection  with  the  family  of 
Este  began  at  an  early  period ;  he  carried  on  an  active  intercourse 
with  the  Gonzagas  at  Mantua,   and  executed  numerous  pictures  for 


them.  Later  he  basked  in  the  favour  of  Charles  V.  and  Philip  II.  of 
Spain.  The  natural  result  of  this  was  that  the  painting  of  portraits 
and  of  mythological  subjects  engrossed  the  greater  part  of  his  time 
and  talents.  That  Titian's  genius,  however,  was  by  no  means  alien 
to  religion  and  deep  feeling  in  art,  and  that  his  imagination  was  as 
rich  and  powerful  in  this  field  as  in  pourtraying  realistic  and  sen- 
sually attractive  forms  of  existence,  is  proved  by  his  ecclesiastical 
paintings,  of  which  the  finest  are  the  Pesaro  Madonna  (p.  336),  the 
Martyrdom  of  St.  Lawrence  (p.  324),  the  Presentation  in  the  Temple 
(p.  313),  and  the  Assumption  (p.  308)  at  Venice. 

Owing  to  the  soundness  of  the  principles  on  which  the  Venetian 
school  was  based,  there  is  no  wide  gulf  between  its  masters  of  the 
highest  and  those  of  secondary  rank ,  as  is  so  often  the  case  in  the 
other  Italian  schools ;  and  we  accordingly  find  that  works  by  Lo- 
aKNZO  Lotto,  Sebastian  del  Piombo  (p.  Ivii),  the  Bonifazios,  Por- 
UBNONE,  Pakis  Boedonb,  and  Jacopo  Tintob,etto  frequently  vie 
in  beauty  with  those  of  the  more  renowned  chiefs  of  their  school. 
Even  Paolo  Caliaei,  surnamed  Vekonsse  (1528-88),  the  last  great 
master  of  his  school ,  shows  as  yet  no  trace  of  the  approaching 
period  of  decline .  but  continues  to  delight  the  beholder  with  his 
delicate  silvery  tints  and  the  spirit  and  richness  of  his  compositions. 

Correggio,  as  well  as  subsequent  Venetian  masters,  were  fre- 
quently taken  as  models  by  the  Italian  painters  of  the  17th  century, 
and  the  influence  they  exercised  could  not  fail  to  be  de- 
tected even  by  the  amateur,  if  the  entire  post-Raphaelite  ueclwe^ 
period  were  not  usually  overlooked.  Those,  however,  who 
make  the  great  cinquecentists  their  principal  study  will  doubtless 
be  loth  to  examine  the  works  of  their  successors.  Magnificent  de- 
corative works  are  occasionally  encountered,  but  the  taste  is 
offended  by  the  undisguised  love  of  pomp  and  superficial  man- 
nerism which  they  generally  display.  Artists  no  longer  ear- 
nestly identify  themselves  with  the  ideas  they  embody;  they 
mechanically  reproduce  the  customary  themes,  they  lose  the  desire, 
and  finally  the  ability  to  compose  independently.  They  are,  more- 
over, deficient  in  taste  for  beauty  of  form,  which,  as  is  well  known, 
is  most  attractive  when  most  simple  and  natural.  Their  technical 
skill  is  not  the  result  of  mature  experience,  slowly  acquired  and 
justly  valued  :  they  came  into  easy  possession  of  great  resources  of 
art,  which  they  frivolously  and  unworthily  squander.  The  quaint, 
the  extravagant,  the  piquant  alone  stimulates  their  taste;  rapidity, 
not  excellence  of  workmanship,  is  their  aim.  Abundant  specimens 
of  this  mannerism,  exemplified  in  the  works  of  Zuccaeo,  d'Aepino, 
Tbmpksta,  and  others,  are  encountered  at  Rome  and  Florence 
(cupola  of  the  cathedral).  The  fact  that  several  works  of  this 
class  produce  a  less  unfavourable  impression  does  not  alter  their 
general  position,  as  it  is  not  want  of  talent  so  much  as  of  con- 
scientiousness which  is  attributed  to  these  artists. 


The  condition  of  Italian  art,  that  of  painting  at  least,  improved 
to  some  extent  towards  the  close  of  the  16th  century,  when  there 

was  a  kind  of  second  efflorescence,  known  in  the  schools  as 
^^vivAL^"'  *^®  'revival  of  good  taste',    which  is  said  to  have  chiefly 

manifested  itself  in  two  directions  ,  the  eclectic  and  the  na- 
turalistic. But  these  are  terms  of  little  or  no  moment  in  the  study 
of  art,  and  the  amateur  had  better  disregard  them.  This  period  of  art 
also  should  be  studied  historically.  The  principal  architectural  mon- 
uments of  the  17th  century  are  the  churches  of  the  Jesuits,  which 
unquestionably  produce  a  most  imposing  effect;  but  the  historical 
enquirer  will  not  easily  be  dazzled  by  their  meretricious  magni- 
ficence. He  will  perceive  the  absence  of  organic  forms  and  the 
impropriety  of  combining  totally  different  styles,  and  he  will  steel 
liimself  against  the  gorgeous,  but  monotonous  attractions  of  the 
paintings  and  other  works  of  the  same  period.  The  bright  Renais- 
sance is  extinct,  simple  pleasure  in  the  natural  and  human  is  ob- 
literated. A  gradual  change  in  the  views  of  the  Italian  public  and 
in  the  position  of  the  church  did  not  fail  to  influence  the  tendencies 
of  art,  and  in  the  17th  century  artists  again  devoted  their  energies 
more  immediately  to  the  service  of  the  church.  Devotional  pictures 
now  became  more  frequent,  but  at  the  same  time  a  sensual,  natural- 
istic element  gained  ground.  At  one  time  it  veils  itself  in  beauty 
of  form,  at  another  it  is  manifested  in  the  representation  of  volup- 
tuous and  passionate  emotions  ;  classic  dignity  and  noble  symmetry 
are  never  attained.  Ckistoforo  Alloki's  Judith  (p.  544^  should  be 
compared  with  the  beauties  of  Titian,  and  the  frescoes  of  Annibalb 
Cakkacci  in  the  Palazzo  Farnese  at  Rome  with  Raphael's  ceiling- 
paintings  in  the  Famesina,  in  order  that  the  difference  between  the 
16th  and  17th  centuries  may  be  clearly  understood ;  and  the  enquirer 
will  be  still  farther  aided  by  consulting  the  coeval  Italian  poetry,  and 
observing  the  development  of  the  lyric  drama  or  opera.  The  poetry  of 
the  period  thus  furnishes  a  key  to  the  mythological  representations 
of  the  School  of  the  Carracci.  Gems  of  art,  however,  were  not  un- 
frequently  produced  d  uring  the  1 7th  century,  and  many  of  the  frescoes 
of  this  period  are  admirable,  such  as  those  by  Guido  Reni  and 
DoMENiCHiNO  at  Rome.  Beautiful  oil-paintings  by  various  masters 
are  also  preserved  in  the  galleries  of  Bologna  (p.  386),  Naples,  and 
elsewhere.  The  so-called  gallery-pieces,  figures  and  scenes  desig- 
nated by  imposing  titles,  and  painted  in  the  prevailing  taste  of  the 
17th  century,  were  readily  received,  and  indeed  most  appropriately 
placed  in  the  palaces  of  the  nobles.  This  retreat  of  art  to  the  privacy 
of  the  apartments  of  the  great  may  be  regarded  as  a  symptom  of  the 
universal  withdrawal  of  the  Italians  from  public  life.  Artists,  too, 
henceforth  occupy  an  isolated  position,  unchecked  by  public  opinion, 
exposed  to  the  caprices  of  amateurs,  and  themselves  inclined  to  an 
arbitrary  deportment.  Several  qualities ,  however,  still  exist  of 
which  Italian  artists  are  never  entirely  divested ;    they  retain    a 


certain  address  in  the  arrangement  of  figures,  they  preserve  their 
reputation  as  ingenious  decorators,  and  understaud  the  art  of  occa- 
sionally imparting  an  ideal  impress  to  their  pictures  ;  even  down  to 
a  late  period  in  the  I8th  century  they  excel  in  effects  of  colour, 
and  by  devoting  attention  to  the  province  of  genre  and  landscape- 
painting  they  may  boast  of  having  extended  the  sphere  of  their 
native  art.  At  the  same  time  they  cannot  conceal  the  fact  that  they 
have  lost  all  faith  in  the  ancient  ideals,  that  they  are  Incapable  of 
new  and  earnest  tasks.  They  breathe  a  close,  academic  atmosphere, 
tliey  no  longer  labour  like  their  predecessors  in  an  independent 
and  healthy  sphere,  and  their  productions  are  therefore  devoid  of 
absorbing  and  permajient  interest. 

This  slight  outline  of  the  decline  of  Italian  art  brings  us  to 
the  close  of  our  brief  and  imperfect  historical  sketch,  which,  be 
it  again  observed,  is  designed  merely  to  guide  the  eye  of  the 
enlightened  traveller,  and  to  aid  the  uninitiated  in  independent 
discrimination  and  research. 

Contents  of  Article  on  Italian  Art :  p^„ 

Art  of  Antiquity:  the  Greeks  and  Uomaus xxxi 

The  Middle  Ages:  Early  Christian  Art xxxiii 

Byzantine  style xxxv 

Roinanes'iue  style xxxvi 

Gothic  style xxxviii 

Niccolo  Pisano,  Giotto xxxix,  xl 

Thf  Renaissance xlii 

Architecture xliv 

Early  Renaissance xlv 

High  Renaissance xlvii 

Sculpture .     .  xlviii 

Painting : 

(Tuscan  Schoils li 

XV.  Cent.    [  Upper  Italian  Schools.     The  Venetians  ....  lii 

lUmhrian  School liii 

i Leonardo  da  Vinci liii 

Michael  Angelo  and  his  pupils liv 

Raphael,  his  contemporaries,  and  his  pupils  .  Ivii 

Correggio Lx 

Venetian  masters L\ 

End  of  the  XVI.,  and  XVII.  Cent.:  Mannerists,  'NaturaUsts,  Eclectics  Ixi 

Among  the  best  works  m  Italian  art  are  Morelli's  Italian  Painters: 
Crowe  &  Caialcaselle's  History  of  Painting  in  Italy  (2nd  edit.;  1S03)  and 
History  of  Painting  in  Sorth  Italy  (1871);  Kuglers  Handbook  of  Painting  (utw 
edit,  by  Sr  H.  Layard;  1887);  Sirs.  Jameson's  Lives  of  the  Italian  Painters; 
Bernhard  Berensvns  Florentine  Painters  of  the  Renaissance  (V)nd  ed.;  19u6), 
Venetian  Painters  of  the  Renaissance  (3rd  ed. ;  1899),  and  Central  Italian 
Painters  of  the  Renaissance  (l>-97) ;  and  the  works  of  Mr.  C.  C.  Perkins  on 
Italian  Hculpture.  A  convenient  and  trustworthy  manual  lor  the  traveller 
in  Italy  is  Ilnrckhardt's  Cicerone  (translated  by  Mrs.  A.  H.  Clough;  new  ed. 
revised  by  J.  A.  Crowe,  1879). 



Glossary  of  Technical  Terms. 

Ambo,  Ambones,  see  p.  xxxiv. 

Apie  or  Trilwia^  semicircular  or  poly- 
gonal ending  of  a  church,  generally 
at  its  £.  end. 

Attic,  a  low  upper  story,  usually  with 

Badia,  Abbazia,  an  abbey. 

Basilica,  a  church  with  a  high  nave, 
ending  in  an  apse  and  flanked  by 
lower  aisles.  For  the  early-Chris- 
tian basilica,  comp.  p.  xxxiv. 

Borgo,  Sobborgo,  a  suburb. 

Campanile,  detaeht-d  bell- tower  of 
the  Italian  churches. 

Campo  Santo,  Cimitero,  a  cemetery. 

Central  Structure,  a  building  the 
ground-plan  iif  which  can  be  en- 
closed in  a  circle. 

Certuia,  Carthusian  convent. 

Chiostro,  cloisters,  a  monastic  court. 

Ciborium,  the  sacred  vessel  or  box 
(pyx)  in  which  Ihe  consecrated 
eucbaristic  elements  are  preserved.,  a  cancpy  above  the  altar, 
supported  by  four  pillars. 

Cinquecenio,  16th  century. 

Collegia,  college,  common  table  at  a 

Confession,  an  underground  chamber 
below  the  high-altar  of  a  church, 
with  the  tomb  of  its  patron-saint, 
the  original  form  of  the  crypt. 

Diplpch,    double    folding    tablet    of 

wood,  ivory,  or  metal. 
Loggia,  arcade,  balcony. 
Monte  di  Pietil,  pawn-shop. 
Municipio,  municipality,  city-hall. 
Niello ,    engraved    design    on    silver, 

with    incised   lines    filled   with   a 

black  alloy;  impressions  from  such 

Palazzo    Arcivescovile ,     archbishop's 


—  Comunale  or  Pubblico,  city-hail. 

—  delta  Ragione,  a  law-court  (now 
usually  called  Pal.  di  Giustizia  or 

—  Vescovile,  bishop's  palace. 
Plaquette,  small   bronze    tablet  with 

Predella,  small  picture  attached  to  a 

large  altar-piece. 
Putto  (pi.  pulti),  figure  of  a  child. 
Quattrocento,  16th  century. 
Kitstica,  masonry  with  rough  surface 

and  hewn  edges. 
Triumphal  Arch  (in   a   church),    the 

arch  connecting  the  choir  with  the 

transept  or  nave. 
Vescovado,   bishopric,  episcopal  pal- 
Villa,  country-house  and  park. 
Visitation,  Meeting  of  the  Virgin  Mary 

and  Elizabeth  (St.  Luke,  chap.  i). 

Abbreviations  of  Italian  Christian  Names. 

Ag.  - 

=  Agostino. 

Bern.   =  Bernardo, 

Al.  = 

=  Alessandro. 



=  Alfonso. 

Dom.  =  Domenico. 


.  =  Andrea. 

Fed.  =  Federigo. 


=  Angelo. 

Fil.  =  Filippo. 


=  Antonio. 

Franc.  =  Francesco 


=  Bartolomeo. 

Giac.  =  Giacomo. 


=  Battista. 

Giov.   =  Giovanni. 


=  Benedetto. 

Girol.  =  Girolamo. 
Gius.  =  Giuseppe. 

Gugl.  =  Guglielmo. 
Jac.  =  Jacopo. 
Lod.  =  Lodovico. 
Lor.  =  Lorenzo. 
Nice.  =  Niccolo. 
Rid.   =  Ridolfo. 
Seb.   =  Sebastiano. 
Tomm.   =  Tommaso. 
Vine.  =  Vincenzo. 
Vitt.  =  Vittore. 

I.  Routes  to  Italy.^ 

1.  From  Paris  ffrejieraj  to  Turin  by  Mont  Cenis  ....        1 

From  Geneva  to  Culoz,  1. 

2.  From  Brigue  (Lausanne)  to  Milan  via  Aroiia.   Simplon 
Railway 8 

3.  From  Lucerne  (Bale)  to  Lugano,  Como,  and  Milan. 

St.  Gotthard  Railway 6 

4.  From  Thusis  to  Colico  over  the  Spliigen 17 

5.  From  Innsbruck  to  Verona  by  the  Brenner 19 

From  Trent  to  Tezze,  21.  —  From  Mori  to  Eiva,  22. 

6.  From  Vienna  to  Venice  via  Pontebba 23 

1.    From  Paris  (Geneva)  to  Turin  by  Mont  Cenis. 

490  M.  Railway  in  16'/2-27'/2  hrs.  (fares  91  fr.  50,  62  fr.  15,  40  fr.  20  c). 
Travellers  are  recommended  to  leave  Paris  (Gare  de  Lyon)  by  the  night 
express  (sleeping-cars)  in  order  to  cross  the  Alps  by  daylight.  —  The 
'Rome  Express"  ('train  de  luxe';  extra  fare  to  Turin  29  fr.  5  c.)  leaves 
Paris  on  Hon.,  Thurs.,  and  Sat.  in  winter. 

From  Paris  to  (348  M.)  Culoz  (774  ft.;  Hdtel  FoUiet;  Rail. 
Restaurant),  the  junction  of  the  Geneva  line,  see  Baedeker's  North- 
em  France  and  Baedeker's  Southern  France. 

Fbom  Geneva  to  Cdloz,  42  M.,  railway  in  l'/2-2V2  hrs.  (fares  8  fr.  10  c, 
6fr.,  4fr.  45  c.).  The  line  follows  the  right  bank  of  the  Rhone,  on  the 
slopes  of  the  Jura  Mts.  Beyond  (14V2  M.)  Collonges  the  Rhone  flows  through 
a  narrow  rocky  valley,  confined  between  the  Jura  and  Mont  Vouacke, 
and  commanded  by  the  Fori  de  I'Ecluse ,  which  rises  far  above  on  the 
right.  The  line  quits  the  defile  by  the  long  Tunnel  du  Crido  (2V3  M.), 
crosses  the  grand  Valserine  Viaduct  (275  yds.  long  and  170  ft.  high),  and 
reaches  (20'  2  JI.)  Bellegarde  (Poste),  at  the  influx  of  the  Valserine  into  the 
Rhone  (French  custom-house  examination).  —  42  M.  Culoz. 

The  train  crosses  the  Rhone ,  and  at  (352'/2  M.)  Chindrieux 
reaches  the  N.  end  of  the  Lac  du  Bourget  (746  ft.),  10  M.  In  length, 
3  M.  in  breadth,  the  E.  bank  of  which  it  follows.  On  the  opposite 
bank  is  the  Cistercian  abbey  of  Hautecomhe. 

362  M.  Aix-les-Baius  (850  ft.;  Splendide-Hotel  Royal;  Grand 
Hot.  Bernascon  et  Reyina;  Grand  Hot.  d' Albion;  Hot.  de  la  Poste, 
Hot.  du  Centre,  less  expensive ;  and  many  others),  the  Aquae  Gra- 
tianae  of  the  Romans,  is  a  fashionable  watering-place  with  8120  in- 
hab.,  possessing  sulphur-springs  (113°  Fahr.).  In  the  place  in  front 
of  the  Etablissement  Thermal  rises  the  Arch  ofCampanus,  a  Roman 
tomb  of  the  3rd  or  4th  cent.,  built  in  the  shape  of  a  triumphal  arch. 

370  M.  Chambery  (880  ft. ;  Hot.  de  France ;  Hot.  de  la  Poste  ^' 
MitropoU;  Hot.  du  Commerce^,  beautifully  situated  on  the  Leysse, 
with  22,100  inhab.,  is  the  capital  of  the  Department  of  Savoy  and 
an  archiepiscopal  see. 

t  Approaches  to  Italy  through  France,  see  Baedeker's  Southern  France. 
Baedekek.    Italy  I.    13th  Edit.  i 

2     Route  1.  MONT  CENIS  TUNNEL, 

3781/2  M.  Montmelian  (921  ft.).  The  ancient  castle  was  long 
the  bulwark  of  Savoy  against  France  until  its  destruction  in  1705 
by  Louis  XIV.  —  The  train  now  ascends  the  valley  of  the  Jsere.  — 
386  M.  St.  Pierre  d'Albigny  (buffet),  the  junction  of  the  branch-line 
to  Albertville  and  (32  M.)  Moiitiers-en-Tarentaise;  the  town  lies 
opposite  on  the  right  bank,  commanded  by  the  ruins  of  a  castle.  — 
Near  {388^/-2M.')  Chaniousset  the  line  turns  to  the  right,  and  enters 
the  valley  of  the  Arc  (Vallee  de  Maurienne) ,  which  here  joins  the 
Isere.  422  M.  St.  Michel  de  Maurienne  (2330  ft.).  Numerous 
tunnels.  —  428  M.  La  Praz  (3135  ft.). 

431  M.  Modane  (3465  ft.;  Buffet,  dt^.  with  wine  4  fr.  ;  Hotel 
International  et  Terminus,  R.  21/2-'^?  de'j.  or  D.  3  fr.)  is  the  seat  of  the 
French  and  Italian  custom-house  authorities  (carriages  changed ; 
departure  according  to  Mid-Europe  time). 

The  train  (view  to  the  right)  describes  a  wide  curve  round  the 
village,  and,  passing  through  two  short  tunnels,  enters  the  great 
Mont  Cenis  Tunnel,  by  which  the  Col  de  Frijus  (8470  ft.)  is  pen- 
etrated in  a  S.E.  direction,  though  the  name  is  derived  from  the  old 
Mont  Cenis  road,  which  crosses  the  Mont  Cenis  Pass,  17  M.  to  theE. 

The  funnel  (T'A  M.  in  length;  N.  entrance  3800  ft.,  S.  entrance  4100  ft. 
above  the  sea-level;  height  in  the  centre  4245  ft.,  depth  below  the  sur- 
face of  the  mountain  4090  ft.)  was  completed  in  1861-1870  under  the 
superintendence  of  the  engineers  Sommeiller,  Grandis,  and  Grattoni  at  a 
total  cost  of  75,0O0,000fr.  The  tunnel  is  26  ft.  wide,  19  ft.  high,  and  has 
two  lines  of  rails.  It  is  lighted  by  lanterns  placed  at  intervals  of  500 
metres,  and  the  distances  are  given  in  kilometres.  The  transit  occupies 
25-30  minutes.  Travellers  are  warned  not  to  protrude  their  heads  or  arms 
from  the  carriage-windows  during  the  transit,  and  are  also  recommended 
to  keep  the  windows  shut. 

At  the  S.  end  of  the  tunnel,  5  M.  from  the  frontier,  is  (444  M.) 
Bardonnecchia  (4125  ft.),  the  first  Italian  station.  The  best  views 
are  now  to  the  left.  —  Near  (451  M.)  OuLv  (3500  ft.),  the  Roman 
Villa  Mortis,  the  line  enters  the  picturesque  valley  of  the  Bora 
Riparia.  Beyond  a  bridge  and  two  tunnels  is  (455  M.)  Salbertrand 
(3303  ft.).  Before  the  next  station  nine  tunnels  are  traversed.  To 
the  left,  between  the  second  and  third,  a  glimpse  is  obtained  of 
the  small  town  of  Exilles,  with  the  frontier-fortress  of  that  name.  — 
461 1/2  M.  Chiomonte  (2525  ft.).  The  valley  contracts  and  forms  a 
wild  gorge  (Le  Gorgie),  of  which  beautiful  views  are  obtained,  with 
the  Mont  Cenis  road  winding  up  the  hill  on  the  farther  side,  and 
the  Rocciamelone  (Fr.  Roche- Melon;  11,604  ft.)  and  other  peaks 
towering  above  it.  When  the  valley  expands,  Susa,  with  its  Roman 
triumphal  arch,  comes  in  sight  on  the  left  (see  p.  44).  —  465  M. 
Meana  (1950  ft.),  1  M.  from  Susa.  Three  tunnels.  The  train  then 
descends  through  beautiful  chestnut-woods,  and  crosses  the  Dora. 
—  471  M.  Bussoleno  (1425  ft.),  the  junction  of  the  branch-line  to 
Susa  described  at  p.  44. 

At  (475  M.)  Borgont  the  Dora  is  crossed.  —  Beyond  (482  M.) 
SanV  Ambrogio  di  Torino  (1160  ft.)  the   line  traverses  the  Chiuse, 

SIMPLON  TUNNEL.  2.  Route,     o 

a  narrow  pass ,  fortified  by  the  Lombards ,  between  tlie  Montt 
Pirchiriano  (3150  ft.;  right)  and  the  Monte  Caprado  (left),  where 
Charlemagne  defeated  the  Lombard  King  Desiderius  in  774. 

A  bridle-path  ascends  in  1^4  br.  from  Sant'  Anibrogio  to  the  "^Sagra  di 
San  Michele,  a  monastery  founded  in  9'J9  upun  the  rucky  summit  of  the 
Jlonte  Pirchiriano  (Alb.  Giaeosa,  clean,  at  San  Pielro,  'A  hr.  from  the  top). 
The  monastery,  enlarged  by  the  Benedictines  in  the  12th  cent.,  is  now 
ixcupied  by  a  few  Kosminian  monks  (p.  2U0).  The  Scalone  de'  Morti,  a 
staircase  hewn  in  the  rock,  ascends  through  the  Porta  dello  Zodiaco 
(Romanesque  sculptures)  to  the  Romanesque  church,  the  apse  of  which 
rests  upon  massive  foundations,  75  ft.  deep.  Various  scions  of  the  House 
of  Savoy  are  interred  in  the  crypt.  The  line  view  ranges  over  the  valley 
of  Susa,  the  Alps,  and  the  plain  of  Piedmont.  A  bridle-path  descends  to 
(I'/i  hr.)  Aviyliana. 

485  M.  Avigliana  (llOSft.),  a  mediaeval  town  with  a  large 
dynamite  factory.  The  hills  below  Avigliana,  once  enclosing  a  lake, 
are  the  lateral  moraines  of  the  ancient  Doria  Riparia  glacier.  — 
Beyond  (488  M.)  Rosta  the  valley  expands  into  a  broad  plain. 

About  3  M.  from  Rosta  lies  the  Abhazia  di  Sanf  Antonio  di  Eaiiverso, 
founded  in  1188,  with  a  Gothic  facade  of  three  gables.  The  his:h-altar-piece 
is  a  Nativity,  by  Defendente  de  Ferrari ;  in  the  sacristy  is  a  15th  cent,  fresco 
of  the  Bearing  of  the  Cross. 

499  M.  Turin,  see  p.  27. 

2.  From  Brigue  (Lausanne)  to  Milan  via  Arona« 
Simplon  Railway. 

100  31.  Railwat,  opened  in  1906,  in  3'/2-T  hrs.  (from  Lausanne  G'/a- 
t2>/4  hrs.).  Best  views  to  the  left  beyond  Domodossola.  Gump,  the  Map, 
p.  193.  —  From  London  via.  Botilogne.  ordinary  express  in  24V'2  hrs.  (lares 
Ist  cl.  11.  is.  4rf. ;  2nd  cl.  bl.  6«.);  via  Calais  in  33  hrs.  'Simplon  Kxpress' 
(train  de  luxe ;  extra  fare  21.  18«.  Qd.)  from  Calais  (London)  in  211/2  hrs.  on 
ilon.,  Wed.,  and  Sat.  in  summer. 

Brigue  (2245  ft. ;  Hotel  Couronnc  et  Poste;  Angletsrre;  Term- 
inus, etc. ;  RaiLRestauTant\  a  well-built  little  town,  with  a  turreted 
chateau,  is  the  terminus  of  the  Rhone  Valley  Line  (see  Baedeker's 
Switzerland^  and  the  starting  point  of  the  Simplon  Railway. 

The  Simplon  Railway  quits  the  valley  of  the  Rlione  IY2  ^^• 
above  Brigue  and  enters  the  Simplon  Tunnel  (121/4  M.),  the  longest 
railway-tunnel  in  the  world,  which  pierces  the  chain  of  the  Lepoii- 
tine  Alps  in  a  S.W.  direction  between  the  Furggenbaumhorn  (Ital. 
Punta  d'AuTona;  9815  ft.)  and  the  Wa^enhorn  (Ital.  Punta  di  Terra- 
rossa;  10,680  ft.),  near  the  point  where  the  Simplon  Road,  constructed 
by  order  of  Napoleon  in  1800-1806,  crosses  the  Simplon  Pass. 

The  tunnel,  which  was  constructed  in  1H98-1906  at  a  total  cost  of 
75,5C0,000  fr.,  by  Brandt  (d.  1899),  Bi-andau,  and  other  engineers,  differs 
from  all  similar  con>tructions  inasmuch  ;is  it  consists  of  two  parallel  tun- 
nels, 55  ft.  apart,  which  were  connected  with  each  other  during  the  con- 
struction by  transverse  shafts  at  intervals  of  22L)  yds.  Only  one  of  these 
tunnels  has  as  yet  been  completely  linished,  the  other  having  hitherto  been 
used  for  ventilation,  for  the  supply  of  water,  and  for  the  conveyance  of 
the  material  and  workmen.  From  the  N.  entrance  (2'25f)  ft.)  tbe  tunnel 
ascends  at  the  gra  'lent  of  2 :  KKX)  to  the  {b^U  M.)  culminating  point  (2:)03  ft.), 
wLich  lies  7000  ft.  below  the  mountain-surface  above;  then,  after  remaining 


4     Route  2.  DOMODOSSOLA.  From  Brigue 

on  the  level  for  550  yds.,  it  descends  (gradient  7  :  1000)  to  the  (6V4  M.) 
S.  entrance  (2080  ft.),  at  Iselle,  in  the  valley  of  the  Diveria  (see  below). 
The  first  5'/2  M.  of  the  tunnel  arc  in  Swiss  territory.  Trains  make  the 
transit  in  20-25  minutes. 

131/2  M.  Iselle  di  Trasquera  (^2155  ft. ;  Hut.  du  Grand  Tunnel 
du  Simplon,  II.  1V2-3,  B.  II/2  fr- ))  with  new  fortifications,  is  situated 
in  the  picturesque  Val  di  TVrfro,  which  is  watered  by  the  Diveria  or 
Doveria.  The  construction  of  the  railway  between  Iselle  and  Domo- 
dossola  was  attended  by  great  difficulty,  as  more  than  half  the  distance 
is  occupied  by  tunnels  and  cuttings  (cost,  1,600,000  fr.  per  mile). 

The  line  traverses  the  valley  of  the  Cairasca  by  means  of  a  spiral 
tunnel,  and  then  again  descends  the  Val  di  Vedro.  —  17^2  M.  Varzo 
(1865  ft. ;  Albergo  Zanalda).  The  scenery  now  assumes  a  distinctly 
Italian  character:  chestnut-trees,  fig-trees,  mulberries,  vines,  and 
maize  abound. 

The  railway  crosses  to  the  right  bank  of  the  river  in  a  picturesque 
ravine.  —  23  M.  Preglia  (960  ft.)  lies  near  the  influx  of  the  Diveria 
into  the  Toce  (or  Tosa),  which  issues  from  the  Val  Antigorio  (see 
Baedeker's  Sivitzerland).  Below  this  point  the  broad  and  fertile  valley, 
frequently  injured  by  inunilations,  is  known  as  the  Val  d'Ossola. 

251/2  M.  Domodossola  (915  ft. ;  Hotel  Terminus  el  Espagne,  R. 
2V2-5,  omn.  72  fr-;  ^^^t-  ^«  ^«  Ville  et  Poste,  with  cafe',  R.  31/2  ft-; 
Hot.  Milan  et  Suisse.,  R.  2-3  fr. ;  Birreria  Barisoni;  Buffet),  the  an- 
cient Oscela,  a  small  town  with  3500  inhab. ,  beautifully  situated, 
is  the  seat  of  the  Italian  and  Swiss  custom-houses  and  the  junction 
of  a  line  to  Novara  (R.  17).  The  Palazzo  Silva  (16th  cent.)  contains 
a  small  museum  of  antiquities ;  the  Museo  Galletti  a  library  and  a 
cabinet  of  coins.  The  Calvary  Hill,  20  min.  to  the  S.,  commands 
a  superb  view  towards  the  N. 

About  41/2  M.  to  the  W.  lies  Bognanco  (2083  ft.),  the  chief  place  of  the 
Val  di  Bogna,  with  mineral  springs  and  a  hydropathic  establishment  ('Kur- 
haus,  open  from  June  to  Sept.;  pens,  from  10  fr.).  English  physician. 
Dr.  H.  Dan  vers  (in  summer). 

The  Simplon  Railway  passes  to  the  left  bank  of  the  Toce,  which 
separates  into  several  arms  and  fills  the  whole  valley  with  its  de'bris. 
—  29  M.  Beura  (810  ft.),  at  the  base  of  the  hills  on  the  E. 

331/2  M.  Vogogna  (715  ft.;  Corona),  picturesquely  situated  at 
the  foot  of  precipitous  rocks,  with  a  ruined  castle.  Near  the  village 
is  an  inscription  on  a  rock ,  dating  from  the  reign  of  Septimius 
Severus.  —  381/2  M.  Premosello ;  41 M.  Cuzzago  ,•  both  with  stations  on 
the  Novara  railway.  —  To  the  left  appear  the  white  marble-quarries 
of  Candoglia,  which  have  been  worked  by  the  Milanese  ever  since 
the  construction  of  the  Naviglio  Grande  (p.  68).  Milan  Cathedral 
and  part  of  the  Certosa  di  Pavia  are  built  of  Candoglia  marble. 

42  M.  Mergozzo  (670  ft.)  lies  at  the  W.  end  of  the  Lago  di  Mer- 
gozzo,  originally  an  arm  of  the  Lago  Maggiore,  with  which  it  is  now 
connected  only  by  a  narrow  channel.  —  The  railway  skirts  the  S.W. 
bank  of  the  lake,  at  the  foot  of  the  Mon(  Orfano  (2595  ft.),  noted 
for  its  granite-quarries. 

to  Milan.  GALLARATE.  2.  Route.     5 

44  M.  Pallanza-Fondo  Toce ;  the  station  lies  4  M.  to  the  W.  of 
Pallanza  (p.  197),  on  the  road  from  Locarno  to  the  railway-station 
of  Gravellona  (p.  69;  motor-omnibus,  see  p.  192). 

Crossing  the  Tosa  by  a  three-arched  iron  bridge,  160  yds.  long, 
at  Feriolo  (p.  198),  the  train  now  reaches  the  Lago  Maggiore.  — 
Between  the  tunnels  beyond  (47  M.)  Baveno  (p.  198)  we  obtain,  to 
the  left,  a  charming  *View  of  the  Borromean  Islands  (p.  199),  in 
the  middle  of  the  W.  bay  of  the  lake,  and  of  Suna  and  Pallanza  on 
the  opposite  bank.  —  50  :M.  Strem  (p.  200);  53Vo  M.  Belairate 
(p.  201);  541/2  M.  Lesa  (p.  201);  57  M.  Meina  (p.  201).  All  these 
are  also  steamboat-stations  fcomp.  p.  201). 

60  M.  Arona,  see  p.  201.  —  Arena  is  the  junction  for  lines  to 
Turin  \ia  Santhia  (R.  15)  and  to  Genoa  via  Novara  (R.  30). 

Our  line  now  rounds  the  S.  end  of  the  Lago  Maggiore  and  crosses 
the  Ticino  by  the  bridge  mentioned  on  p.  189.  —  631/2  M.  Sesto 
Calende  (p.  189)  is  the  junction  for  the  line  to  Bellinzona  and  Genoa. 

68  M.  Vergiate.  —  VOi/o  M.  Somma  Lomhardo  (920  ft.),  with  a 
venerable  cypress  95  ft.  in  height,  lies  near  the  E.  bank  of  the  Ticino 
(Ticinus),  where  Hannibal  overthrew  P.  Cornelius  Scipio  in  B.C. 
218.  On  the  neighbouring  heath  (brughiera)  is  a  large  manoeuvre- 
ground,  with  a  camp.  —  721/2  M.  Casorate  Sempione. 

75  M.  Gallarate  (780  ft.;  Alb.  Leon  d'Oro),  a  town  with  9600  in- 
hab.,  at  the  S.E.  base  of  a  range  of  hills  bounding  the  Lombard 
plain,  contains  the  Romanesque  church  of  San  Pietro  (11th  cent.) 
and  a  technical  school,  and  carries  on  manufactures  of  textile  fabrics. 
It  is  the  junction  for  the  electric  railway  from  Milan  to  Porto  Ceresio 
(H.  28)  and  for  a  branch-line  to  Laveno  (comp.  p.  185). 

At  Vizzola,  6  M.  to  the  W.  of  Gallarate,  beyond  the  heath  mentioned 
above,  are  very  large  -Electric  Works  (18,000  horse-power),  erected  on 
the  Ticino  in  189S-1901.  Water-power  is  conducted  hither  from  the  dam 
at  Somma  Lombardo  (see  above)  by  means  of  the  Canale  Industrial e,  41/2  M. 
in  length.  Klectric  power  is  distributed  from  this  centre  to  Sesto  Calende, 
Gallarate,  Saronno,  and  other  neighbouring  places.  —  Another  electric 
work,  at  Tornaienio,  1  M.  to  the  S.W.  of  Gallarate,  supplies  the  current 
for  the  electric  railway  to  Porto  Ceresio. 

791/2  ^'  ^usto  Arsizio  (Alb.  del  Vapore),  a  town  with  17,600  in- 
hab.  and  cotton-factories.  The  domed  church  of  Santa  Maria,  built 
in  1517  by  Lonati  from  Bramante's  designs,  contains  frescoes  by 
Gaud.  Ferrari.    Branch-line  to  Novara  and  Seregno  (p.  68). 

821/2  M.  Legnano  (650  ft.;  18,300  iuhab.),  with  cotton-factories 
and  machine -.•shops,  where  Frederick  Barbarossa  was  defeated  by 
the  Milanese  in  1176,  an  event  commemorated  by  a  large  monu- 
ment, by  E.  Butti  (1900),  in  the  Piazza  Federico  Barbarossa.  The 
church  of  San  Magno,  ascribed  to  Bramante,  contains  a  large  altar- 
piece,  one  of  the  best  works  of  Luini. 

91  M.  Ehb  (520  ft. ;  p.  68) ,  with  silk-factories  and  the  church 
of  the  Madonna  dei  Miracoli  by  Pellegrino  Tibaldl  (1584;  facade 
1721,  dome  1752-65).  —  96  M.  Musocco  (p.  161). 

100  M.  Milan,  see  p.  128. 


3.  From  Lucerne  (Bale)  to  Lugano,  Como,  and  Milan. 
St.  Gotthard  Railway. 

173  M.  Express  in  6  hrs.  (1st  cl.  only  ;  customs-examination  in  the 
train);   fast  train  (some  1st  <fe  3rd  cl.  only)   in  6V2-'^V'i  hrs.  (fares  36  fr.  5, 

25  fr.  30,  17  fr.  Soc);  ordinary  train  in  II-II3/4  hrs.  (customs-examination 
at  Chiasso).  —  At  Arih-Ooldau  (see  below)  this  line  is  joined  by  the  branch 
from  Ziirich  (V/t-V/i  hr.).  —  A  dining-car  is  attached  to  the  express 
train  (dej.  4,  D.  5  fr.)  and  also  (as  far  as  Chiasso)  to  the  afternoon  fast 
train  (dej.  3V2,  D.  4  fr.).  The  night  express  has  a  sleeping-carriage.  A 
table-d'hote  dinner  (3V2  fr.,  inclad.  wine)  for  passengers  by  the  day-train 
is  provided  at  Gceschenen,  where  the  traveller  should  be  careful  to  avoid 
an  involuntary  change  of  carriages ,  or  even  of  trains.  —  Finest  views 
from  Lucerne  to  Fliielen  on  the  right,  from  FlUelen  to  GoBschenen  on  the 
left,  from  Ariolo  to  Eellinzona  to  the  right,  and  from  Lugano  to  Como  to 
the  left.  —  The  "Steamboat  Voyage  on  the  Lake  of  Lucerne  from  Lucerne 
to  Fliielen  (2'/4-25/4  hrs.)  is  much  pleasanter  than  the  railway-journey 
(I-I1/2  hr.)  and  is  recommended  to  those  who  are  not  pressed  for  time. 
Comp.   Baedeker's  Switzerland. 

The  *St.  Gotthard  Railway  was  constructed  in  1872-82,  at  a  total  cost 
of  245  million  francs.  Its  highest  point  is  in  the  middle  of  the  great  tunnel 
and  is  3787  ft.  above  the  level  of  the  sea.    The  inclines  (maximum  gradient 

26  :  1000)  have  been  surmounted  partly  by  large  spiral  tunnels,  of  which 
there  are  three  on  the  N.  side  of  the  St.  Gotthard  and  four  on  the  S.  In 
all  the  railway  has  80  tunnels  (with  an  aggregate  length  of  29  M.)  and 
324  bridges  over  30  ft.  in  span.  The  great  tunnel  alone  cost  nearly  57  million 
francs.  Louit  Favre ,  the  engineer,  died  of  apoplexy  in  the  tunnel  on 
July  19th,  1879. 

Lucerne.  —  Hotels.  Schweizerhof&Ldzeener  Hof;  Hotel  National  ; 
Palace  Hotel;  BBAnKiVAGE;  Edrope  ;  Angletekke  ;  Swan  &  Rigi,  all  on 
the  lake.  —  Hotel  dd  Lac,  St.  Gotthard,  31onopole  et  MtTROPOLE,  all 
near  the  station.  —  Sauvage,  Rcessli,  Engel,  unpretending. 

Lucerne  (1437  ft.),  the  capital  of  tlie  canton  of  that  name,  with 
33,400  iiihah.,  is  beautifully  situated  at  the  efflux  of  the  Eeuss 
from  the  Lake  of  Lucerne.  The  best  view  is  obtained  from  the 
Giltsch  (1722  ft.),  at  the  N.W.  end  of  the  town,  1/2  M.  from  the 
station  (cable-railway).  Near  the  station  is  the  Museum  of  Peace  and 
War.  The  celebrated  Lion  of  Lucerne,  designed  by  Thorvaldsen, 
and  the  Glacier  Garden,  with  numerous  'glacier- mills',  lie  1/4  M. 
to  the  N.  of  the  Schweizerhof-Quai.  For  details,  see  Baedekers 

The  railway  skirts  Lucerne  in  two  tunnels  and  then  runs  towards 
the  Kiissnacht  arm  of  the  Lake  of  Lucerne.  The  view  is  very  fine, 
with  the  Rigi  rising  in  front  of  us.  —  12  M.  Immensee  (1520  ft.),  on 
the  Lake  of  Zug;  I71/2  M.  Arth-Goldau  (see  above).  Beyond  (25  M.) 
Brunnen  the  line  reaches  the  Urner  See  or  E.  arm  of  the  Lake  of 
Lucerne,  along  which  it  runs  through  a  succession  of  tunnels. 

Beyond  (32  M.)  Fluelen  (1435  ft.  ;  Weisses  Kreuz,  Adler,  etc.) 
the  train  ascends  the  broad  valley  of  the  Eeuss,  via  (38  M.)  Erst- 
feld.  —  The  most  interesting  part  of  the  railway  begins  at  (411/2  M.) 
Amsteg-Silenen  (1760  ft.).  The  train  crosses  the  Kaerstelenhach  by 
an  imposing  bridge,  commanding  a  view  of  the  Maderaner-Tal,  to 
the  left,  and  of  the  Reuss-Tal ,  to  the  right,  and  is  then  carried 
through  the  slope  of  the  Bristenstock  (10,085  It.)  by  means  of  two 

AIROLO.  3.  Route.     7 

tunnels,  and  across  the  Reuss  by  an  iron  bridge,  256  ft.  high.  We 
now  follow  the  left  bank  of  the  picturesque  Reuss  valley,  traverse 
a  tunnel,  cross  the  Inschialp-Bach  and  the  Zgraggen-Tal,  and  skirt 
the  mountain  through  three  tunnels  and  over  a  viaduct. 

Beyond  (50  M.)  Gurtnellen  (2300  ft.}  the  train  crosses  the  Gor- 
neren-Back  and  the  Haegrigen-Bach,  enters  the  Pfaffenspning  Spiral 
Tunnel  (1635  yds.  long;  115  ft.  of  ascent),  and  cros^-es  the  Lower 
Meienreuss  Bridge.  Beyond  the  Wattinger  Spiral  Tunnel  (1199  yds. 
long;  76  ft.  of  ascent)  the  train  again  crosses  the  Reuss  and  pene- 
trates another  tunnel  to  — 

51  M.  Wasen  (3050  ft.),  a  considerable  village,  the  church  of 
which,  owing  to  the  windings  of  the  railway,  seems  constantly  to 
shift  its  position.  The  imposing  Middle  Meienreuss  Bridge  (260  ft. 
high)  and  the  Leggistein  Spiral  Tunnel  (1204  yds.  long,  82  ft.  of 
ascent)  now  carry  us  to  the  Upper  Meienreuss  Bridge,  where  we  cross 
the  wild  and  deep  ravine  of  the  Meienreuss  for  the  third  time. 
Passing  through  another  tunnel  and  skirting  the  face  of  the  moun- 
tains, we  obtain  a  view  of  W"asen,  far  below  us,  and  of  the  windings 
just  traversed.  Opposite  rises  the  Rienzer  Stock  (9785  ft.  ].  We 
next  cross  two  fine  bridges,  penetrate  the  Naxherg  Tunnel  (1  M. 
long),  and,  immediately  beyond  the  village  o^  Goeschenen,  cross  the 
deep  gorge  of  the  Goeschenen- Reuss  (view  of  the  Goeschenen-Tal 
to  the  right,  with  the  beautiful  Dammafirn~). 

56  M.  Goeschenen  (3640  ft. ;  *Rail.  Restaurant,  comp.  p.  6). 

Immediately  beyond  the  station  the  train  crosses  the  Gotthard 
Reuss  and  enters  the  great  St.  Gotthard  Tunnel,  which  runs  nearly 
due  S.,  5-6000  ft.  below  the  highest  point  of  the  mountain.  The 
tunnel  is  16,309  yds.  or  about  9'/4  M.  in  length,  28  ft.  wide,  and 
21  ft.  high,  and  is  laid  with  a  double  line  of  rails.  Trains  take 
14-25  min.  to  pass  through  it.  —  Above  the  S.  end  of  the  tunnel, 
to  tlie  right,  are  some  new  fortifications. 

66  M.  Airolo  ( 3865 ft.),  in  the  upper  TicinoValley,  was  injured  by 
a  landslip  in  1898.  The  scenery  here  still  retains  an  Alpine  character. 

Beyond  Airolo  the  train  crosses  the  Ticino,  passes  through  the 
Stalvidro  Tunnel,  and  enters  the  Stretto  di  Stalvedro.  The  valley 
expands  near  (70  M.)  Ambri-Piotta  (3250  ft.).  —  Beyond  (73  M.) 
Rodi-  Fiesso  (3100  ft.)  the  Monte  Biottino  (Platifer)  projects  into 
the  valley  on  the  N.  The  Ticino  descends  the  gloomy  gorge  in  a 
series  of  waterfalls.  The  railway  crosses  the  gorge,  passes  through 
two  short  tunnels,  and  enters  the  Freggio  Spiral  Tunnel  (1  M.  in 
length),  from  which  we  emerge,  118  ft.  lower,  in  the  Piottino  Gorge. 
We  again  cross  the  Ticino  in  the  midst  of  the  grandest  scenery,  and 
then  thread  two  short  tunnels,  the  Prato  Spiral  Tunnel  (1  M.  long; 
118  ft.  of  descent),  and  another  short  tunnel,  beyond  which  we  enjoy 
a  view  of  the  beautiful  valley  of  Faido,  with  its  fine  chestnut-trees. 
Crossing  the  Ticino  and  going  through  another  tunnel,  we  reach  — 

78  M.  Faido  (2365  ft.),  the  capital  of  the  Leventina,  thoroughly 

8     Route  3.  BELLINZONA.  From  Lucerne 

Italian  in  character.  On  the  right  the  Piumogna  descends  in  a 
fine  waterfall.  —  The  train  now  follows  the  left  bank  of  the  Ticino, 
traversing  a  beautiful  district,  richly  wooded  with  walnut  and  chest- 
nut trees.  Cascades  descend  from  the  abrupt  cliffs  on  either  side, 
one  of  the  finest  being  the  fall  of  the  Cribiasca^  a  little  short  of 
(82  M.)  Lavorgo  (2030  ft.). 

Farther  on  the  Ticino  forces  its  way  through  the  Biaschina  Rav- 
ine to  a  lower  region  of  the  valley  and  forms  a  beautiful  waterfall. 
The  railway  descends  ou  the  left  bank  by  means  of  two  spiral  tun- 
nels, one  below  the  other  in  corkscrew  fashion  :  viz.  the  Fianotondo 
Tunnel  (9/,o  M,  long;  115  ft.  of  descent),  and  the  Travi  Tunnel 
(nearly  1  M,  long;  118ft.  of  descent). 

The  train  has  now  reached  the  lower  zone  of  the  Valle  Leventina, 
and  crosses  and  recrosses  the  Ticino  on  either  side  of  (87  M.)  Oior- 
nico  (1480  ft.).  —  91  M.  Bodio  (1090  ft.).  —  The  Brenno  descends 
from  the  Val  Blcnio  on  the  left  to  join  the  Ticino. 

94  M.  Biasca  (970  ft.),  with  an  old  Romanesque  church  on  a  hill. 
—  102  M.  Clara  (830  ft.),  at  the  foot  of  the  Pizzo  di  Claro  (8920  ft,). 
Beyond  (104  M.)  Castione  the  train  passes  the  mouth  of  the  Val 
Mesocco  (Bernardino  route)  and  crosses  the  Moesa.  The  train  then 
passes  through  a  tunnel  beyond  which  we  obtain  a  magnificent  view 
of  Bellinzona. 

106  M.  Bellinzona  (760  ft. ;  *Rail'way  Restaurant,  D.  incl.  wine 
31/2  fr. ;  Hot.  Suisse  et  Poste,  ^/^  M.  from  the  station,  R.  from  2, 
B.  11/4,  de'j.  21/2,  D.  4,  omn.  1/2  ft-;  Cervo,  R.  IV2-2V2,  B.  1  fr.; 
Hot.  International,  at  the  station,  R.  from  11/2^^-^)  ^^^  capital  of  the 
canton  of  Ticino,  a  thoroughly  Italian  town  with  5000  inhab.,  is  the 
junction  for  Locarno  (p.  191)  and  Luino  (p.  189).  Above  it  rise 
three  picturesque  castles  built  about  1445  by  Fil.  Maria  Visconti 
(p.  127):  the  Castello  San  Michele,  to  the  W.,  the  Castello  Monte- 
hello,  and  the  Castello  Corbario,  to  the  E. 

Ascent  of  the  Monte  Camoglii  from  Bellinzona  via  Giubiasco,  see  p.  14. 

The  railway  to  Lugano  and  Milan  passes  through  a  tunnel 
(300  yds.)  below  the  Castello  Montebello.  —  At  (108  M.)  Giu- 
biasco the  railways  to  the  Lago  Maggiore  (p.  191)  diverge  to  the 
right.  Our  line  approaches  the  foot  of  the  mountains,  and  ascends 
the  slopes  of  Monte  Ceneri  (4125  ft.).  Cadenazzo  (p.  191)  lies  below 
on  the  right.  Three  tunnels.  *View  of  the  Ticino  Valley  and  the 
N.  end  of  the  Lago  Maggiore,  improving  as  we  ascend.  The  train 
then  penetrates  the  Monte  Ceneri  (Hot.  du  Monte  Ceneri,  pens. 
6-9  fr.)  by  means  of  a  curved  tunnel  (1  M.  long),  1435  ft.  above  the 
sea-level.  At  the  S.  end  of  the  tunuel ,  in  a  sequestered  valley, 
lies  (116  M.)  Rivera-Bironico  (1420  ft.).  The  train  then  descends 
the  smiling  valley  of  the  Agno  to  (120  M.)  Taverne  (1130  ft.; 
p.  15).  —  Beyond  Lamone  (1033  ft.)  the  train  quits  the  Agno, 
threads  the  Massagno  Tunnel  (1135  ft,  above  the  sea),  and  reaches 
the  Lago  di  Lugano  (p.  182), 

OPograph  Anstalt 

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io  D  3 

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Wagner  A  Brtes   Leipiif 

to  Como.  LUGANO.  3.  Route.     9 

124  M.  Lugano.  —  The  Eailway  Station  (1110ft.;  PI.  C,  2;  "Restau- 
rant,  fl^j.  2V2>  D.  31/2  fr.;  view,  see  p.  12)  is  connected  with  the  town  by 
a  road,  a  shorter  footpath,  and  a  Cable  Teamway  (Funicolare),  at  the  S. 
end  of  the  station  (fares:  up  30  or  20  c.,  down  15  or  10  c. ;  lower  ter- 
minu*!  in  Via  Francesco  Soave,  behind  the  Piazza  della  Riforma).  —  The 
Steamboats  (to  Porto  Ccresio,  for  Varese  and  Milan,  see  RE  27,  28,  to 
Ponte  Tresa,  for  the  Lago  Maggiore,  and  to  Porlezza,  for  the  Lago  di 
Como,  see  p.  182;  to  Capolago,  on  the  Generoso  Railway,  see  p.  15)  have 
four  piers:  Vtigano  -  Centrale  (PI.  C,  3).  the  main  station,  on  the  Piazza 
Giardino  (two  landing-stage?),  Lugctno-Piazzn  Gtiglielmo  Tdl(V\.  C,  4;  near 
the  Grand  Hotel),  Lugano- Par adiso  (PI.  B.  6),  for  Paradiso  (p.  12)  and  the 
Mte.  San  Salvatore,  and  Lugano  Custagnola  (PI.  G,  4),  for  Cassarate  and 
Castagnola  (p.  13).  Only  the  main  station  is  touched  at  on  every  journey. 
—  Motor  Boats  between  Lugano  and  Paradiso  every  hour. 

Hotels  (in  spring  rooms  should  be  secured  in  advance).  The  chief  hotels 
send  omnibuses  to  meet  the  trains  and  steamers.  On  the  Lake:  "Grand 
Hotel  (PI.  a;  B,  C,  4),  Piazza  Guglielmo  Tell,  with  restaurant  and  garden 
(band  thrice  a  day),  R.  from  5,  B.  I'/z,  dej.  4,  D.  G.  omn.  IV2,  pens,  from 
12  fr. ;  'Grand  Hotel  Splendidb  (PI.  c;  E,  5),  Via  Antonio  Caccia,  on 
the  road  to  Paradiso,  with  small  garden  on  the  lake,  frequented  by  English 
and  Americans,  R.  5-10,  B.  l*/.',  dej.  4,  D.  5,  omn.  I'/s,  pens,  from  12  fr. ; 
Hot.  du  Parc-BeadsiiJour  (PI.  b;  B,  4),  with  garden,  R.  from  4,  B.  l'/2, 
dej.  4,  D.  5,  omn.  IV2,  pens,  from  10  fr.  —  °Hot.-Pens.  Bellevce  au  Lao 
(PI.  h;  A,  5),  Via  Antonio  Caccia,  R.  3-6,  B.  IV2,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens,  from 
71/2,  omn.  l'/2  fr. ;  Regina  Hotel  (formerly  Villa  Ceresio;  PI.  re;  C,  4), 
Piazza  Guglielmo  Tell,  R.  from  3,  B.  1'/^,  dt^j.  0V2,  D.  5,  pens,  from  8  fr., 
both  with  garden.  All  these  have  lifts  and  steam-heating.  —  Second  Class: 
•Hot.-Pens.  Lugano  (PI.  e;  C,  3),  on  the  quay,  with  a  restaurant  and 
small  garden,  R.  3-6,  B.  i'/z,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  7-12,  omn.  1  fr.,  Italian; 
Hot.  International  ac  Lac,  Piazza  Guglielmo  Tell,  with  lift  and  steam- 
heating,  R.  from  31/2,  B.  11/2,  dej.  3,  D.  3'/2  fr.  (opened  in  1906);  "Hot.- 
Peks.  Victoria,  Via  Antonio  Caccia,  with  small  garden,  R.  21/2-3V2,  B.  I1/4, 
dej.  21/2,  n.  3-3V2,  pens.  6V2-8V2,  omn.  1  fr. ;  'Hot.  Pfister  Belvedere 
(PI.  1 ;  C,  4),  Piazza  Guglielmo  Tell,  with  beer-restaurant  and  small  terrace 
on  the  lake,  R.  2V2-4,  B.  11/4,  D.  S'/v,  S.  21/2,  pens.  7-12  fr. ;  Hotel  Garni 
Walter  (PI.  p;  C,  3),  with  restaurant  (see  p.  10),  R.  2-4.  B.  I'/i  fr. ; 
Hot. -Restaurant  Americana,  Piazza  Giavdino,  R.  2-3,  B.  I1/4,  dej.  2V2, 
D.  3,  pens,  from  772  fr. ;  Beausite  Hot.  de  la  Fontaine,  Piazza  Kizziero 
Rezzonico  (PI.  C,  3),  R.  from  2,  B.  1,  dej.  2,  D.  2V2,  pens,  from  5  fr.,  both 
with  steam-heating,  for  passing  tourists. 

In  the  Town:  Hot.  Suisse  (PL  g;  D,  31,  Via  Canova,  R.  21/2-31/2,  B.  11/4, 
dej.  2'/2,  D.  3,  pens.  6-10,  omn.  ^/i  fr. ;  Hot.  Garni  Central,  Via  Canova, 
next  the  post-office,  with  cafe-restaurant,  I!.  21/2  fr. ;  Pension  Zweifel, 
Via  Cattedrale,  pens.  5  fr.  —  JVear  the  Station.  To  the  S.:  'Hot.  MStropolb 
&  Monopole  (PI.  x;  B,  4),  with  lift,  R.  4-9,  B.  I1/2,  dej.  31/2,  B.  5,  pens. 
9-18,  omn.  from  1  f r. ;  'Hot.  Bristol  (PI.  y;  B,  3,  4),  with  lift,  R.  4-8, 
B.  11/2,  dej.  312,  D.  5,  pens.  8-15  fr. ;  Hotel  St.  Gotthard -Terminus 
(PL  k;  C,  3),  R.  21/2-fi,  B.  11/2.  dej.  3-3i/2,  D.  4-41/2,  omn.  V4-IV2,  pens. 
7-12  fr.;  'Hot.-Pens.  Berna  et  Bella- Vista  (PI.  r;  C,  3),  R.  3-6,  B.  I'A, 
d^j.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  7-12  fr.,  all  four  with  steam-heating,  gardens,  and  fine 
view.  To  the  W.  behind  the  railwav  lines:  Hot.-Pens.  Beau-Regard  et 
Continental  (PL  i;  B,  3),  E.  from  3,'B.  I1/2,  dej.  31/2,  D.  41/2,  pens,  from 
8  fr.,  with  garden;  Pens.  Villa  Minerva,  with  garden,  pens.  Irom  7  fr. , 
very  fair;  Kohlers  Hotel  Garni,  with  restaurant,  R.  2-3,  B.  1,  D.  11/2-3, 
S.  11/2-21/2,  pens.  6-7  fr. ;  Hot.  Lucerne  (PL  z;  B,  2),  R.  I1/2-21/2.  B.  1  fr., 
plain.  To  the  N.  :  Hotel  Washington  (PL  d  ;  C,  1),  E.  from  21/2,  B.  I1/2, 
dt5j.  3,  D.  4,  pens,  from  7  omn.  1  fr.  ;  Hut.-Pens.  Seeger  (PL  o;  C,  2), 
Via  al  Cclle,  E.  21/2-5.  B.  V/i,  U.  31/2,  S.  21/2,  pens.  7-10  fr.  ;  Hotel-Pens. 
Erica  (PL  q ;  C,  2),  E.  2-4,  B.  I1/4,  D.  31/2,  S.  21/2,  pens.  6-9  fr. ;  Hot.- 
Pens.  Oberland,  at  Massagno  (PL  C,  1),  R.  11/2-21/2,  B.  1,  D.  21/2,  S.  2, 
pens.  5-7  fr.,  all  with  gardens.  Below  the  station,  to  the  E.:  Hotel  de 
LA  ViLLE  KT  Pens.  Bon-Air  (PL  s;  C,  2),  R.  2-3,  B.  11/4,  dej.  21/2,  D.  3-4, 


Route  3.  LUGANO.  From  Lucerne 

omn.  1,  pens.  5-7  fr. ;  Hot.  de  la  Croix  Blanche,  I!.  1V2-2,  B.  IV4,  I>.  2«/2- 
3  fr. ;  Hotel  Milan  et  Tkois  Suisses  (PI.  t;  C,  2),  with  the  de'pendance 
H6t.  de  la  Gave,  R.  IV2-2V2,  B.  IV4,  D.  3,  S.  2V2,  pens.  6-7  fr.,  well  spoken 
of,  all  three  unpretending;  Pens.  Induni,  5-6  fr.  —  At  Loreto  (PI.  B,  4): 
Pens.  Lobeto,  high  up. 

At  Paradiso  (p.  12),  V*  ^^-  to  the  S.:  *Grand  Hotkl  de  l'Eorope  (PI.  v; 

A,  6),  R.  31/2-10,  B.  IV2,  dej.  31/2,  D.  5,  pens.  9-18.  omn.  lV2fr.,  Hot.  de  la 
Paix,  R.  from  31/2,  B.  IV2,  dcj.  31/2,  U.  5,  pens,  from  8  fr.  (opened  in  1906), 
*Hot.  Reichmann  au  Lac  (PI.  n;  B,  6),  a  new  building  with  two  de'pen- 
dances,  frequented  by  Germans,  R.  3-7,  B.  IV2,  D-  4,  S.  3,  pens.  8-14,  omn. 
from  1  fr.  (closed  from  the  middle  nf  Nov.  till  the  middle  of  Feb.), 
all  three  with  lifts  and  steam-heating;  "Hot.  Beau-Rivage  (PI.  ni;  A,  B,  6), 
with  steam-heating,  R.  3-6,  B.  IV2,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  71/2-I2,  omn.  from 
1  fr. ;  Hut. -Pens.  Villa  Won-Bi.iuu,  with  restaurant,  pens,  from  8  fr. ; 
Hot.  des  Anglais,  E.  from  3.  B.  l'/2,  dt^i.  3,  D.  5,  pens,  from  8  fr  ;  "'Hot.- 
Pens.  Villa  Carmen  (PI.  u;  B,  6),  R.  21/2-5,  B.  I1/2,  dej.  2i/2,D.  31/2,  pens. 
6-10,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Hot.  dd  Lac,  with  terrace  on  the  lake,  steam-heating, 
and  cafe-restaurant,  B.  from  21/2,  pens,  from  6  fr. ;  *'H6t.-Pens.  Sommer 
(Pl.  w;  A,  t.),  R.  from  31/2,  B.  li/z,  dej.  31/2,  D.  41/2,  pens,  frnm  81/2  fr.; 
Hot  -Pens.  B.«r,  with  steam-heating,  R.  2-4,  pens.  6-81/2  fr.,  "Hot. -Pens. 
Meister,  R.  21/2-4,  B.  11/4,  D.  31/2,  S.  21/2,  pens.  6V2-IO,  omn.  from  1  fr., 
Hot.  de  Zurich,  B.  from  2,  E.  11/4,  D.  3,  S.  21/2,  pens,  from  6  fr.,  Hot.- 
Pens.  Pakadiso  (PI.  p;  A,  6),  B.  2-3,  B.  1,  D.  3,  pens.  5-61/2  fr.,  all  four 
near  the  Salvatore  station;  Hot. -Pens.  Palmen,  pens.  51/2-7  fr. ;  Pens. 
Violetta;  Pkns.  Villa  Flora;  Pens.  Villa  Daheiji;  Pens.  Federico; 
Pens.  Rebek.  —  In  the  Via  Geretta  (PL  A,  5,  6):  Grand  Hot.  des  Etkangers 
et  do  Casino  (W.  B.  Voi/lf),  R.  from  3,  B.  I1/2,  ddj.  3,  D.  5,  pens,  from 
8  fr.  (opened  in  autumn  19()6);  Pens.    Gekber,  with  garden. 

In  Casmrate  (p.  13),  ^ji  M.  to  the  E.  of  Lugano:  *H6t.-Pens.  Villa 
Castagnola   (PI.    f;   G,   3|)  ,    with    steam -heating   and   garden,    R.   21/2-6, 

B.  11/2,  D.  33/4,  S.  2V4,  pens.  7-121/2,  omn.  I1/2  fr. ;  Pens.  Villa  du  Midi 
(PI.  G,  4,  5),  1/3  M.  farther  on,  near  the  steamboat-pier,  pens.  41/2-5  fr., 
very  fair.  —  In  Castagnola  (p.  13),  in  a  Punny,  sheltered  position  to  the 
S.:  Pens.  Villa  Moritz  (I'l.  mo;  H,  6),  with  steam-heating  and  restaurant 
(p.  13),  pens.  6-8  fr.  (closed  in  July  and  Augnsl),  very  fair;  Pens.  Livadia 
(PI.  li;  H,  5,  0))  from  6  fr. ;  Pens.  Villa  Helvetia,  from  5  fr.  —  On  the 
Via  Casiatisio  (p.  14),  to  the  N. :  Pens.  Villa  Staoffer,  41/2-71/2  fr. ;  Pens. 
Castausio.  —  In  Davesco  (p.  14):  Hot. -Pens.  Castello  di  Davesco  (1378  ft.), 
with  sanatorium  and  large  park,  R.  3-5,  B.  I1/4.  D.  4,  S.  3,   pens.  7-12  fr. 

Restaurants  at  the  'HOt-  Lugano  (p.  9);  Trattoria  Biaggi  (also  rooms 
and  board),  to  the  W.  of  the  Piazza  delta  Riforma,  on  the  way  to  the 
cable-railway,  Kalian.  —  In  Paradiso  (p.  12):  "Cafi-Reslauvanl  de  faris, 
with  terrace  on  the  lake  and  reading-room,  dej.  21/2,  B.  31/2  fr. 

Beer:  Walter,  see  p.  9  (Munich  beer),  D.  21/2  fr.,  much  frequented; 
^'BSl.  Pfister  Belvedere  (p.  9;  Munich  beer);  Saal,  Piaz7a  della  Riforma; 
Theatre  ReUaurant. 

Cafes.  Biriera ,  on  the  quay,  near  Hot.  Lugano ;  Jacchini ,  Centrale, 
both  in  the  Piazza  Giardino;  Continental,  Piazza  Guglielmo  Tell;  Caf^  de 
Paris  (.see  above),  U6t.  du  Lac  (fee  above).  Pens.  Villa  Flora  (see  above), 
all  three  in  Paradiso.  —  Confectioners:  Cafi'  Riviera  (see  above);  Forster, 
Via  Canova,  beside  the  post-office;  Pens.  Violetta  (see  above),  in  Paradiso. 

Lake  Baths  {Bagno  Puhblico;  PI.  B,  5),  on  the  Paradiso  road  (open 
June-Sept.;  bath  20c.,  box  60  c,  dress  and  towels  20  c).    Warm  Baths  at 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office,  Via  Canova  (PI.  D,  3),  in  Puradiso  (PI.  B,  6), 
Cassarate,  and  Castagnola. —  Physicians,  Dr.  Cornelis,  Dr.Reali,  Dr.  Zbinden, 
Dr.  Michel,  Dr.  Ferri.  —  Dentist,  Ed.  Winzeler.  —  Bookseller  (also  photo- 
graphs), Arnold.  Piazza  Giardino.  —  English  Goods  (groceries,  tea-room,  etc.) : 
The  British  Trading  Company,  Piazza  del  Commercio. 

Moneychangers:  Banca  della  Svizzera  Italiana,  Piazza  Giardino;  Banca 
Canton'de  Ticinese,  Banca  Popolare,  both  in  the  Piazza  della  Kiforma-  — 
Tourist  Agency  (also  sleeping-car  agency)  in  the  kiosque  on  the  Piazza 
Guglielmo  Tell  (closed  in  winter). 

to  Como.  LUGANO.  3.  Route.     11 

Theatre.  Te.atro  Apollo  (P!.  D,  3),  Quay  Giocondo  AlbertoUi;  opei-as 
and  dramas  occasionally  in  winter,  in  the  tourist- season  concerts  thrice 
daily  and  variety-iieil'ormances  in  the  evening. 

Electric  Tramways  (10  c.)  from  the  Piazza  Giardino  everv  20  min.  to  (S.) 
Paradiso  (PI.  E.  G),  or  the  Salvatore  Station  (PI.  A,  6),  (E.)  Casiarate  (PI.  G.  4), 
and  (N.)  MoUtio  Nuovo  (PI.  K,  1). 

Carriage  in  the  town  incl.  Paradiso  and  Cassarate,  with  one  horse) 
1-2  pers.  i'/zj  3  pers.  2,  with  two  horses,  1-2  pars.  2^/4  fr.,  each  addit.  pers- 
75  c.  more;  per  hour,  with  one  3,  with  two  horses  6  fr.,  for  a  drive 
of  more  than  2  hrs.  each  addit.  V4  hr.  1/2  and  1  fr.  more.  Small  articles 
of  luggage  free ;  trunk  50  c.  —  To  Casiagnola  and  back  3,  4,  or  6  fr. ;  to 
Montagnola  and  back  7,  8,  or  14  fr. ;  to  Agra  and  back  8,  9,  or  15  fr.  -,  to 
Corona  and  back  12,  14,  or  20  fr. ;  to  Somico  and  back  9,  10,  or  16  fr.  — 
Drive  round  the  Mte.  San  Salvatore  (p.  13)  via  Pambio,  Figino,  Morcote, 
and  Melide  (21/2  hrs.),  one-horse  carr.  8  or  9,  two-horse  15  fr. ;  to  Comano 
via  Porza,  returning  via  Canobbio  ('Giro  del  Piccolo  San  Bernardo'),  7,  8, 
or  12  fr. ;  to  Tesserete  and  Ponte  Capriasca  ('Giro  del  Gran  San  Bernardo'), 
9,  10,  or  18  fr. 

Diligence  (announcements  at  the  post-office)  several  times  daily  to 
Agra,  Carona,  Tesserete,  Sonvico,  JIaglio  di  Colla,  Xovaggio,  Sessa,  etc.  — 
Motor-Omnibus  to  Ponte  Tresa  (p.  18i). 

Rowing  Boat  with  one  rower  2  fr.  (1-2  pers.  1^/4  fr.),  with  two  rowers 
3  fr.  for  the  first  hour,  each  addit.  1/2  t""-  V<  (V2)  '^^  1  fr.,  with  gratuity  of 
10«/n;  to  Caprino  or  CavaUino,  with  1  hr's.  stay,  6  fr.  (1-2  pers.  41/4  fr.)-  — 
Motor  Boat,  5  fr.  per  hour.  —  Sailing  Boat,  SV*  fr.  for  the  first  hour, 
each  addit.  1/2  hr.  i'/z  fr. 

English  Church  (St.  Edward's;  PI.  B,  4),  Via  Geretta;  services  at  10.30, 
11.30,  and  3.30;  chaplain  Rev.  Jas.  Payne,  Hotel  Bristol. 

Lugano  (905  ft.) ,  the  largest  and  busiest  town  in  the  Swiss 
canton  of  Ticino,  with  9400  inhab.,  is  charmingly  situated  on  the 
lake  of  the  same  name,  and  is  a  very  pleasant  place  for  a  lengthened 
stay,  especially  as  a  transition -stage  on  the  way  farther  south. 
The  winter  temperature  is  somewhat  higher  than  that  of  Montreux 
or  Meran ;  the  heat  of  summer  is  seldom  excessive ;  while  in  spring 
and  autumn  N.  winds  prevail,  from  which,  however,  Castagnola 
(p.  13)  is  somewhat  protected.  The  environs  possess  all  the  charms 
of  Italian  mountain-scenery;  numerous  villages,  churches,  chapels, 
and  country-seats  are  scattered  along  the  banks  of  the  lake ,  and 
the  lower  hills  are  covered  vsith  vineyards  and  gardens,  contrasting 
beautifully  with  the  dark  foliage  of  the  chestnuts  and  walnuts  in 
the  background.  To  the  S.,  immediately  above  the  town,  rises  the 
Monte  San  Salvatore  (p.  13),  wooded  to  its  summit;  to  the  E., 
across  the  lake,  is  the  Monte  Caprino,  to  the  right  is  the  Monte 
Generoso  (p.  16),  to  the  left  are  the  Monte  Bre  fp.  13)  and  the 
beautiful  Monte  Boglia  (p.  14).  On  the  N.  opens  the  broad  valley 
of  the  Cassarate,  backed  by  a  group  of  mountains  among  which  the 
double  peak  of  Monte  Camoghe  (p.  14)  and  the  rugged  Sasso  Grande 
(4880  ft.)  are  conspicuous. 

Near  the  steamboat- pier  of  Lugano-Centrale  lies  the  Piazza 
Giardino  (PI.  G,  D,  3),  an  open  space  beautified  by  pleasure 
grounds  and  a  fountain.  On  its  "W.  side  rises  the  imposing  Palazzo 
Civico  (PI.  C,  3),  erected  in  1844,  with  a  beautiful  colonnaded  court. 
—  A  broad  Quay,  planted  with  trees  and  much  frequented  as  an 

12     Route  3.  LUGANO.  From  Lucerne 

evening-promenade,  stretches,  under  various  names,  along  tlae  lake. 
At  its  E.  end  are  the  Theatre  (p.  11),  and  the  ViUa  Ciani  (Pl.D,  E,  3) 
with  a  shady  park  and  a  marble  statue  of  a  mourning  woman  ('La 
Desolazione')  by  Vincenzo  Vela  (entr.  from  Piazza  dell'  Indipen- 
(lenza  78 ;  '/2-I  fr.  to  the  gardener).  —  In  the  Piazza  Guglielmo  Tell 
(PI.  C,  4),  at  the  S.W.  end  of  the  Quai  Vincenzo  Vela,  is  a  small 
Fountain  Statue  of  Tell,  by  Vela  (1852). 

The  old  conventual  church  of  Santa  Maria  dkgli  Angioli 
(PI.  C,  4),  adjoining  the  Grand  Hotel,  contains  some  good  frescoes 
by  Bernardino  Luini. 

The  badly  lighted  painting  on  the  wall  of  the  screen  (1529),  one  of  the 
largest  ever  executed  by  Luini,  represents  the  "Passion  of  Christ,  and  con- 
tains several  hundred  figures,  arranged  according  to  the  antiquated  style 
in  two  rows.  In  the  foreground,  occupying  the  upper  part  of  the  wall, 
stand  three  huge  crosses ,  at  the  foot  of  which  we  perceive  Roman  war- 
riors, the  groups  of  the  holy  women,  and  St.  John,  and  the  executioners 
casting  lots  for  the  garments.  Above,  on  a  diminished  scale,  from  left  to 
right,  are  Christ  on  the  Mount  of  Olives,  Christ  taken  prisoner,  the 
Mocking  of  Christ,  the  Bearing  of  the  Cross,  the  Entombment,  Thomas's  Un- 
belief, and  the  Ascension,  all  immediately  adjacent.  Although  the  style  of 
the  composition  strikes  one  as  old-fashioned,  the  eye  cannot  fail  to  be 
gratified  by  the  numerous  beautiful  details.  The  St.  Sebastian  and  St.  Rochus, 
below,  between  the  arches,  are  particularly  fine.  —  To  the  left,  on  the 
wall  of  the  church,  is  the  Last  Slipper,  and  in  the  1st  Chapel  on  the  right 
is  a  fine  Madonna,  two  paintings  by  Luini.  The  sacristan  expects  a  small 
fee  (26-30  c). 

The  old  part  of  the  town,  with  its  arcades,  its  shops  and  work- 
shops in  the  open  air,  and  the  granite  wheel-tracks  in  the  streets,  is 
quite  Italian  in  its  character.  —  San  Lorenzo  (PI.  C,  2),  the  principal 
church,  on  a  height  below  the  station,  built  at  the  close  of  the 
15th  cent.,  has  a  tastefully  enriched  marble  fa(;ade  in  the  early- 
Renaissance  style,  probably  by  Tommaso  Rodari  (1517).  —  The 
terrace  in  front  of  the  station  and  the  Torre  Enderlin  (PI.  B,  3),  the 
view-tower  of  the  former  villa  of  that  name,  above  the  Via  Geretta, 
command  an  admirable  *View  of  the  town  and  the  lake. 

There  are  various  pleasant  Walks,  well  provided  with  guide- 
posts  and  benches.  To  the  S.,  on  the  highroad  through  the  suburb 
of  Paradiso  (PI.  A,  B,  6),  and  along  the  foot  of  Mte.  Salvatore,  to  the 
(11/2  M.)  headland  of  San  Martino  (to  Melide,  IV2  M-  farther,  see 
p.  15).  Just  before  reaching  San  Martino,  V2  ^-  beyond  the  terminus 
of  the  tramway  (p.  11),  a  foot-path  with  steps  leads  to  the  right  to 
(5  min.)  the  Belvedere  di  Guidino  (1050  ft.)  which  commands  an- 
other fine  view.  —  To  the  W.  the  shadeless  Ponte  Tresa  road  (PI.  A, 
B,  4,  5;  p.  184)  winds  up  to  the  (II/2  M.)  top  of  the  Colline  d'Oro, 
on  which  lies  the  frequented  Restaurant  du  Jardin  (also  pension). 
The  village  of  Sorengo  (1325  ft.;  Pens,  de  la  Colline  d'Or)  is  reach- 
ed by  a  pretty  footpath  (Viottolo  P.oncaccio),  5  min.  to  the  right  of 
the  station,  and  then  by  a  pergola-walk  in  20  min. ;  fine  view  of 
the  Lake  of  Muzzano  from  behind  the  church  and  from  the  steps  of 
the  adjoining  school.  A  *Carriage-road  leads  from  the  Restaurant 
du  Jardin,  to  the  left,  via  (1  M.)  OentiUno  (1283  ft.),  to  the  con- 

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to  Como.  LUGANO.  3.  Route.     13 

spicuous  church  of  Sunt'  Abbondio  (1345  ft. ;  in  the  graveyard  several 
monuments  by  Vela),  and  thence  via  Certenago  (1417  ft.)  to  (1  M.) 
Montagnola  (1548  it.  ;  Hot.  Rellevue,  plain  but  good);  from  the 
Roccolo  Somazzi,  *  o  M-  above  the  village,  we  obtain  a  view  of  the 
W.  arm  of  the  lake  and  of  the  Monte  Kosa  group  (Itey  at  the  Oasa 
Somazzi  below ;  50  c.  to  the  attendant).  The  walk  may  be  pleasantly 
extended  via  Blijoiina  to  (^j^  hr.)  A(jra  (1835  ft. ;  diligence  see  p.  11), 
on  the  W.  side  of  which  a  shady  wood-path  ('Circolo  del  Monte') 
leads  round  Monte  Croce  (2152  ft.).  From  Gentilino  we  take  the 
direct  route  to  the  N.E.  back  to  Lugano,  via  Montalbano  (PI.  A,  5). 
—  To  the  E.,  from  the  Piazza  dell'  Indipendenza  (PL  D,  3;  p.  12), 
we  may  follow  the  Via  Carlo  Cattaneo,  which  crosses  the  (I/4  M.) 
Cassarate,  to  (8/4  M.)  Cassarate  (PI.  G,  3 ;  electric  tramway,  p.  11),  and 
thence  ascend  gradually  by  the  sunny  highroad  skirting  the  foot  of 
the  Mte.  Bre  to  (3/4  M.J  Cnstagnola  (1080  ft.;  good  restaurant  in  the 
Villa  Moritz,  p.  10),  which  commands  a  fine  view  of  the  central  arm 
of  the  lake.  From  Castagnola  a  hilly  foot-path  leads  thence  along 
the  lake  to  (3  M.)  Gandria  (steamboat  station,  see  p.  183). 

The  most  interesting  excur.-^ion  is  the  'Ascent  of  the  Monte  San  Sal- 
VATOBE,  by  cable-railway  (1800  yds.  long),  from  Paradise  in  V2  hr.  (fare 
3,  down  2,  return-ticket  4,  Sun.  and  holidays  2  fr.,  incl.  R.,  S.,  &  B.  10  fr.). 
The  lower  station  (PI.  A,  6;  920  ft.;  Restaurant,  dej.  3,  D.  4  fr.)  lies  at  the 
terminus  of  the  electric  tramway  (p.  11),  •/*  M.  from  the  steamboat- pier 
Lugano- Paradiso.  —  The  railway,  with  an  initial  gradient  of  17:  100, 
crosses  the  St.  Gotthard  Railway,  traverses  a  viaduct  (110  yds.  long; 
gradient  38: 100)  and  reaches  the  halfway  station  of  Pazzallo  (1625  ft  )  where 
carriages  are  changed.  The  line  now  ascends  over  dolomite  rock,  at  an 
increasing  gradient  (finally  60 :  100),  to  the  terminus  (2895  ft. ;  Hotel  Kulm), 
which  lies  7  min.  below  the  summit  (Vetta)  of  the  Monte  San  Salvatore 
(3(X)0  ft.),  on  which  there  is  a  pilgrimage-chapel.  The  *View  embraces  all 
the  arms  of  the  Lake  of  Lugano,  the  mountains  and  their  wooded  slopes, 
especially  those  above  Lugano,  sprinkled  with  numerous  villas.  To  the  E. 
above  Porlezza  is  Monte  Legnone  (p.  ISO) ;  N.  above  Lugano  the  double 
peak  of  Monte  Camoghe  (p.  14),  to  the  left  of  this  the  distant  Rheinwald 
mountains;  W.  the  chain  of  Monte  Rosa,  with  the  Matterhorn  and  other 
Alps  of  the  Valais.  This  view  is  seen  to  best  advantage  in  the  morning 
(panorama  by  Imfeld).  —  Walkers  (from  Lugano  to  the  top  2  hrs.)  pass 
under  the  Gotthard  line  and  follow  the  road  via  Calprino  to  (1V2  5I.)  Pazzallo 
(1398  ft.).  Here  they  t;ike  one  of  the  passages  marked  'Al  Moute\  and 
then  ascend  by  a  stony  footpath,  crossing  the  funicular  railway,  to  the 
(IV2  hr.)  top.  For  the  descent  they  should  select  the  path  to  (V4  hr.)  Ciona 
(20G5  ft.),  where  they  reach  the  fine  road  leading  from  Pazzallo  to  (i  hr.) 
Carona  (1975  ft.;  quaint  old  church).  From  Carona  a  zigzag  path  descends 
to  the  E.  to  Melide  (p.  15). 

Excursions  may  be  made  also  to  Caprino  and  Cacallino  (steamer  once 
daily  in  summer;  motor-boat  on  Sun..  20  c;  rowing-boat,  see  p.  11)  and 
to  Campione  (steamboat-pier,  see  p.  181),  all  on  the  E.  bank  of  the  central 
arm  of  the  lake.  The  wine-cellars  (Cantine)  in  the  rocky  grottoes  at  the 
foot  of  the  Monte  Caprino  are  much  frequented  on  Sun.  and  holidays  (Asti, 
l'/2  fr.  per  bottle).  These  cellars  are  closed  at  sunset  and  in  winter  they 
are  open  on  3Ion.  and  Frid.  only.  The  garden-restaurant  at  Cavallino  or 
Molino,  to  the  S.  of  the  Cantine,  is  another  popular  resort.  Close  by  is  a 
pretty  waterfall.  —  A  picturesque  but  somewhat  fatiguing  fdotpath  leads 
from  Caprino  and  Cavallino  via  the  high-lying  village  of  Pugerna  (line  view 
of  Lugano)  to  (I'/i  hr.)  Campione  (p.  184),  whence  we  may  proceed  via  (1  M.) 
Bissone  (pp.  15,   184)  and  the  cnibauknient  to  Afelule  (p.  lo). 

14     Route  3.  LUGANO.  From  Lucerne 

The  ascent  of  'Monte  Bre  (3050  ft.),  to  the  E.  of  Lugano,  is  another  easy 
excursion  (up  2-2V2  hrs.,  down  IV2  Jir. ;  guide  needless;  mule  10  fr.). 
We  take  the  electric  tramway  to  Cassarate  (p.  J3),  whence  a  road  leads 
to  (V'l  '''•)  Castagnola  (p.  13)  and  proceeds  thence  in  curves  via  Ruvi- 
gliana  (1555  ft.)  to  (V4-I  ir.)  Aldesayo  (1950  ft.),  the  highest  village  vi,3ible 
from  Lugano  on  the  W.  mountain-slope.  Aldesago  may  be  reached  also  in 
IV2  hr.  from  Cas''arate  via  Viganello  (I'l.  H,  1)  and  Albonago  (1525  ft.).  Above 
Aldesago  the  path  divides:  both  branches  lead  round  to  the  0/^^/i  hr.) 
village  of  Br^  (2590  ft.;  restaurant),  at  the  back  of  the  hill.  From  the 
church  of  Bre  we  ascend  by  a  narrow  path  to  the  summit  of  the  mountain 
in  1/2  l*'-,  either  traversing  the  highest  crest  of  the  hill  to  the  right,  or 
crossing  the  spur  to  the  left,  in  the  direction  of  Lugano.  The  view  of  the 
different  arms  of  the  Lake  of  Lugano,  especiallj'  in  the  direction  of  Por- 
lezza,  and  the  surrounding  mountains,  is  very  fine.  Lugano  itself  is  not 
visible  from  the  summit,  but  from  the  above-mentioned  spur  a  good  view 
of  it  may  be  obtained. 

*  Monte  Boglia  (4960  ft. ;  4-4V2  hrs. ;  guide  desirable).  Ascent  via  So- 
ragno  and  the  Alp  Bolla,  or  from  {P/i  hr.)  Bri  (see  above;  more  difficult) 
in  2V2  hrs.  The  view  is  less  extensive  but  more  picturesque  than  that 
from  Mte.  Generoso  (p.  16).  Descent  on  the  E.  side  through  the  grassy 
Vttl  Solda  to  Castello  and  San  Mamette  or  Oria  (steamboat-stations;  p.  183). 

The  new  road  to  the  Cassarate  Valley  diverges  to  the  right,  under  the 
name  of  Via  Sassa  (PI.  C,  1),  1),  from  the  Bellinzona  road  at  Massagno, 
and  i/«  31.  farther  on  is  joined  by  a  short  branch-road  (Via  Castausio)  from 
the  Molino  Nuovo  (tramway,  p.  11).  The  old  road  in  the  valley,  the  Via 
Trevano,  leads  past  the  chateau  of  Trevano,  the  property  of  Mr.  Louis 
Lombard  of  New  York,  sumptuously  fitted  up,  with  a  lieautiful  park  nearly 
80  acres  in  extent  (visitors  to  the  park  and  hot-hou-es  admitted  on  presenting 
their  cards).  These  two  roads  unite  at  (274  M.)  Canobbio  (1295  ft  ),  beyond 
which  the  high-road  proceeds  via  (3  M.)  Tesserete  (1745  ft.;  Ristorante  An- 
tonini,  Banfl,  etc.,  pens.  4-5  fr. ;  diligence,  p.  11)  to  (LVi  M.)  Bigorio  (see 
below).  Another  road,  diverging  to  the  right  from  the  Via  Trevano  a  little 
short  of  Trevano,  leads  via  Davesco  (Hot.  Castello  di  Davesco,  p.  10)  and 
Cadro  (1560  ft.)  to  Sonvico  (1965  ft. ;  Posta,  pens.  4  fr. ;  diligence,  p.  11),  a 
charmingly  situated  village  with  a  view  of  the  lake  and  town  of  Lugano, 
recently  frequented  as  a  summer-resort.  —  From  Tesserete  a  road  runs  to 
the  N.E.  into  the  Val  di  CoUa,  or  upper  Cassarate  valley,  leading  via  Bidogno 
to  (6'/2  M.)  Scareglia,  or  Moglio  di  Colla  (3205  ft. ;  Ristor.  Cereso,  pens.  4  fr. ; 
diligence,  p.  11),  which  may  be  reached  also  from  Sonvico  in  IV2  hr.  via 
the  Monte  Fetrole  and  Piandera. 

Monte  Camoghe  (7300  ft.),  commanding  a  striking  panorama  of  the  Alps 
from  Mte.  Rosa  to  the  Ortler,  is  ascended  from  Scareglia  in  4'/2  hrs.,  with 
guide :  via  Colla  and  the  Alp  Pietrarossa,  leaving  the  Monte  Garzirola  (see 
below)  to  the  left,  to  the  (3  hrs.)  Alp  Sertena^  (5920  ft.)  and  the  (l'/2  hr.)  top. 
—  The 'descent  may  be  made  to  theN.,  via  the  alps  of  Rivolte  ajii  Leveno 
and  through  the  Val  Morobbia,  to  Giubiasco  and  (5  hrs.)  Bellinzona  (p.  8).  — 
The  ascent  of  Monte  Oarzirola  (6940  ft.),  accomplished  from  Colla  in  3  hrs., 
is  also  recommended.  —  Pedestrians  will  find  it  to  their  account  to  return 
from  the  Val  Colla  to  Porlezza  over  the  Pass  of  San  Lucio  (5960  ft),  or  to 
the  Val  Solda  (p.  183),  either  by  the  Cima  di  Foiorma  (5935  ft.;  views)  or  past 
the  remarkable  dolomitic  peaks  of  the  Denii  di  Vecchia. 

Various  pleasant  excursions  may  be  made  in  the  fertile  uplands  be- 
tween the  vallevs  of  the  Cassarate  and  the  Agno.  Field-paths  lead  from 
Massagno  (PI.  B,'C,  1)  to  the  N.  via  Borello  (1400  ft.)  and  Savosa  (1435  ft.),  or 
from  the  Via  Sassa  (see  above),  immediately  beyond  the  first  fork  direct  via 
Porza  (1595  ft.)  and  Comano  (1660  ft.),  to  the'(lV2hr.)  church  of  San  Bernardo 
(2310  ft.),  situated  on  a  rocky  plateau,  and  commanding  a  picturesque  view. 
Thence  (at  first  following  the  top  of  the  hill  to  the  N. ;  no  path)  via  (IV4  hr.) 
Sola  and  the  (1/2  hr.)  village  of  Bigorio  (2360  ft.)  to  the  (20  min.)  monastery 
of  Bigorio  (2360  ft.),  charmingly  situated.  A  delightful  walk  may  be  taken 
hence,  through  chestnut-woods  and  over  pastures,  to  (IV4  hr.)  the  top  of 
Mte.  Bigorio  (3615  ft.).     From  Bigorio  we  may  return  either  direct  or  via 

to  Como.  CAPOLAGO.  3.  Route.    15 

Sala  and  (20  niin  J  Ponte  Capriasca  (1427  ft.),  with  a  church  containing  a 
good  old  copy  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci's  Last  Supper  (best  light  U-J),  to 
(i/a  hr.)  the  railway-station  of  Taverne  (p.  8j,  14  min.  by  rail  or  I'/a  hr.  on 
foot  from  Lugano. 

Honte  Tamaro  (6430  ft.;  5hrs.;  guide)  horn  UiveraBironico  (p.  8),  via, 
the  Alp  Foppa  (1(''30  ft.),  not  difficult.  Splendid  view  of  Lago  Maggiore, 
the  lake  of  Lugano,  Milan,  etc. 

A  pleasant  excursion  may  be  made  in  a  light  mountain-carriage 
(16-17  fr.)  via  Bioggio  (1053  ft.)  to  (2  hrs.)  Cademario  (2407  ft.),  whence  the 
carriage  is  sent  to  Agno.  From  Cademario  we  ascend  on  foot  to  (2"  min.) 
San  Bernardo  (2955  ft.;  beautiful  view  of  Lago  Maggiore,  etc.).  We  next 
proceed  to  the  Aranno-Iseo  road  and  follow  it  to  the  left  to  Ueo  (1254  ft.), 
Cimo,  Vemote^  and  (2  hrs.)  Agno  (p.  1S4),  where  we  rejoin  the  carriage.  The 
chapel  of  Santa  Maria  (2560  ft. ;  line  view)  lies  near  the  road,  between  Iseo 
and  Cimo.  —  In  (he  valley  of  the  Magliasina  (the  so-called  ilalcantone),  still 
farther  to  the  W.  (8M.  from  Lugano;  diligence  via  Agno,  MaiiUaso,  audPura, 
see  p.  11),  lies  Novaggio  (21U0  ft.;  "Hot.- Pens.  Beau-fjonr;  H6t.  Lema;  Pens. 
Novaggio,  very  fair),  a  summer-resort  in  a  pretty  mountain-landscape,  in 
view  of  the  Lago  Maggiore.  Novaggio  is  the  starting-point  for  the  ascent 
of  the  Monte  Lema  (5320  ft.;  272  hrs.,  with  guide),  which  commands  a  fine 
view.  The  road  proceeds  to  theW.  to  the  village  oi  Astano  (21(X)ft.;  Posta), 
another  summer  -  resort ,  whence  we  may  descend  via  Sessa  (1285  ft.; 
diligence,  p.  11)  to  Ponte  Tresa  (p.   18i). 

Excursion  to  the  Monte  Generoso,  see  belov? ;  to  the  Hotel  Belvedere 
(Lanzo  d  Intel vi),  see  p.  183;  to  the  Orotic  of  Osteno,  see  p.  183. 

Beyond  Lugano  tie  St.  Gottjiard  Railway  crosses  the  Tassino 
Valley,  by  means  of  a  viaduct,  130  ft.  high  (charming  view  of  Lugano 
to  the  left),  skirts  the  Monte  San  Salvatore,  and  passes  under  its 
N.E.  spur.  It  then  skirts  the  W.  bank  of  the  lake  via  the  village 
of  (128  M.)  Melhle  (Pens.  Valentiiii,  with  restaurant;  Gaffe-Risto- 
raute  Lugano,  Ristorante  del  Battello,  both  plain),  2  M.  beyond  the 
headland  of  San  Martino  ( p.  12).  The  train  and  the  road  then  cross 
the  lake  to  Bissone  (p.  184)  by  a  stone  viaduct  ^/o  M.  long  (views). 

—  130  xM.  Maroggia  (Hot.-Restaurant  Val  Mara,  R.'l 72-2 fr.,  B.  80  c), 
at  the  W.  base  of  the  Mte.  Generoso. 

I82V2  M-  Capolago  (Hot.-Pens.  du  Lac,  with  garden,  R.  2,  pens. 
G-9  fr. ;  Hot.  Suhse,  well  spoken  of;  Alb.  d' Italia.  R.  IY2,  ^-  1  f^-  i 
Riill.  Realaurant),  at  the  head  of  the  S.E.  arm  of  the  lake,  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Laveggio,  is  the  station  for  the  Generoso  Railway 
(steamboat  from  Lugano  4  times  a  day  in  summer,  in  1-1 V2  hr.). 

Fkom  Capolago  to  the  Monte  Generoso,  rack-and-pinion  railway 
(from  April  to  Oct.  only)  in  !>/*  hr. ,  to  Bellavista  (Hot.  Generoso)  in 
54  minutes.  Return-fare  to  the  top  10  fr.  (Sun.  6  fr.),  from  Lugano  11  fr.  75  c. 
(Sun.  8  fr.  75  c);  return-ticket,  incl.  R.,  D.,  &.  B.  in  the  Hot.  Kulm,  IS  fr. 

—  The  trains  start  from  the  steamboat-pier  at  Capolago  and  halt  at  (2  min.) 
the  )S7.  Gotthard  liailwaij  Station.  The  train  crosses  the  road  and  the  St. 
Gotthard  railway  and  ascends  the  slope  of  the  Ueneroso  (gradient  20:100, 
afterwards  22:  lOO),  with  a  continuous  open  view,  on  the  right,  of  the  Val 
di  Laveggio,  girt  with  wooded  hills,  of  the  little  town  of  Mendrisio,  and, 
I'ehind,  of  the  Lake  of  Lugano.  Then  it  skirts  abrupt  cliffs  and  enters 
a  curved  tunnel  (155  yds.  long),  immediately  before  which  the  summit  of 
Monte  Kosa  is  visible.  —  I5/4  M.  San  Nicolao  (2300  ft.),  a  station  in  the  finely 
wooded  ]'al  di  Sohirino.  The  line  next  describes  a  wide  curve,  enters  a 
tunnel  60  yds.  long,  and  proceeds  high  up  on  the  mountain-slope,  with 
tine  views  of  the  plain  of  I.ombardy  as  far  as  Milan  and  Varese. 

16     Route  3.  MONTE  GENEROSO. 

3J/2M.  Bellavista  (4C05  ft. ;  Hot.  des  Alpes,  R.  from  272,  B.  11/4,  dej.  3, 
D.  4,  pens.  7-10  fr.).  A  path  leads  from  the  station  along  the  mountain- 
ridge  to  the  (5  min.)  *Perron,  a  platform  provided  with  railings,  imme- 
diately above  Capolago,  with  a  beautiful  view  (best  in  the  morning)  of 
the  Lake  of  Ijugano  and  the  surrounding  heights,  backed  by  the  line  of 
snow-peaks  stretching  from  the  Gran  Paradise  to  the  St.  Gotthard.  About 
V'i  M.  to  the  E.  of  the  station  (tr;imvv;iy;  hotel-porter  meets  the  trains)  is 
the  '■Hotel  Monte  Generoso  (391)0  It.;  1!.  4-5,  B.  11/2,  dtj.  31/2,  1>.  5,  pens. 
9-13  fr. ;  post  and  telegraph  office;  Engl.  Church  Service),  situated  on  a 
mountain-terrace  commanding  a  view  over  the  plain  of  Lombardy  as  far 
as  the  Monte  Viso.  The  hotel,  open  from  May  1st  to  Oct.  15th,  is  frequented 
in  summer  mainly  by  Italians,  at  other  seasons  by  English  and  Americans. 
A  bridle-path  leads  hence  to  the  summit  in  I1/4  hr. 

Beyond  Bellavista  the  railway  ascends  through  another  tunnel  (90  yds. 
long),  and  closely  skirts  the  barren  ridge,  affording  occasional  views  to 
the  left  of  the  lake  and  town  of  Lugano,  and  to  the  right,  below,  of  the 
villages  of  Muggio  and  Cabbio.  Beyond  two  short  tunnels  we  reach  the 
station  of  (51/2  M.)  Vetta  (5295  ft. ;  imel  Kulm,  E.  3-5,  B.  IV2,  d^j.  31/2-4, 
D.  5,  pens.  8-13  fr.,  connected  by  view-terraces  with  the  Restaurant  Vetta; 
adjacent,  Albergo - Ristorante  Clericetti ^  plain,  R.  from  IV2,  D.  with  wine 
3  fr.).  A  good  path  leads  hence  in  20  min.  to  the  summit  of  'Monte  Generoso 
(5590  ft.).  The  view,  no  less  striking  than  picturesque,  embraces  the 
lakes  of  Lugano,  Como,  Varese,  and  Lago  Maggiore,  the  entire  Alpine 
chain  from  the  Monte  Viso  to  the  Como  dei  Tre  Signori,  and  to  the  S. 
the  plain  of  Lombardy,  watered  by  the  Po  and  backed  by  the  Apennines, 
with  the  towns  of  Milan,  Lodi,  Crema,  and  Cremona  (best  in  the  morning). 
—  From  the  station  of  Vetta  we  may  descend  on  foot  to  the  Hotel  Gene- 
roso or  to  Bellavista  station  in  3/4  hr. 

Monte  Generoso  may  also  be  ascended  from  Rovio  (1665  ft. ;  "Hot. -Pens. 
Mte.  Generoso,  K.  1-2,  D.  21/2,  S.  I1/2,  board  5  fr.  ;  3  M.  from  Maroggia 
station  by  road,  ca.  2  M.  by  footpath),  in  31/2-4  hrs.,  by  a  marked  path, 
well-shaded  in  the  morning;  or  from  Mendrisio  (see  below)  via  San  lYicolao, 
in  31/2-4  hrs.,  or  via  Muggio.  The  last  named  route  (diligence  daily  in 
21/4  hrs.)  ascend.s  the  V<(1  di  Mvggio  via  Castel  San  Pielro,  Monte,  and  Casima 
to  {5^/'iM.)  Mtiggio  (2185  ft.;  inns),  whence  the  summit  is  reached  in  3  hrs. 
by  a  bridle-path.  From  Lanzo  d'Jntelvi  (41/2  hrs.),  see  p.  183;  recommended 
for  the  return  (guide  advisable  for  inexperienced  climbers). 

135  M.  Mendrisio  (1180  ft.;  Alhergo  del  Gottardo,  at  the  station  ; 
Angela,  a  good  Italian  house,  R.  2'/2  fr-))  ^  small  town  of  3400  in- 
hab.,  1/2  M.  from  the  station,  lies  at  the  beginning  of  the  bridle- 
path to  the  Monte  Generoso  (to  the  Hot.  Generoso  3  hrs. ;  mule  6  fr.). 
At  Ligornetto,  IY2  M.  to  the  W.,  the  birthplace  of  Vincenzo  Vela 
(1822-91),  is  the  Museo  Vela,  -with  models  and  a  few  originals  by 
that  sculptor.  —  A  short  tunnel  carries  us  through  the  •watershed 
between  the  Laveggio  and  the  Breggia.    139  M.  Balerna. 

140  M.  Chiasso  (765  ft.;  *Buffet;  Hot.  de  la  Gare,  Alb.  Croce 
Rossa,  R.  2,  B.  1  fr.,  both  at  the  station),  the  last  Swiss  village 
(custom-house ;  usually  a  long  halt).  To  Cernobbio,  see  p.  174.  — 
The  line  pierces  the  Sa.iso  Cavallasca  by  means  of  a  tunnel  3170  yds. 
long,  beyond  which  a  view  of  the  Lake  of  Como  is  disclosed  to 
the  left. 

143  M.  Como  (Stazione  San  Giovanni,  p.  1 67) ;  thence  to  (173  M.) 
Milan,  see  R.  24. 


4.  From  Thusis  to  Colico  over  the  Spliigen. 

58  M.  Diligence  from  Thusis  to  Chiavenna  (41  M.)  twice  daily  in 
summer  in  10  hr3.  (fare  16  fr.  50,  coupd  19  fr.  80  c.).  Extka  Post  from 
Thnsis  to  Cliiavenna  with  two  horses  99  fr.  20  c,  with  three  horses  135  fr. 
50  c.  —  Railway  (electric)  from  Chiavenna  to  Colico  (Lecco),  17  M.,  in 
V*  hr.  (fares  3  fr.  15,  2  Ir.  20,  1  fr.  40  c),  corresponding  with  the  steam- 
boats to  Como. 

Thusis  [2370  ft. ;  Hot-Pens.  Via  Mala,  Post,  Hot.  Splugen,  etc.), 
a  station  of  the  Rliaetian  line  from  Coire  to  the  Engadine,  lies  at 
the  confluence  of  the  Rhine  and  the  Nolla.  —  The  Spliigeu  road 
leads  hence  through  the  gorge  of  the  Via  Mala,  crossing  the  foaming 
Rhine  several  times.    Finest  view  at  the  second  bridge. 

71/2  M.  Andcer  (3210  ft.).  —  Then  we  follow  the  wooded  Bo/Via 
Raxune  and  the  picturesque  Rheinwald-  Tal  to  — 

16  M.  Spliigen,  Roman.  Spluga  (4757  ft.;  Hotel  Bodenhaus, 
R.  2V-r5,  B.  11/4-1 V2,  D-  31/2 fr.;  Hot.  Spluyen),  the  capital  of  the 
Rheinwald -Tal,  at  the  junction  of  the  Splugen  and  Bernardino 
routes.  The  latter  here  runs  to  the  W.  The  Spliigen  route  turns  to 
the  left,  crosses  the  Rhine,  and  ascends  in  windings  to  the  (6'''/4  M.) 
Splugen  Pass  (^Colmo  delV  Orso ;  6945  ft.),  the  boundary  between 
Switzerland  and  Italy.  About  8/4  M.  beyond  the  pass  is  the  diligence- 
station  of  Monte  Spluga  (6260  ft.)  with  the  Italian  custom-house 
(dogana)  and  several  inns. 

The  road  now  descends  by  numerous  zigzags  along  the  E.  slope, 
being  protected  against  avalanches  by  three  long  galleries  and  avoid- 
ing the  dangerous  Liro  Oorge.  Beyond  Pianazzo  (4528  ft. ;  plain 
inn),  near  the  entrance  to  a  short  gallery,  the  Madesimo  forms  a 
magnificent  waterfall,  655  ft.  in  height,  which  is  best  surveyed  from 
a  platform  by  the  roadside. 

From  Pianazzo  a  road  ascends  to  the  N.E.  to  (l'/4  ^.)  Madesimo 
(5033  ft.),  a  prettily  situated  village  with  a  chalybeate  spring  and  a  ^Hydro- 

33  M.  Campodolcino  (3622  ft.  ;  Posta,  R.  2-372,  B.  1  fr.)  con- 
sists of  four  large  groups  of  houses.  The  second  contains  the  church. 
The  Lira  Valley  (Valle  San  Oidcomo)  is  strewn  with  fragments  of 
rock,  but  the  wildness  of  the  scene  is  softened  by  the  luxuriant 
foliage  of  the  chestnuts  lower  down,  from  which  rises  the  slender 
campanile  of  the  church  of  Oallivaggio.  Beyond  (38 '/2  M.)  San 
Oiacomo  the  rich  luxuriance  of  Italian  vegetation  unfolds  itself  to 
the  view. 

41  M.  Chiavenna.  —  Hotels.  "Hotel  Coneadi  et  Poste,  V^  M. 
from  the  railway-station,  with  railway  ticket  office,  K.  2V2-4,  B.  I1/4,  dej.  2'/2, 
D.  3-41/2'  S.  21/2,  pens.  6V2-8,  omn.  1/2-^/4  fr-  i  Hotel  Kational  &  Engadinek 
HoF,  with  cafc-reslaurantj  R.  from  2V2,  B.  I'A,  dej.  2V2,  D-  SVx,  pens.  (31/2- 
8  fr.  —  Hot.  Helvetia  <fc  Specola,  at  the  station,  E.  2'/2,  B.  1  fr. ;  Alb. 
Crimea,  on  the  Promenade,  R.  I1/2  fr.,  Alb.  della  Stazione,  R.  1-2,  B.  1  fr., 
both  Italian;  Alb.  San  Paolo,  near  the  station,  unpretending.  —  Good  beer 
at  the  Lmcenkeller . 

The  Station  (Cafi- Restaurant,  d(?j.  or  D.  incl.  wine  21/2  fr. ;  beer)  lies 
to  the  S.E.    of  the  town.     Through -tickets  are  here  issued  to  the  steam- 

Baedekeb.   Italy  I.    13th  Edit:  2 

18     Route  4.  CHIAVENNA. 

boat-stations  on  the  Lago  di  Como,  with  coupon  for  the  omnibus-journey 
between  the  railway-station  and  the  quay  at  Colico.  —  Diligence  Office  at 
the  station. 

Chiavenna  (1040  ft.),  the  Roman  Clavenna,  an  ancient  town 
with  3100  inhab.,  charmingly  situated  on  the  Mera,  is  adapted  for 
a  stay  of  some  time.  The  town,  the  key  of  the  Spliigen  road  and  of 
the  Val  Bregaglia,  through  which  the  road  to  the  Maloja  Pass  and 
the  Engadine  leads  to  the  E.,  belonged  (along  with  the  Valtellina) 
to  the  Grisons  from  1512  to  1797.  The  castle-rock  above  the  town, 
now  known  as  the  '■Paradisd,  frequently  the  centre  of  struggles 
with  the  dukes  of  Milan,  commands  a  picturesque  view  (adm.  50  c). 
At  the  foot  of  the  rock,  opposite  the  Hotel  Conradi,  are  the  ruins  of 
an  unfinished  palace  of  the  last  governor  appointed  by  the  Grisons. 
San  Lorenzo,  the  principal  church ,  has  a  slender  clock-tower  or 
campanile,  rising  from  an  arcaded  enclosure  which  was  formerly 
the  burial-ground.  The  octagonal  Battisterio  (closed;  fee  15-20  c.) 
contains  a  font  of  1206,  adorned  with  reliefs.  Chiavenna  is  the 
legendary  scene  of  Frederick  Barbarossa's  unavailing  prostration 
before  Henry  the  Lion,  shortly  before'  the  battle  of  Legnano  (p.  5). 

The  hills  of  the  Val  Capiola,  I1/2  M.  from  Chiavenna,  contain  many 
'Marmitte  dei  Giganti'  (giant's  kettles)  or  ancient  'glacier -mills'  of  all 
sizes  (guides  at  the  hotels). 

The  Electeic  Railway  to  Colico  (fares,  see  p.  17}  traverses 
three  tunnels  soon  after  starting,  beyond  which  we  enjoy  a  fine 
retrospect  of  Chiavenna.  Rich  vine-bearing  country.  The  valley 
(Piano  di  Chiavenna)  is  enclosed  on  both  sides  by  lofty  mountains. 
The  lower-lying  districts  are  exposed  to  the  inundations  of  the  Mera. 
On  the  right  bank  lies  Oordona,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Val  della  Forcola, 
beyond  which  the  Boggia  forms  a  pretty  waterfall  in  its  precipitous 
descent  from  the  narrow  Val  Bodengo.  —  6  M.  Samdlaco  is  the 
station  for  the  large  village  of  that  name  on  the  opposite  (tight) 
bank  of  the  Mera,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Val  Mengasca.  Near  (81/2  M.) 
Novate  (Mtzzola)  the  railway  reaches  the  Lago  di  Mezzola  (655  ft.), 
originally  the  N.  bay  of  the  Lake  of  Como  (comp.  p.  174),  with 
which  it  is  now  connected  by  a  single  narrow  navigable  channel. 
To  the  S.  appears  the  pyramidal  Monte  Legnone  (p.  180). 

The  railway  skirts  the  E.  bank  of  the  lake,  via  Campo  and 
Verzeia,  and  crosses  the  Adda  (p.  180)  beyond  (121/2  M.)  Dubino. 
The  Valtellina  railway  (p.  180)  joins  ours  from  the  left;  we  observe 
on  a  hill  to  the  right  the  ruined  castle  of  Fuentes,  once  the  key  of 
the  Valtellina,  erected  by  the  Spaniards  in  1603,  and  destroyed  by 
the  French  in  1796. 

17  M.  Colico  (720  ft. ;  Rail.  Restaurant;  Hotel  Risi,  with  cafe'- 
restaurant,  at  the  landing-stage,  R.  2Y2,"B.  1  fr.,  unpretending, 
and  others),  at  the  N.E.  extremity  of  the  Lake  of  Como,  see  p.  180. 
The  station  is  nearly  1/2  M.  from  the  quay  (omnibus,  see  p.  17).  — 
Railway  from  Colico  to  Lecco  (Milan),  see  pp.  171-165. 


5.  From  Innsbruck  to  Verona  by  the  Brenner. 

175  M.  Al'steian  Sodtheen  Railway  (Oesterreichische  Siidbahn)  to  Ala, 
thence   Italian  Railway  (Rete  Adriatica) ;   express   fares   32  fr.   45,   24  fr. 

5  c;  ordinary  23  fr.  45,  17  fr.  35,  11  fr.  50  c.  (through -tickets  payable  in 
gold).  The  'Nord-Siid-Express-Zug'  (Berlin  to  Verona,  in  winter  to  Milan), 
a  (rain  de  luxe  composed  of  lirst-class  and  dining  cars,  performs  the  journey 
in  ca.  6^4  hrs. ;  the  day-express  (1st  &  2nd  cl.)  takes  8,  the  night-express 
(1st,  2nd,  &  3rd  cl.)  &V2,  'he  ordinary  trains  12  hrs.  —  Views  on  the  right 
as  far  as  the  summit  of  the  Brenner. 

The  Brenner  (44y5ft.),  the  lowest  pass  over  the  principal  chain  of  the  Alps, 
is  traversed  by  one  of  the  oldest  of  the  Alpine  routes,  which  was  used  as  early 
as  the  Roman  period,  and  rendered  practicable  for  carriages  in  1772.  The 
railway,  opened  in  1867,  is  carried  through  30  tunnels,  and  over  60  large 
and  a  number  of  smaller  bridges  within  a  distance  of  83  M.  The  steepest 
gradient,  1 :  40,  is  between  Innsbruck  and  the  culminating  point. 

Innsbruck  (1880  ft.;  Hot.  Tirol,  R.  from  4V2,  B.  li/o,  d.'j.  3, 
D.  5  A'.,  Hot.  de  V Europe,  R.  3-6,  B.  11  4,  D.  4  ^.,  Goldene  Sonne, 
R.  3-6,  B.  11/4,  D.  4-5  K.,  all  tLree  at  the  station;  Hotel  Kreid, 
Hot.  Habsburg,  both  near  the  station,  Hot.  Victoria,  opposite  the 
station,  these  three  second-class;  Rail.  Restaurant),  the  capital  of 
Tyrol,  with  44,000  inhab.,  is  described  in  Baedeker  s  Eastern  Alps. 

The  railway  ascends  the  valley  of  the  Sill.    Numerous  tunnels. 

6  M.  Patsch  (2570  ft.).  —  I2V2  M.  Matrei  (3254  ft.),  with  the 
chateau  of  Trautson.  —  151/2  M.  Steinach  (3432  ft.).  —  The  train 
now  ascends  a  steep  incline,  crosses  the  valleys  otSchmirn  and  Vals 
in  a  wide  curve  beyond  (ISi/o  M.)  St.  Jodok,  and  runs  high  above 
the  Sill  to  (21 V2  M-)  Gries  (4114  ft.).  It  then  passes  the  small  green 
Brenner-See  (on  the  right),  and  reaches  — 

25  M.  Stat.  Brenner  (4496  ft. ;  Buffet),  on  the  summit  of  the 
pass,  the  watershed  between  the  Black  Sea  and  the  Adriatic.  From 
the  hillside  to  the  right  descends  the  Eisack,  which  the  train  now 
follows.  —  271/2  M.  Brennerbad  (4350  ft.).  The  Utio  then  descends 
rapidly  to  (30V2  M.)  Schelleberg  (4075  ft.),  where  it  turns  into  the 
Pflersch-Tnl,  returning,  however,  to  the  Eisack  valley  by  a  curved 
tunnel,  835  yds.  long.  —  36  M.  Oossensass  (3494  ft.),  a  summer- 
resort.  —  The  train  now  runs  through  wild  rocky  scenery.  40  M. 
Steramp  (3il0ft.).  On  the  left  rises  the  castle  of  Sprechenstein,  and 
on  the  right  those  of  Thumburg  and  Reifenstein.  —  43  M.  Freien- 
feld.  —  We  now  cross  the  Eisack.  On  the  left  bank  is  the  handsome 
castle  of  Welfenstein.  —  47  M.  Grnsstein  (2745  ft.),  at  the  entrance 
of  the  narrow  defile  of  (491/2  M.)  Mittewald.  The  lower  end  of  the 
defile,  called  the  Brixener  Klause ,  near  Unterau,  is  closed  by  the 
Franzensfeste,  a  strong  fortress  constructed  in  1833.  The  (52  M.) 
station  (2450  ft.;  *Rail.  Restaurant),  the  junction  of  the  Pustertal 
line  (for  Carinthia),  lies  I1/4  M.  to  the  N.W.  of  the  fortress.  — 
Vineyards  and  chestnuts  now  appear. 

59  M.  Brixen  (1840  ft.)  was  the  capital  of  an  ecclesiastical 
principality,  .scrularized  in  1803.  —  "We  cross  the  Eisack.  61  M. 
Albeina.     The  valley  contracts.    64  M.   Villnosa;    65  M.    Klausen 


20     Route  5.  BOTZEN.  From  Innsbruck 

(1720  ft.).  —  The  line  skirts  precipitous  porphyry  cliffs.  —  69  M. 
Waidbruck  (1545  ft.).  On  the  left,  high  above,  rises  the  Trostburg. 
The  train  crosses  the  Eisack,  in  a  -wild  rapine  hemmed  in  hy  por- 
phyry rocks.  74'/2  M.  Atzwang  (1220  ft.).  —  78  M.  Blumau.  On 
the  right  bank  begin  the  vine-clad  slopes  of  the  Botsener  Leiie.  — 
81 V2  M.  Kardaun.  The  train  now  returns  to  the  right  bank  of  the 
Eisack  and  enters  the  wide  basin  of  Botzen,  a  district  of  luxuriant 

83  M.  Botzen.  —  Ran.  Uestauranl.  —  Hotels.  Bristol,  Kaiser  Franz 
Joseph-Str.,  2  min.  from  the  station,  R.  3-7,  B.  I1/2,  D.  4,  S.  3  £".,  Victoeia, 
opposite  the  station,  R.  3-5,  B.  l'/4,  dej.  3,  D.  5  A'.,  both  first-class;  Kaisek- 
KRONE,  Erzherzog  Rainer-Str.,  R.  from  2'/2,  B.  I-I74  li- ;  Gkeif,  R.  2i/z-5, 
B.  I'/z  AT.,  Hot.  de  l'Edbope,  R.  2-5,  B.  l-l'/z  K.,  Hot.  Walter  von  der 
VoGELWEiDE,  R.  2-4,  B.  1  K.,  all  in  the  Waiter-Platz,  with  restaurants; 
Hot.  Stiegl,  1/3  M.  from  the  station,  well  situated;  Hot.  Tirol,  Obatmarkt, 
R.  1  K.  60^.-2  K.,  for  passing  tourists,  etc. 

Botzen,  Ital.  Bolzano  (870  ft.),  with  13,900  inhab.,  in  the  middle 
ages  the  chief  centre  of  the  trade  between  Venice  and  the  North, 
and  to-day  the  most  important  commercial  town  in  Tyrol,  is  beauti- 
fully situated  at  the  confluence  of  the  Eisack  and  the  Talfer,  which 
descends  from  the  Sarntal  on  the  N.  The  background  towards  the  E. 
is  formed  by  the  strikingly  picturesque  dolomite  mountains  of  the 
Val  di  Fassa ;  to  the  W.  rises  the  long  porphyry  ridge  of  the  Mendel. 
In  the  Walter-Platz  is  a  Monument  to  Walter  von  der  Vogelweide, 
the  poet,  by  H.  Natter  (1889).  The  Gothic  Parish  Church  of  the 
14th  and  15th  cent,  has  a  portal  with  two  lions  of  red  marble,  in 
the  Lombard  style.  —  The  Virglwarte  (1512  ft.;  1  hour's  walk,  to 
the  S.  of  the  town  beyond  the  Eisack,  ascent  from  the  E.  end  of  the 
bridge)  commands  a  fine  view.  —  Beyond  the  Talfer,  at  the  foot  of 
the  Guntschnaberg,  lies  Ories,  frequented  as  a  winter-resort. 

From  Botzen  a  branch-line  diverges  to  (20  M.)  Meran  (1V2-2  hrs.). 
See  Baedeker's  Eastern  Alps. 

Beyond  Botzen  the  train  crosses  the  Eisack,  shortly  before  its 
confluence  with  the  Etsch,  or  Adige,  which  becomes  navigable  at 
(891/2  M.)  Branzoll.  In  the  distance,  to  the  right,  rises  the  wooded 
range  of  the  Mittelberg,  Beyond  (93  M.)  Auer  the  train  crosses  the 
Adige.  —  96  M.  Neumarkt-Tramin.  —  102 Y2  M.  Saturn,  commanded 
by  the  ruined  Haderburg  on  an  apparently  inaccessible  rock.  — 
107  M.  San  Michele,  with  a  handsome  old  Augustine  monastery,  is 
the  station  for  the  Val  di  Non.  The  train  again  crosses  the  Adige. 
—  Ill  M.  Lavis,  on  the  Avisio,  the  stony  bed  of  which  is  crossed 
farther  on  by  a  bridge  1000  yds.  in  length. 

1171/2  M.  Trent.  —  Hotels.  Imperial  Hotel  Trento,  near  the 
station,  R.  4-8,  B.  I1/2,  dej.  S'/z,  D.  5  K.,  first-class;  Cabloni,  Via  Lunga, 
with  good  reslaurant. 

Trent  (640  ft.),  or  Trento,  Lat.  Tride7itum ,  with  25,000  in- 
hab., formerly  the  wealthiest  and  most  important  town  in  Tyrol, 
possesses  numerous  towers,  palaces,  and  broad  streets,  and  presents 

to  Verona.  TRENT.  5.  Route.     21 

an  imposing  appearance.  The  pretty  grounds  (Piazza  Dante)  ad- 
joining the  station  are  adorned  with  a  lofty  Monument  to  Dante, 
designed  by  Cesare  Zocchi  (1896). 

The  Cathedral,  founded  early  in  the  11th  cent.,  rebuilt  in  1212 
et  seq.,  and  under  restoration  since  1882,  is  a  Romanesque  church 
surmounted  by  a  dome.  The  N.  portal,  as  at  Botzen ,  is  adorned 
with  a  pair  of  lions.  In  the  S.  transept  are  frescoes.  —  In  the  Piazza 
Grande  (at  the  cathedral),  which  is  embellished  with  the  tasteful 
Neptune  Fountain  (1769),  stands  the  Palazzo  Pretorio  (now  the  mili- 
tary headquarters),  with  the  old  Torre  Grande  (clock-tower). 

Santa  Maria  Maggiore,  begun  in  1520,  contains  a  picture  (1563), 
in  the  choir,  with  portraits  of  the  members  of  the  Council  of  Trent 
which  assembled  here  in  1545-63.  The  handsome  organ-loft,  in 
the  Renaissance  style,  is  by  V.  Vincentino  (1534). 

The  Palazzo  Municipale,  in  the  Via  Larga,  to  the  N.  of  the  cath- 
edral, contains  the  Public  Library  and  the  Museum,  the  latter  con- 
sisting of  collections  of  natural  history  specimens,  S.  Tyrolese  anti- 
quities, etc. 

On  the  E.  side  of  the  town  rises  the  imposing  Castello  del  Buon 
Consiglio  (adm.  9-1 1  and  2-4),  formerly  the  seat  of  the  prince-bishops 
and  now  a  barrack.  A  fine  view  is  enjoyed  from  the  huge  Torre  di 
Augusta.  —  A  good  view  of  the  town  is  also  obtained  from  the  Ca- 
puchin Convent  above  the  Castello.  —  The  ancient  and  well-pre- 
served wall  on  the  S.  of  the  town  is  ascribed  to  Theodoric  the  Great. 

From  Tbe.nt  to  Tkzze,  48V2  M.,  railway  in  2V2-3V2  hrs.  (fares  6^.  70. 
•1  A'.  50,  2  A'.  30 A.).  The  line  (\'alsugana  Railway)  quits  the  valley  of  the 
Adige  bv  means  of  a  long  viaduct,  describes  a  large  loop,  and  passes 
through 'a  spiral  tunnel  to  (SVz  M.)  Villazzano  (920  ft.)-  —  9V2M.  Ponte  Alto 
(1155  ft.),  in  the  Fersina  Valley;  15V2  M.  Ph-gine  (1555  ft.),  on  the  watershed 
between  the  Adige  and  the  Brenta;  17V2  M.  .S'an  Cristd/oro  (1485  ft.),  on 
the  Logo  di  Caldonazzo.  —  Beyond  (22  M.)  Caldonazzo  (1530  ft.),  we  cross 
the  Drenta,  is.suing  from  the  lake,  and  reach  ('J4  M.)  Levico  (1640  ft.),  with 
chalybeate  and  ar.senical  springs.  —  The  line  now  traverses  the  broad  Veil 
Sugana,  vii  (30  M.)  Roncegno-Marter  (1365  ft.),  the  station  for  the  baths  of 
Roncegno  (1655  ft.),  and  (32  M.)  Borgo  di  Valsuyana  (1245  ft.).  —  Beyond 
(.39  JI.)  Ospedaletto  the  railway  skirts  the  base  of  the  Cima  Laste  i5505  ft), 
on  which  high  up  appears  the  remarkable  natural  bridge  known  as  the 
Ponte  deW  Oreo.  ii^l->  M.  Grigno.  We  then  cross  the  Grigno  to  (48V2  M.) 
Tezze  (740  ft. ;  Austrian  custom-house),  the  present  terminus  of  the  rail- 
way, which  is  being  continued  via  Primolano,  Bassauo  (p.  280),  and  Castel- 
franco  (p.  279),  to  Mestre  (p.  269-,  Venice). 

Beyond  Trent,  the  railway  follows  the  left  bank  of  the  Adige.  — 
1221/2  M.  Mattarello.  On  a  hill  near  (127'/2  M.)  Calliano  rises  the 
castle  of  Beseno  (to  the  left).  The  lower  valley  of  the  Adige,  as  far 
as  the  Italian  frontier,  is  named  the  Val  Lagarina.  It  is  rich  in 
vines,  maize,  and  mulberries. 

132  M.  Rovereto  (623  ft.;  Grand  Hotel,  R.  from  3  K.,  flrst-class; 
Hutel  Central,  R.  from  H/o  ^^■),  a  thriving  town  with  10,200  inhab. 
—  Road  to  Recoaro  (motor -omnibus  in  summer),  Torrebelvicino, 
and  Schio,  see  p.  269. 

The  train  crosses  the  Leno.  On  the  right  bank  of  the  Adige  lies 

22     Route  5.  ALA. 

Isera,  celebrated  for  it8  wine.  On  the  left  bank,  near  Liszana,  is 
the  Castello  Dante  (1003  ft.),  in  which,  about  the  year  1302,  Dante 
when  banished  from  Florence  was  the  guest  of  Count  Castelbarco. 

1341/2  M.  Mori  (570  ft.;  Buffet;  Railway  Hotel,  R.  from  II/2, 
D.  3-4  K.^  is  the  starting-point  of  a  narrow-gauge  railway  to  Riva 
on  the  Lago  di  Garda  via  Nago  and  Arco ,  and  of  the  road  to  Riva 
via  Nago  and  Torbole. 

From  Mori  to  Riva,  I5V2  M.,  railway  in  I1/2  hr.  (fares  Ist  cl.  3  K.  20  h., 
3rd  cl.  1  K.  60  ft. ;  best  views  to  the  left).  The  line  crosses  the  Adige  to 
(2  M.)  Mori  Sorgata,  the  station  for  the  large  village  of  Mori  (635  ft.),  noted 
for  its  asparagus.  It  then  traverses  the  broad  green  valley  to  (4'/2  M.)  Loppio 
(735  ft.),  with  the  chateau  of  Count  Castelbarco,  passes  the  little  Lago  di 
Loppio  (735  ft.),  with  its  rocky  islands,  and  winds  up  among  rocky  debris 
to  the  (l'/4  M.)  culminating  point  of  the  route,  at  the  chapel  of  San 
Giovanni  (915  ft.).  We  now  descend  to  (8  M.)  Nago  (710  ft. ;  Hdt.  Adler, 
plain;  wine  :it  the  Qans),  a  village  situated  on  the  brink  of  a  ravine, 
with  the  ruins  of  the  castle  of  Penede  (94S  ft.),  on  a  barren  rock  to  the 
left.  —  The  line  descends  along  the  slope  of  the  mountains.  We  enjoy 
an  exquisite  'View  of  the  blue  Lago  di  Garda,  with  the  Sarca  at  our  feet, 
and  the  long  Monte  Brione  opposite.  Presently  Arco  and  the  wide  valley 
of  the  Sarca,  with  its  mountain-sides,  come  into  view.  —  11  M.  Oliretarca 
is  the  station  for  Vignole ,  Bolognano,  and  other  villages.  We  then  cross 
the  Sarca  to  (12'/v!  M.)  Arco  (p.  239).  Thence  we  traverse  the  fertile  valley 
via  (13'/2  M.)  iSan  Tommaso.  —  15V2  M.  Riva  (p.  237;  steamers  on  the  Lago 
di  Garda,  see  p.  229). 

Near  (136  M.)  Marco  the  line  intersects  the  Slavini  di  Marco, 
probably  the  remains  of  an  ancient  glacier,  according  to  others  the 
traces  of  a  vast  landslip,  which  is  said  to  have  buried  a  town  here 
in  883,  and  is  described  by  Dante  (Inferno,  xii.  4-9).  At  (1381/2  M.) 
Serrnvalle  the  valley  contracts. 

142  M.  Ala  (480  ft.;  Rail.  Restaurant;  Corona),  a  small  in- 
dustrial town  with  5000  inhab.,  is  the  seat  of  the  Italian  and 
Austrian  custom-house  authorities.  Those  who  have  forwarded 
luggage  by  this  route  to  or  from  Italy  should  enquire  for  it  at  the 
custom-house  here.  Through  the  Val  dei  Ronchi  to  Giazza,  see 
p.  256.  —  144  M.  Avio,  with  a  recently  restored  chateau  of  Count 
Castelbarco,  containing  14th  cent,  frescoes. 

1491/2  M-  ■P^'"*'  (4:13  ft.),  the  first  Italian  station,  is  the  starting- 
point  for  the  ascent  of  the  Monte  Baldo  (Mte.  Maggiore ;  comp. 
p.  216).  —  On  an  eminence  to  the  right,  near  (156  M.)  Ceraino, 
lies  Rivoli,  which  was  stormed  by  the  French  in  1796  and  1797 
under  Masse'na,  and  afterwards  gave  him  his  ducal  title.  —  We  now 
enter  the  Chiusa  di  Verona,  a  rocky  defile  celebrated  in  mediaeval 
warfare.    At  the  entrance  are  the  works  of  Incanale. 

The  train  passes  (160  M.)  Domegliarh  (400  ft.),  also  a  station 
on  the  Verona  and  Garda  line  (comp.  p.  236),  then  (164  M.) 
Pescantina,  and  (167  M.)  Parana  all'  Adige  (■p.  236),  crosses  the 
Adige,  and  soon  reaches  the  Verona  and  Milan  line. 

At  Verona  (see  p.  243)  it  first  stops  at  (173  M.)  the  Stazione 
Porta  Nuova  and  then  at  the  (175  M.)  Stazione  Porta  Vescovo,  the 
principal  station. 


6.  From  Vienna  to  Venice  via  Pontebba. 

401  M.  AnsTEiAN  SoDTH  Railway  to  Bruck;  Ahstkian  State  Railwai 
thence  to  Pontafel;  Italian  Railway  (Rete  Adriatica)  thence  to  Venice. 
'Train  de  luxe'  (Vienna-Cannes ;  first-class  carriages  only,  at  special  rate) 
daily  in  winter  in  13^/4  hrs. ;  express  train  in  151/4  hrs.  (fares  76  fr.  6,  53  fr. 
85  c.) ;  ordinary  train  in  24'/.;  hrs. 

Vienna,  see  Baedeker's  Austria.  The  express  trains  take  II/2  hr, 
from  Vienna  to  (46l/oM.)  Ologgnitz  via  Baden  and  Wiener-Neustadt. 
—  At  Gloggnitz  (1450  ft.)  begins  the  Semmering  Railway,  the  oldest 
of  the  great  continental  mountain-railways,  constructed  in  1848- 
53  (best  views  on  the  left).  In  the  valley  flows  the  green  Schwarza. 
On  the  left  is  the  three-peaked  Sonnwendstein ;  to  the  right,  in  the 
background,  the  Eaxalp.  —  At  (51  M).  Payerbach(^i&ib  ft.)  the  train 
crosses  the  Valley  of  Reichenau  by  a  viaduct  96  ft.  high  and  ascends 
rapidly  on  the  S.  slope  of  the  valley  (gradient  1 :  40).  Beyond  four 
tunnels  we  reach  (60  M.)  Klamm  (2290  ft.),  with  a  half-ruined 
castle  of  Prince  Liechtenstein,  on  a  rocky  pinnacle.  The  train  now 
skirts  the  Weinzettelwund  by  a  long  gallery  and  reaches  (64'/.2  M.) 
Breitenstein  (2595  ft.).  The  ravines  of  the  Kalte  llinne  and  the 
Vntere  Adlitzgraben  are  crossed  by  lofty  viaducts,  between  which 
the  line  ascends  in  curves. 

Beyond  (691/2  M.)  Semmering  (2935  ft.)  the  train  passes  from 
Austria  into  Styria  by  means  of  the  Seminering  Tunnel,  nearly  1  M. 
long.  It  then  descends  the  valley  of  the  Froeschniiz  to  (8O1/2  M.) 
Miirzzuschlag  (2200  ft.)  and  follows  the  picturesque  valley  of  the 
Miirz,  containing  numerous  forges.  —  901/2  M.  Mitterdorf;  95  M. 
Kindberg,  with  a  castle  of  Count  Attems.  —  103  M.  Kapfenberg. 

106  M.  Bruck  an  der  Mur  (1595  ft.),  a  small  town  at  the  con- 
fluence of  the  Miirz  and  the  Mur ,  is  the  junction  of  tlie  line  to 
Gratz  and  Trieste  (see  Baedeker's  Austria^. 

The  Staatsbahn,  which  wo  now  follow,  diverges  to  the  right 
from  the  South  Railway,  crosses  the  Mur,  and  ascends  the  narrow 
valley  of  that  river.  Beyond  (114  M.)  Niklasdorf  y/e  again  cross  the 
Mur  and  reach  (116  M.)  Leoben  (1745  ft.),  the  most  important 
town  of  Upper  Styria  (10,000  inhab.).  —  1241/2  M.  Sankt  Michael 
(1955  ft.),  at  the  mouth  of  the  Liesing-Tal,  is  the  junction  for 
the  line  to  Selztal.  —  139  M.  Knittelfeld  (2115  ft.).  —  I48V2  M. 
Judenburg  (2408  ft,),  an  old  town,  with  extensive  foundries.  — 
160  M.  Unzmarkt.  On  the  right  rises  the  ruin  of  Frauenburg,  once 
the  seat  of  the  minnesinger  Dlrich  von  Liechtenstein.  Beyond 
(I641/2  M.)  Scheifling,  with  the  chateau  of  Schrattenberg  (r.),  the 
train  quits  the  Mur  and  ascends  to  (I691/2  M.)  St.  Lambrecht 
(2915  ft.),  on  the  watershed  between  the  Mur  and  the  Drave.  It 
then  descends  the  valley  of  the  Olsa,  passing  (1721/2  M.)  Neumarkt. 

I821/2  M.  Friesach  (2208  ft.)  ,  an  ancient  town  on  the  Melnitz, 
commanded  by  four  ruined  castles.  —  I851/2  M.  Hlrt.  The  train 
now  enters  the  Krappfeld,  the  fertile  plain  of  the  Qurk ;  to  the  E. 

24     Route  6.  PONTEBBA. 

is  the  Sau-Alpe,  to  the  S.  rise  the  Karawanken  and  the  Terglou.  — 
1971/2  M.  Launsdorf.  About  2  M.  to  the  S.W.,  on  a  rock  590  ft. 
high,  is  the  handsome  castle  of  Hoch-Osterwitz. 

From  (202  M.)  Giandor/"  (1540  ft.)  a  branch -line  diverges  to 
Klagenfurt.  —  203  M.  St.  Veit  an  der  Glan  was  the  capital  of 
Carinthia  down  to  1519.  —  2071/2  M.  Feistritz-Pulst.  —  Beyond 
(218  M.)  Fddkirchen  we  skirt  a  wide  moor  and  at  (2231/2  M.)  Stein- 
dorf  we  approach  the  Ossiacher  See  (1620  ft.).  At  the  S.W.  end 
of  the  lake  is  the  ruin  of  Landskron. 

234  M.  Villach  (1640  ft.;  *Rail.  Restaurant;  Hot.  Mosser,  etc.), 
an  old  town  on  the  Drave,  with  8600  inhab.,  the  junction  of  the 
lines  to  Marburg  and  Franzensfeste,  is  picturesquely  situated  at  the 
base  of  the  Dobratsch  (7110  ft.). 

The  train  crosses  the  Drave  and  the  Oail.  2441/2  M.  Arnold- 
stein.    248  M.  Thorl-Maglern. 

25ii/o  M.  Tarvis  (2388  ft.;  Rail.  Restaurant),  where  the  railway 
from  Laibach  joins  ours  on  the  left,  the  chief  place  in  the  Canal 
Valley,  is  beautifully  situated. 

Beyond  Tarvis  the  line  gradually  ascends.  To  the  left  rises  the 
Luschariberg  (5880  ft.),  a  pilgrims'  resort,  and  behind  us  is  the  im- 
posing Manhart.  —  2561/2  M.  Saifnitz  (2615  ft.),  on  the  watershed 
between  the  Black  Sea  and  the  Adriatic.  The  train  then  descends 
along  the  Fella,  and  beyond  (2621/2  M.)  Malborghet  traverses  a 
rocky  ravine,  at  the  end  of  which  lies  (266'/2  M.)  Lusnitz. 

272  M.  Pontafel  (1870  ft. ;  Railway  Restaurant),  the  Austrian 
frontier  and  customs  station,  is  separated  by  the  Pontebbana  from  — 

274  M.  Fontebba,  the  first  village  in  Italy,  with  the  Italiau 
custom-house  (luggage  examined).  The  next  part  of  the  railway, 
descending  the  wild  ravine  of  the  Fella  (Valle  del  Ferro),  traverses 
an  almost  continuous  series  of  cuttings,  tunnels  (24  before  Stazione 
per  la  Carnia),  bridges,  and  viaducts.  The  Fella  is  crossed  by  an 
iron  bridge,  130  ft.  high.  —  278  M.  Dogna  (1510  ft.),  at  the  mouth 
of  the  valley  of  that  name;  in  the  background,  to  the  E.,  rises  the 
grand  pyramid  of  the  Montasio  (9035  ft.).  We  recross  the  river.  — 
281  M.  Chiusaforte  (1285  ft.},  at  the  entrance  of  the  picturesque 
Raccolana  Valley.  At  (286  M.)  Resiutta  (1035  ft.)  the  train  crosses 
the  Resia.  Below  (288  M.)  Moggio  (Vdinefte)  the  valley  of  the  Fella 
expands.  The  bottom  of  the  valley  is  covered  with  rubble.  A  little 
below  (291  M.)  Stazione  per  la  Carnia  the  Fella  flows  into  the 
Tagliamento,  which  here  waters  an  extensive  plain. 

294  M.  Venzone  (765  ft.).  The  train  traverses  the  marshy  valley 
of  the  Tagliamento  by  an  imposing  viaduct,  1/2  M.  in  length,  and 
then  quits  that  river.  —  298  M.  Oemona-Ospedaletto. 

3I61/2  M.  TJdine,  see  p.  349. 

From  Udine  to  (401  M.)  Venice,  see  pp.  349-345. 

II.  Piedmont. 

7.  Turin 27 

From  the  Piazza  Castello,  with  the  Royal  Palace,  to  the 
Academy  (gallery  of  paintings)  and  the  Piazze  San  Carlo 
and  Carlo  Emanuele,  30.  —  From  the  Piazza  Castello  to 
the  Cathedral,  the  Porta  Pa!atin;i,  and  the  Consolata,  36.  — 
From  the  Piazza  Castello  to  the  Pia/za  dello  Statute; 
Giardino  della  Ciitadella;  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  Se- 
condo,  37.  —  From  the  Piazza  Castello  by  the  Via  di 
Po  to  the  Piazza  Vittorio  Emanuele  Prime,  and  thence 
to  the  Giardino  Pubblico,  38.  —  Right  bank  of  the  Po ; 
Monte  dei  Cappuccini,  40. 

Excursions:  The  Superga,  41. —  Moncalieri.  Stupinigi. 

Carignano,  42. 

8.  The  Alpine  Valleys  to  the  West  of  Turin 42 

a.  Ceresole  Reale,  42.  —  b.  Lanzo,  43.  —  c.  Snsa,  43.  — 
d.  Torre  Pellice,  44.  —  e.  Crissolo  (Monte  Viso),  44. 

9.  From  Turin  to  Ventimiglia  via  Cuueo  and  Tenda    .    .     45 

10.  From  Cuneo  to  Bastia  (Turin,  Savona) 49 

Environs  of  Mondovi,  49. 

11.  From  Turin  to  Genoa 49 

a.  Via  Bra  and  Savona 49 

From  Bra  to  Alessandria,  50.  —  From  Ceva  to  Ormea,  50. 

b.  Via  Acqui  and  Ovada 51 

c.  Via  Alessandria  and  Novi 62 

12.  From  Turin  to  Aosta  and  Courmayeur 54 

Val  Gri'ssoney,  55.  —  Val  Tournjnche,  56.  —  Beeca  di 
Nona,  58.  —  From  Yillenexive  to  Ceresole  Reale,  59. 

13.  From  Aosta  to  the  Graian  Alps 60 

1.  From  Aosta  to  Cogne,  61.  —  2.  From  Cogne  to  Valsava- 
ranche,  62.  —  3.  From  Valsavaranche  to  Khemes  Kotre- 
Dame,  63.  —  4.  From  Rhemes  Notre-Danie  to  Valgri- 
sanche,  Liverogne,  and  Aosla,  03. 

14.  From  Santhik  (Turin)  to  Biella 64 

15.  From  Turin  to  Arona  via  Santhia  and  Borgomanero    .      66 

16.  From  Turin  to  Milan  via  Novara 65 

From  VerccUi  to  Alessandria,  66.  —  From  Novara  to 
Varallo,  and  to  Seregno,  63. 

17.  From  Domodossola  to  Novara.  liakeofOrta.  FromOrta 

to  Varallo 69 

Thi.s  district  'at  the  foot  of  the  mountains'',  enclosed  on  three  sides 
by  the  Alps  and  Apennines,  and  separated  from  Lombardy  by  the  Ticino, 
embraces,  according  to  the  present  division,  the  provinces  of  Turin,  No- 
vara, Cuneo,  and  Alessandria,  with  3,407,000  inhab.,  and  an  area  of  about 
il,4(X)  sq.  M.  It  consists  of  lowlands  flanking  the  banks  of  the  Po  and  its 
tributaries,  which  yield  rice,  wheat,  and  maize,  and  of  highlands  where  ex-- 
cellent  wine  and  silk  are  produced,  and  lastly  of  a  bleaker  mountain 
region  of  forests  and  pastures.  The  earliest  Inhabitants  were  Celtic  and 
Ligurian  tribes,  who  were  but  slowly  influenced  by  Roman  culture;  and 
it  was  not  till  the  reign  of  Augustus  that  the  subjugation  of  the  higher 
valleys  was  completed.     The  Dialect  of   the  people  still  retains  traces  of 


their  ancient  affinity  with  the  French;  thus,  pieuve,  instead  of  the  Italian 
piovere,  om  for  uomo,  cheur  for  cuore,  siti  for  citti,  rason  for  ragione, 
piassa  iot  piazza.  This  patois  is  universally  spoken,  even  by  the  upper 
classes,  but  is  unintelligible  to  strangers.  Throughout  Piedmont,  however, 
French  is  very  generally  understood. 

The  History  of  the  country  is  closely  interwoven  with  that  of  its 
dynasty.  The  House  of  Savoy  (or  Casa  Sabauda) ,  a  family  of  German 
origin,  professing  even  to  trace  their  descent  from  the  Saxon  I)uke 
Wittekind,  the  opponent  of  Charlemagne,  first  became  conspicuous  among 
the  nobles  of  Upper  Burgundy  about  the  year  1000.  Evmbert  J.  ('■Bian- 
eamano^ ;  A.  1056)  is  generally  regarded  as  the  founder  of  the  dynasty. 
His  descendants,  by  judiciously  espousing  the  cause  of  the  pope  and  the 
emperor  alternately,  gradually  succeeded  in  extending  their  supremacy , 
over  Turin,  Aosta,  Susa,  Ivrea,  and  Nice.  Amadeus  VI.  (1343-83),  known 
as  the  'Conte  Verde'  ('green  count')  from  his  nsual  dress,  extended  the 
power  of  hi»  house  in  numerous  feuds  and  warred  in  the  East.  Ama- 
deus VIII.,  raised  to  the  ducal  dignity  by  Emp.  Sigismund  in  1416,  added 
Geneva,  Vercelli,  and  Piedmont  to  his  possessions,  and  gave  the  princi- 
pality its  first  legislative  code.  He  retired  to  a  hermitage  at  Ripaille,  near 
Thonon,  in  1434,  but  was  created  pope  as  Felix  V.  (1439-49)  by  the  Council 
of  Basle  and  died  in  1451.  —  Situated  between  the  two  great  mediaeval 
powers  of  France  on  one  side,  and  Austria  and  Spain  on  the  other,  the 
princes  of  Savoy  frequently  changed  sides,  and  although  sometimes  over- 
taken by  terrible  disasters,  they  contrived  to  maintain,  and  even  to  extend, 
their  territory.  At  one  period  the  greater  part  of  the  Duchy  was  annexed 
to  France,  but  Emmanuel  Philibert  ('Testa  di  Ferro',  1553-80)  restored  it 
to  its  original  extent,  and  became  its  second  founder.  This  prince  spent 
25  years  as  a  general  in  the  service  of  Charles  V.  and  won  the  battle  of 
St.  Quentin  for  Philip  II.  Under  his  son  Charles  Emmanuel  I.  (1580-1630) 
the  Duchy  again  became  dependent  on  France.  From  the  sons  of  this 
prince  are  descended  the  elder  branch  of  the  family,  which  became  extinct 
in  1831,  and  the  younger  Carignano  line,  which  succeeded  to  the  throne 
in  the  person  of  Carlo  Alberto.  The  following  dukes  were  Vittorio  Amedeo  I. 
(1630-37),  Francesco  Qiacinto  (1637-38),  Carlo  Emanuele  II.  (1638-75),  and 
Vittorio  Amedeo  II.  (1675-1730).  The  last  of  these,  having  boldly  allied  him- 
self with  Austria  during  the  Spanish  War  of  Succession,  managed  to  throw 
off  the  French  suzerainty  (1703);  he  obtained  Sicily  as  his  reward,  which 
island,  however,  he  wai*  afterwards  obliged  to  exchange  for  Sardinia  (1720), 
and  in  1713  assumed  the  title  of  King,  which  was  subsequently  coupled 
with  the  name  of  the  latter  island.  His  successors  were  Carlo  Emanuele  III. 
(1730-73),  and  Vittorio  Amedeo  III.  (1773-96).  After  the  battle  of  Turin 
(1706),  in  which  Prince  Eugene  commanded  the  Imperialists,  the  Piedmont- 
ese  princes  directed  their  attention  to  Prussia,  which  served  as  a  model 
for  the  organisation  of  their  kingdom.  In  both  countries  the  military 
and  feudal  element  preponderated,  and  both  were  obliged  to  succumb 
to  the  new  powers  evolved  by  the  French  Revolution.  Carlo  Emanuele  IV. 
(1796-1802)  was  deprived  of  all  his  continental  possessions  by  the  French 
in  1798,  and  restricted  to  the  island  of  Sardinia,  which  was  protected 
by  the  English  fleet.  Vittorio  Emanuele  I.  (1802-21)  was  at  length  rein- 
stated in  his  dominions,  with  the  addition  of  Genoa,  by  the  Congress  of 
Vienna.  The  Napoleonic  period  had  swept  away  the  feudal  institutions 
of  Piedmont,  and  had  bequeathed  in  their  stead  many  of  the  benefits  of 
modern  legislation,  and  high  military  renown.  It  is  therefore  intelligible 
that  the  clerical  reaction,  which  set  in  with  the  king's  return,  gave  rise 
to  an  insurrection  which  caused  the  king  to  abdicate,  and  had  to  be 
quelled  by  Austrian  troops.  His  brother  Carlo  Felice  (1821-31)  adhered 
faithfully  to  Jesuitical  principles,  and  lived  on  the  whole  in  accordance 
with  his  motto,  'Non  sono  re  per  essere  seccato'  ('worried').  The  older 
line  of  the  House  of  Savoy  became  extinct  with  this  prince,  and  was 
succeeded  by  the  collateral  line  of  Carignano  (p.  42;  27th  April,  1831). 
Carlo  Alberto  (b.  1798),  who  had  been  educated  at  a  French  military 
school,  and  had  headed  the  insurrection  of  1821,  was  protected  by  France 
and  Russia  against  the  attempts  of  Austria   to  deprive  him  of  his  claims 


-.  %;^-;'^^ '  -'  '5'^'^''^-*|«ls>^'' 

TO  HI  MO        .  ^-1'  ,r»--Vv' 

'    ''ffiJ"''«'V^8S' '■■?.»"'- "'•<,^   X"---^ 
^.  ^'      ''<,    !   /       *'e*°-4  4-  ■■'■ 

*  .4.' 


TURIN.  7.  Route.    27 

to  the  throne.  His  own  experiences ,  and  the  force  of  circumstances, 
rendered  bim  an  implacable  enemy  of  Austria.  With  him  began  the 
national  development  of  Piedmont,  although  his  eflforts  were  not  always 
consistent.  The  liberals  called  him  the  'Re  Tentenna'  (the  vacillating), 
while  in  1843  he  himself  described  his  position  as  being  'between  the 
daggers  of  the  Carbonari  and  the  chocolate  of  the  Jesuits'.  On  6th 
Jan.,  1848,  Count  Cavour  made  the  first  public  demand  for  the  establish- 
ment of  a  constitution  ,  and  on  the  7th  Feb.  the  king  ,  half  in  despair, 
yielded  to  the  popular  desires.  The  insurrection  in  Lombardy  at  length 
induced  him  to  become  the  champion  of  national  independence  ,  and  to 
give  vent  to  his  old  enmity  against  Austria  (23rd  March),  but  one  year 
later  his  career  terminated  with  his  defeat  at  Novara  (23rd  March,  1849). 
He  then  abdicated  and  retired  to  Oporto,  where  he  died  in  a  few  months 
(26th  July).  It  was  reserved  for  his  son  Vittorio  EmanueU  II.  (b.  1820, 
d.  9th  Jan.,  1878)  finally  to  give  effect  to  the  national  wishes  of  Italy. 

7.  Turin,  Ital.  Torino. 

Railway  Stations.  1.  Stazione  Cenirale,  or  di  Porta  Nvova  (PI.  D,  4), 
the  terminus  of  all  the  lines  (*Rail.  Restaurant,  much  frequented  by  the 
iuhabilants).  —  2.  Stazione  di  Porta  Susa  (PI.  B,  2)  and  3.  Slazione  Torino 
Dora,  to  the  X.  of  the  town,  secondary  stations  for  the  trains  of  the  Novara- 
Wilan  line  and  fur  the  Cuorgno  line.  Omnibuses  and  cabs  meet  every  train 
at  the  first  two  stations.  City  office,  Carpaneto,  Galluria  Subalpina;  Sleeping 
Car  Office,  at  the  railway-station.  —  Stations  of  the  Steam  Tramways:  for 
the  Superga  (p.  41),  for  Trofarello  (p.  51)  via  Moncalieii  (p.  42),  and  for 
Chicasso  and  Brusasco  (p.  66),  in  the  Piazza  Castello  (PI.  E,  2,  3);  for  Cirii- 
Lamo  (p.  43)  near  the  Ponte  Mosca  (PI.  E,  1);  for  Stupinigi  and  Piohesi 
(see  p.  42)  and  fur  Pinerolo  (p.  44)  in  the  Via  Sacchi,  on  the  W.  side  of  the 
Central  Station;  for  Carignano  (p.  42)  in  the  Via  Nizza,  on  the  E.  side  of 
the  Central  Station.  For  the  steam-tramways,  comp.  the  larger  edition  of 
the  time-table  mentioned  at  p.  xvi,  or  the  Orario  dei  Tramways  (10  c). 

Hotels.  Jlost  of  the  leadini;  hotels  have  lifts  and  central  heating.  Gkand 
Hotel  et  Hotel  b'Eueope  (PI.  a;  E,  3),  Piazza  Castello  19,  R.  5-9,  B.  li/a, 
dej.  4,  D.  5,  pens,  from  10,  omn.  1  fr. ;  *Gr.  Hot.  db  Turin  (PI.  b;  D,  4), 
Via  Sacchi  10,  opposite  the  Central  Station,  R.  4-7,  B.  I1/2,  ddj.  3V-2-4,  D.  5-6, 
pens,  from  10,  omn.  V2-I  fr- ;  both  of  the  first  class.  —  "Gb.  Hot.  de  la 
ViLLE  ET  HoLOGNE  (PI.  1;  D,  4),  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  Secoudo  60, 
K.  from  3,  B.  11/4,  dej.  3'/2,  D.  41/2,  pens,  from  8  fr.,  incl.  wine;  Hut. 
Bonne-Femme  et  MfiTRoroLE  (PL  d;  E,  3),  Via  Pietro  Micca  3;  Gr.  Hot. 
Suisse -Terminus  (PI.  h;  D,  4),  Via  Sacchi  2,  near  the  Central  Station, 
R.  3-6,  B.  IV2,  dej.  31/2,  D-  41/2,  pens.  8-10  fr.,  incl.  wine,  omn.  1/2  fr. ; 
Hot.  Central  et  Continental  (PI.  e;  E,  3),  Via  delle  Finanze  2,  with 
restaurant,  R.  from  3,  B.  IV4,  dej.  3,  D.  41/2,  pens,  from  9,  omn.  1  fr. ; 
Gr.  Hot.  Fiorina  (PI.  f;  D,  3),  Via  Pietro  Micca  22,  hotel  garni,  well 
furnished,  R.  3-4  fr.,  steam-heating  50-80  c,  omn.  1  fr.  —  The  following  are 
second-class  and  more  in  the  Italian  style:  Alb.  Tre  Corone  e  Victoria 
(PI.  g;  D,  3),  Via  Venti  Settembre  41,  E.  from  21/2  fr.,  omn.  60  c.;  Hot.  du 
NoRD  (PI.  n;  1),  4),  Via  Roma  34,  R.  3  fr.,  very  fair;  Alb.  Roma  e  Rocca 
Cavour  (PI.  i;  D,  4),  Piazza  Carlo  Felice,  prettily  situated,  frequented  by 
French  tourists;  H6t.  de  France  et  de  la  Concorde  (PI.  k;  F,  3),  Via 
di  Po  20,  1'.  from  2'/2,  omn.  1  I'r.,  well  spoken  of:  Alb.  della  Zecca 
(PI.  0;  D.  4),  Via  Roma  36,  Dogana  Vecchia  (PI.  m;  D,  2),  Via  Corte 
d'Appello  4,  R.  2V2fr.,  omn.  60  c.,  Alb.-Ristobante  Savoia,  Corso  Vitt. 
Emanuele  66,  R.  from  IV2  fr.,  all  throe  unpretending.  —  Pens.  Pkenleloui", 
Via  Ospedale  5,  pens.  5-7  fr,  —  The  Orissini,  a  kind  of  bread  in  long,  thin, 
and  crisp  sticks,  are  a  speciality  of  the  place.  The  Piedmontese  wines 
have  a  high  repute  (comp.  p.  xxiii). 

Restaurants  (comp.  p.  xxi).  Ristorante  Molinari,  Via  Santa  Teresa,  at 
the  corner  of  the  Piazza  Solferino;  "Caffe-Jiistorante  Milano,  corner  of  the 
Piazza   Castello    and  Via   Barbaroux ;   '^Cafi-Iiestaurant  du    Cambio,   Piaz/.a 


Route  7.  TURIN,  Practical  Notes. 

Carignano;  Btrreria  Voigt,  Via  Pietro  Micca  22,  in  the  Hot.  Fiorina  (see 
above),  much  frequented  ;  Trattoria  Meridiana,  Via  Santa  Teresa  6,  Galleria 
Natta  (Vienna  beer) ;  Posta,  Piazza  Carlo  Alberto  ;  Risiorante  delta  Zecca 
(see  p.  27),  Via  Roma  36,  very  fair.  —  Wine  Room.  Cantina  di  Savoia, 
Via  Cavour  2,  good  Piedmontese  vi'ines.  —  Vermouth  di  Torino  (famous), 
good  at  Carpano''s,  Piazza  Castello  18. 

Cafes  (comp.  p.  xxiii).  Alferi,  Via  di  Po  9;  deffli  SpeccM,  Via  Pietro 
Micca;  San  Carlo,  Piazza  Sau  Carlo,  lAgure,  Corso  Vitt.  Em.  II.,  near  the 
station  (at  both  concert  in  the  evening).  —  Confectioners.  Baratti  tt  Milano, 
Romana,  Piazza  Castello,  S.  side;  Slratia,  Piazza  San  Carlo  7.  Chocolate: 
Oiuliano,  Via  dell'  Accademia  delle  Scienze.  —  A  favourite  local  beverage  is 
Bicerin  (15  c),  a  mixture  of  coffee,  chocolate,  and  milk.  The  chocolate 
made  in  Turin  (Gianduia)  is  noted. 

Birrerie  (p.  xxiii).  Risiorante  del  Teatro  Alfieri,'FiliZza,  Solferino;  Caffi 
Piemonte,  at  the  station  (Munich  beer  at  these);  Borsa,  Via  dell'  Accademia 
delle  Scienze  2;  Pilsener  Urquell-,  Via  Geneva,  corner  of  Via  Jlonte  di  Pieta. 

Cabs  (Vetture,  Cittadine) :  per  drive  (corsa)  1  fr.,  at  night  (12-6  a.m.) 
1  fr.  20  c. ;  first  1/2  hr.  1  fr.,  first  hour  (era)  1  fr.  60  c,  each  following 
V2hr.  75  c.,  at  night  I1/2,  2,  and  1  fr.;  hand-luggage,  carried  inside,  free; 
each  trunk  20  c. 

Electric  Tramways  (fare  10  c,  transfer  15  c.)  traverse  the  streets  in 
many  different  directions  (comp.  Plan  and  p.  130).  The  chief  centres  are 
Piazza  Castello  (PI.  E,  2,  3),  Piazza  Emanuele  Filiberto  ('Porta  Palazzo'; 
PI.  D,  E,  1,  2),  Piazza  dello  Statute  (PI.  C,  2),  Piazza  San  Martino  (PI.  B,  2), 
Piazza  Solferino  (PI.  D,  3),  and  Piazza  Carlo  Felice  (PI.  D,  4). 

Post  Office  (PI.  46;  E,  3),  Via  Principe  Amedeo  10,  near  the  Piazza 
Carlo  Alberto.  A  new  building  in  the  Via  dell'  Arsenale  is  projected. 
Branch-Ol'fies  in  Via  Sacchi  (Gr.  Hot.  de  Turin),  Via  Barbaroux,  and  Piazza 
Solferino.     Telegraph  Office  (PI.  E,  3),  Piazza  Carlo  Alberto. 

Booksellers.  Carlo  Clausen,  Via  di  Po  11  (also  photographs);  Rosenberg 
d:  Sellier,  Via  Maria  Vittoria  18;  F.  Casanova  d:  Co.,  Piazza  Carignano; 
Lalies,  Via  Garibaldi  3.  —  Newspapebs:  Oazzetta  del  Popolo,  II  Momenta, 
La  Ktampa,  Oazzetta  di  Torino. 

Goods  Agents.  Fratelli  Gondrand,  Galleria  Nazionale  (p.  35).  —  CooVs 
Office.,  Via  Roma  31,  in  the  Hotel  Trombetta. 

Bankers.  Banca  Commerciale  Italiana,  Via  Santa  Teresa  9;  Pellegrini  tt 
Moris,  Piazza  Solferino  6;  De  Fernex  <k  Co.,  Via  Alfieri  15;  Kueter  &  Co., 
Via  deir  Arsenale  14. 

Physicians.  Br.  F.  Cotiti,  Corso  Oporto  30  (.speaks  English  and  French); 
Dr.  Bergesio,  Via  Melchior  Gioia  8  (speaks  French).  —  Dentists.  Martini, 
Via  Pietro  Micca  (speaks  English);  Qarelli,  Via  Roma  15.  —  Chemists. 
Foglino,  Via  Roma  27;  A.   Torre,  Via  di  Po  14. 

Baths.  La  Provvidenza,  Via  Venti  Settembre  7;  Bagni  Cavour,  Via 
Lagrange  22.     Bath  V/i-V/t  fr.,  with  fee  of  20  c.  : 

Military  Husic  in  front  of  the  royal  palace  every  afternoon  when  the 
guard  is  changed  (between  4  and  6  p.m.);  in  May  and  June  on  ^un.  in 
the  old  Piazza  d'Armi  about  6  p.m.,  during  the  Corso;  and  thrice  weekly 
8-10  p.m.  in  the  Giardino  Pubblico  (p.  40),  and  on  Sun.  2-4  in  the  Giardino 
Reale  (comp.  p.  31). 

Theatres  (comp.  p.  xxiv).  Teatro  Regio  (PI.  E,  3),  Piazza  Castello,  for 
operas  and  ballets,  with  seats  for  2500  persons,  generally  open  during  Lent 
and  the  Carnival  only  (admission  3  fr.,  reserved  seats  10  fr.);  Vittorio 
Emanuele  (PI.  52;  F,  3),  Via  Rossini  13,  for  operas,  ballets,  and  equestrian 
performances;  Carignano  (PI.  48;  E,  3),  in  the  Piazza  of  that  name,  for 
operas  and  dramas;  Alfieri  (PI.  47;  D,  3),  Piazza  Solferino ;  Balbo  (PI.  E,4), 
Via  Andrea  Uoria  15,  for  operettas.  —  Rossini  (PI.  50;  F,  3),  Via  di  Po  24, 
for  plays  in  the  Piedmontese  dialect,  etc.  —  Gianduia  (PI.  49;  E,  3),  Via 
Principe  Amedeo  24,  a  marionette-theatre.  —  Cafi  Romano,  Galleria  Subal- 
pina  (p.  30),  a  theatre  of  varieties,  with  a  separate  stage  for  summer  on 
the  Piazza  Castello. 

British  Vice -Consul,  Sahmtore  Gnattari.  —  American  Consul,  Pietro 
Cuneo,  Via  Andrea  Doria  12. 

History.  TURIN.  7.  Route.     29 

English  Church,  Via  Pio  Quinto  15,  behind  the  Teinpio  Valdese;  ser- 
vice at  10.30  a.m.  —  Protestant  Service  in  the  Tempio  Valdese  (PI.  D,  E, 
4,  5)  on  Sundays,  in  French  at  11,  in  Italian  at  3  o'clock.  —  C/iiesa  Meto- 
dittu  Episcopate,  Via  Lagrange  13  (Sun.  10  a.m.  and  Thur3.  10.30  a.m.).  —  Cris/iana  Evanyelica,  Galleria  Nazionale. 

Public  Collections,  etc.  (official  holidays,  see  p.  xxiv). 
Accndemia  Alberiina  di  Belle  Arti  (p.  39),  week-days  10-5 ;  fee  50  c. 
Accademia  delle  Scienze  {Museum   of  Antiquities  and  Picture  Gallery;  p.  32), 
week-days  10-4  (May-Oct.  9-4),   1  fr. ;    Sun.  and   holidays  1-4,    free.     On 
certain  holidays  open  in  the  morning  also. 
Armeria  Reale  {Armoury;   p.  31),   daily  11-3;    on   week-days    tickets   must 

be  obtained  (gratis)  at  the  I'fficio  della  Direzione,   on  the  staircase. 
Biblioteca  Nazionale  (p.  39),    daily   (except   Sun.)   in  summer  9-5  (Nov.  to 

April  9-4  and  7-10) ;  closed  in  September. 
Castello  Medioevale  (p.  40),  daily  9-12  and  2-6,  50  c. 
Mole  Antonelliana  (p.  30),  daily  7-5,  50  c. 

Monte  dei  Cappuccini  (Belvedere  of  (he  Italian  Alpine  Club;   p.  40),    Nov.  to 
Feb.  8-11.30  and  15,   May  to  Aug.  5-11.30  and  2-6;  at  other  times  6.80- 
11.30  and  16;  40c.,  Sun.  25c. 
Museo  Oiiico  {Arte  applicata  alV  Indi/stria  and  Belle  Arti;  pp.  39,  38),  week- 
days 9-4,  1  fr. ;  Tnea.,  Thurs.,  Sun.  and  holidays  i'2-4,  free. 
Museo  Industriale  Italiano  (p.  35),  Sun.  <fe  holidays  12.30-4,  free. 
Museo  Nazionale  d' Artigliera  (p.  38),  week-days  10-12  &  2-4,  Sun.  and  holi- 
days 10-12 ;  tickets  obtained  at  the  Direzione  dell'  Officina  di  Costruzione 
d'Artijjliera,  Via  dcU'  Arsenale  24. 
Museo  di  Storia  Naturale  (p.  32),  daily,  except  Mon.,  1-4,  free. 
Palazzo  Reale  (p.  30),  daily  9-4;  fee  1  fr. 
Reale  Pinocoteca,  see  Accademia  delle  Scienze. 

Principal  Attractions  (l-l'/z  day):  Armoury  (p.  31),  ''Picture  Gallery 
(p.  33)  and  Museum  of  Antiquities  (p.  32) ,  monuments  in  the  Cathedral 
(p.  36),  view  from  the  'Mole  Antonelliana  (p.  39),  from  the  Monte  dei 
Cappuccini  (p.  40),  or  from  the  "Superga  (p.  41).  —  Excursion  to  the  Sagra 
di  San  Michele  (p.  3). 

Turin  (785  ft.),  Ital.  Torino,  the  ancient  Taurasia,  capital  of 
the  Taurini ,  a  Ligurian-Celtic  tribe ,  destroyed  by  Hannibal  B.C. 
218,  afterwards  the  Roman  Augusta  Taurinorum,  was  the  capital 
of  the  County  of  Piedmont  in  the  middle  ages,  and  in  1418  became 
subject  to  the  Dukes  of  Savoy,  who  frequently  resided  here.  From 
1720  it  was  the  capital  of  the  Kingdom  of  Sardinia,  and  from  1859 
to  1865  of  Italy.  The  seat  of  a  university  (founded  in  1404),  of 
an  archbishop,  and  of  a  military  academy,  and  headquarters  of  the 
1st  Italian  army  corps,  this  great  city  lies  in  an  extensive  plain 
on  the  Po,  which  receives  the  waters  of  the  Dora  Riparia  below 
the  city.  The  plain  of  the  Po  is  bounded  on  the  W.  by  the  Graian 
and  Coition  Alps,  and  on  the  E.  by  the  Colli  Torinesi  rising  on  the 
right  bank  (Monte  dei  Cappuccini,  p.  40;  Superga,  p.  41).  Turin 
was  the  chief  centre  of  those  national  struggles  which  led  to  the 
unification  of  Italy.  The  removal  of  the  seat  of  government  to 
Florence  impaired  the  prosperity  of  the  citizens  for  a  time,  but 
they  have  long  since  recovered  their  losses.  The  rapidly  increasing 
population  now  numbers  about  350,000,  including  the  suburbs. 

Turin  is  conspicuous  among  the  cities  of  Italy  for  the  regularity  of 
its  construction.  Its  plan  presents  rectangular  blocks  of  houses  ( I  sole),  long, 
broad,  straight  streets  (  Vie)  ,  frequently  with  arcades  (Portici),  and  spacious 
squares,  usually  adorned  with  gardens  and  numerous  monuments.  Its 
history  explains  this.     The  plan  of  the  old  town,  with  slight  variations, 

30     Route  7.  TURIN.  Pia&i.a  Castello. 

is  the  same  as  that  of  the  colony  founded  by  the  Emperor  Augustus, 
or  even  of  an  older  Roman  camp.  It  formed  a  rectangle  of  2210  ft.  in 
length  and  1370  ft.  in  breadth,  and  had  eleven  towers  on  each  side.  Its 
site  is  now  bounded  by  the  Piazza  Castello  on  the  E.,  the  Via  della  Con- 
solata  and  the  Corso  Siccardi  on  the  W.,  the  Via  Giulio  on  the  N.,  and 
the  Via  Santa  Teresa  on  the  S.  The  ancient  Via  Decnmana  is  represented 
by  the  modern  Via  Garibaldi  and  the  Via  Principalis  by  the  Via  Porta 
Palatina  and  the  Via  San  Tommaso.  Besides  the  X.  main  gate,  or  Porta 
Principalis  Dextra  (now  the  Porta  Palatina,  p.  36),  fragments  still  remain 
of  the  E.  main  gate  (Porta  Decwnana,  see  below)  and  of  the  ancient  N.W. 
corner  tower,  beside  the  Consolata  (p.  37).  —  In  the  17th  cent,  a  system- 
atic extension  of  the  city  was  begun  in  accordance  with  the  original  plan. 
The  fortifications  constructed  by  Francis  I.  in  1536,  and  finally  the  siege 
of  1706  cleared  away  most  of  the  old  buildings  and  gave  the  town  its 
present  regular  and  modern  appearance.  The  fortifications  were  demol- 
ished in  1801  and  1857. 

The  spacious  Piazza  Castello  (PI.  E,  2,  3)  forms  the  centre 
of  the  town.  From  this  point  the  busiest  streets  diverge  :  Via  Roma, 
Via  Pietro  Micca,  Via  Oaribaldi,  Via  delV  Accademia  delle  Scienze, 
and  Via  di  Fo  (p.  38).  —  In  the  S.E.  angle  of  the  Piazza  Castello 
is  the  Oalleria  dell'  Industria  Subalpina  (PI.  19),  the  other  end  of 
which  is  in  the  Piazza  Carlo  Alberto  (p.  32). 

The  Palazzo  Madama  (PI.  E,  3),  a  lofty  and  cumbrous  pile  in 
the  centre  of  the  Piazza  Castello,  had  as  its  nucleus  a  mediaeval  castle 
built  on  the  site  of  the  Roman  Porta  Decumana  (see  above).  This 
Castrum  Portae  Phibellonae,  strongly  fortified  by  William  of  Mont- 
ferrat  towards  the  end  of  the  13th  cent.,  was  extended  on  the  E. 
side  and  protected  by  two  lofty  sixteen-sided  towers  in  1416 
by  Lodovico  d'Acaia.  Farther  alterations  were  made  by  Charles 
Emmanuel  II.,  but  the  building  owes  its  present  name  to  his  widow, 
Maria,  who  as  Dowager  Duchess  (^Madama  Reale^J  embellished  it 
in  1718  by  the  addition  of  a  handsome  double  flight  of  steps  and  the 
facade  on  the  W.  side,  from  a  design  by  Fil.  Juvara.  The  apart- 
ments on  the  first  floor,  which  were  redecorated  at  the  same  period, 
were  used  from  1848  to  1860  as  the  meeting-place  of  the  Sardinian 
Senate.  The  palace  now  contains  several  institutions,  including  the 
State  Archives  and  an  Observatory,  in  the  towers  concealed  by  the 
W.  facade.  —  In  front  of  it  stands  a  Monument  to  the  Sardinian 
Army  (PI.  28)  by  Vine.  Vela,  erected  by  the  Milanese  in  1859; 
on  the  S.  side  is  a  bronze  statue  of  the  electrician  Galileo  Ferraris 
(1847-97),  by  L.  Contratti  (1902). 

At  the  N.W.  corner  of  this  piazza  is  the  church  of  San  Lorenzo 
(PI.  E,  2),  by  Guarini  (1687),  with  a  peculiar  dome,  and  destitute 
of  facade.    The  interior  displays  an  exaggerated  baroque  style. 

On  the  N.  side  of  the  Piazza  Castello  rises  the  Palazzo  BealOf 
or  Royal  Palace  (PI.  E,  2),  a  plain  brick  edifice  begun  in  1646  under 
Charles  Emmanuel  11.  The  palace-yard  (a  public  thoroughfare)  is 
separated  from  the  Piazza  by  a  gate,  the  pillars  of  which  are  adorned 
with  two  groups  in  bronze  of  Castor  and  Pollux,  designed  by  Abbon- 
dio  Sangiorgio  in  1842.     To  the  left  in  the  hall  of  the  palace  (ad- 

Palazzo  Reale.  TURIN.  7.  Route.     31 

mission  free) ,  near  the  staircase ,  is  an  equestrian  statue  of  Duke 
Victor  Amadeus  I.  (d.  1637);  the  statue  is  of  bronze,  the  horse  in 
marble ;  below  the  latter  are  two  slaves.  The  handsome  staircase 
is  embellished  with  statues  of  Emmanuel  Philibert  by  Santo  Varni, 
and  Charles  Albert  by  Vine.   Vela. 

The  'Interior  (adm.,  see  p.  29;  we  begin  with  the  Sala  degli  Svizzeri) 
contains  a  series  of  handsome  apartments  with  ceiling-decorations  by 
Bellosio  (1844).  Daniel  Seiter  of  Vienna  (1690),  Claudia  Beaumont,  and  the 
brothers  Fea  (1660),  and  with  tapestry  made  at  Turia  (17-18th  cent.).  The 
private  apartments  of  Victor  Emmanuel  II.  are  not  shown. 

The  remains  of  a  Roman  Theatre  were  discovered  in  1899  in  the  base- 
ment (no  adm.). 

The  S.E.  wing  of  the  palace  contains  the  *  Royal  Armouby 
{^Armerfa  Reale ;  PI.  E,  2),  entered  from  the  arcade  of  the  Pre- 
fettura  (PI.  E,  2;  first  door  to  the  left);  admission,  see  p.  29.  The 
collection,  which  is  on  the  second  story,  is  very  choice.  Catalogue 
(1891)  3  fr. 

Room  I  (Rotonda).  To  the  right  are  Indian  weapons  and  gifts  of  honour 
to  Victor  Emmanuel  II.  Beyond  the  door:  scimitar  of  Tippoo  Sahib,  Sultan  of 
Mysore  (d.  1799);  two  suits  of  Saracenic  armour;  weapons  from  Abyssinia ; 
Japanese  weapons  and  armour;  models  of  modern  weapons;  Turkish  and 
Persian  weapons.  In  the  centre  of  the  room  are  a  bronze  statuette  of 
Napoleon  I.  (by  Marochetti),  a  sword  he  wore,  and  a  quadrant  he  used 
when  a  young  officer;  two  French  regimental  eagles;  gifts  of  honour  to 
King  Humbert;  memorials  of  the  Duke  of  Abruzzi's  Arctic  Expedition 
(1899-1900);  Moltkes  Italian  orders;  the  favourite  horse  of  Charles  Albert. 
Piedmontese  flags  from  the  wars  of  1848-49  and  1859  over  the  cabinets.  — 
The  long  Hall  (Oalleria  Beaumont)  contains  the  equestrian  armour  of 
Cardinal  Ascanio  Maria  Sforza  Visconti  (15th  cent);  on  the  right,  several 
suits  of  armour  worn  by  members  of  the  Brescian  family  of  Marlinengo 
(i6th  cent.);  campaign  suit  of  Prince  Eugene  (1706);  fire-arms;  shields, 
helmets,  daggers,  maces;  sword  attributed  to  Bonatello ,  and  another 
at  one  time  erroneously  attributed  to  Benvenuio  Cellini.  Under  glass ,  a 
shield,  embossed  with  scenes  from  the  war  of  Marius  against  Jugurtha. 
By  the  left  wall,  as  we  return  :  under  gla's,  so-called  sword  of  St.  Maurice 
(a  work  of  the  13th  cent);  adjacent,  an  ancient  rostrum  in  the  form  of 
a  boar's  head,  found  in  the  harbour  at  Genoa.  Farther  on  a  Turkish  suit 
of  equestrian  armour,  said  to  have  lielcmged  to  Mohammed  II ;  armour  of 
Duke  Emmanuel  Philibert,  Viceroy  of  Sicily  (early  17th  cent.);  prehistoric, 
Etruscan,  and  Roman  weapons ;  fine  helmets  and  shields  of  the  15-16th  cent. ; 
sword  of  the  Imperial  General  Johann  von  Werth  (d.  1652),  bearing  a 
German  inscription  in  verse.  —  The  windows  on  the  right  command  a 
fine  view  of  the  palace  garden  and  the  Superga  (p.  41). 

On  the  lloor  below  is  the  Royal  Library  (Biblioteca  del  Re)  of  70,000  vols, 
and  3(XK)  MSS  (shown  only  on  application  to  the  librarian),  containing 
valuable  geographical,  historical,  and  genealogical  works,  miniatures  of 
the  14-16th  cent.,  drawings  by  i«oj?rtrdo  da  Fmct  ("Portrait  of  himself),  Fra 
Bartolomeo,  Correggio,  Qaudemio  Ferrari,  etc.  —  A  staircase  ascends  hence 
to  the  Collection  of  Coins,  trinkets,  enamels,  carved  ivory,  etc.,  in  a  small 
room  adjoining  the  Armoury. 

The  Palace  Garden  ((r'/ardmo  Reale;  Pl.E,  F,  2),  entered  from 
the  arcade  opposite  the  Palazzo  Madama,  is  open  on  Sun,  and  festi- 
vals, between  Ist  July  and  1st  Oct.,  11-6  o'clock  (military  music; 
p.  28).    Fine  view  of  the  Superga.  —  Cathedral,  see  p.  36. 

In  the  Piazza  Carignano  ,  a  little  to  the  S.  of  the  Piazza 
Castello,  rises  the  Palazzo  Carignano  (PI.  41 ;  E,  8),  with  a  curious 
brick  facade,  erected  by  Quarini  in  1680.     Victor  Emmanuel  11. 

32     Route  7.  TURIN.  Academy. 

was  born  in  tTiis  palace.  The  Sardinian  Chamber  of  Deputies  met 
here  from  1848  to  1859,  and  the  Italian  Parliament  from  1861  to 
1864.  The  handsome  facade  at  the  back,  in  the  Piazza  Carlo  Alberto, 
was  added  in  1864-71  by  Ferri  and  Bollati. 

The  palace  contains  the  MnsEO  di  Storia  Natueale  (adm.,  see  p.  29). 
The  collection  is  divided  into  the  Geological  and  Comparalive  Anatomy 
Section  in  the  E.  wing  and  the  Zoological  and  Mineralogical  Section  in  the 
W.  wing.  The  palseontological  division  contains  a  fine  collection  of  fossil 
mollusca  from  the  tertiary  formations,  and  the  skeletons  of  a  gigantic 
armadillo  (  Glyplodon  Clavipes),  a  Tetralophodon  Arvernensis,  a  Megatherium 
Cuvieri,  and  other  antediluvian  animals. 

In  the  Piazza  Carignano  stands  the  marble  statue  of  the  philo- 
sopher and  patriot  Vincenzo  Oioberti  (1801-52),  by  Albertoni,  erected 
in  1859.  —  The  Piazza  Carlo  Albbrto  (PI.  E,  3)  contains  a  bronze 
monument  to  King  Charles  Albert,  designed  by  Marochetti  (1861). 

In  the  vicinity.  Via  dell'  Accademia  No.  4,  at  the  corner  of  the 
Piazza  Carignano,  is  the  Palazzo  dell'  Accademia  delle  Scienze 
(PI.  E,  3),  formerly  the  Jesuit  College,  erected  by  Guarini  in  1679. 
On  the  Ground  Floor,  to  the  right,  are  Egyptian,  Roman,  and  Greek 
sculptures  (key  kept  on  the  first  floor)  ;  on  the  First  Floor  smaller 
antiquities ;  on  the  Second  Floor  (98  steps)  the  picture-gallery. 
Admission,  see  p.  29. 

The  Museum  of  Antiquities  (Reale  Museo  delle  Antichita)  had  as  its 
nucleus  the  Egyptian  collection  founded  about  18'iO  by  Sern.  Brovetti. 
Director,  Prof.  Sehiaparelli.     No  catalogue. 

Rooms  I  and  II  on  the  groundfloor  contain  the  larger  Egyptian  anti- 
quities: large  sphinxes,  figures  of  idols  and  kings,  architectonic  fragments, 
models  of  temples,  and  plaster  casts.  The  finest  objects  are,  in  R.  I 
(Sala  di  Ramesse  II.):  large  capital  in  the  shape  of  a  wreath  of  lotus- 
flowers;  colossal  head  of  a  king  of  the  Early  Empire;  two  statues  of 
Amenophis  II.,  and  a  diorite  *  Statue  of  Ramses  II.  (Sesostiia);  in  R.  II 
(Sala  di  Tutmosi  III):  colossal  statues  of  Kings  Thutmosis  lU.  and  Horem- 
heb.  —  We  novir  enter  the  Galleky,  to  the  left.  1st  Section:  Grseco- 
Boman  sculptures  found  in  Egypt  and  Rome.  Amazon  (in  green  basalt; 
freely  restored);  fragment  of  a  fine  relief  (youth  in  a  chariot  with  four 
horses),  probably  a  Greek  work.  In  this  section  are  also  cinerary  urns 
and  other  Etruscan  antiquities  from  Luna  (p.  119).  2nd  Section.  Remains 
of  a  Roman  mosaic  (myth  of  Orpheus)  and  inscriptions  found  in  Pied- 
mont.    3rd  Section :  Roman  inscriptions  and  arcbitectnral  fragments. 

The  Egyptian  collections  are  continued  on  the  First  Flooe.  In  the 
J«<  iJoom  (Sala  delle  Mummie)  are  mummy-coffins,  mummies,  mummy 
wrappings,  cannpi,  scarabsei,  amulets,  etc.  Among  the  papyri  is  a  'Book 
of  the  Dead',  edited  by  Lepsius.  In  the  centre  are  the  mummy  of  a  priest 
and  the  coffin  of  a  scribe,  bearing  hieratic  inscriptions  from  the  Book  of 
the  Dead.  —  The  2nd  Room  (Sala  del  Papiro  Regio)  contains  reliefs  and 
inscriptions,  from  the  5th  Dynasty  down  to  the  Roman  period;  statuettes 
of  the  Early  Empire,  the  Middle  Empire,  and  the  New  Emiiire.  In  the 
centre,  in  a  case  resembling  an  Egyptian  house,  are  papyri  of  the 
20th  Dynasty.  Fragments  from  the  archives  of  a  temple  in  the  Necropolis 
of  Thebes.  The  desk-cases  contain  a  celebrated  list  of  the  kings  of  Egypt 
down  to  the  19th  dynasty,  discovered  by  Champollion ;  remains  of  topo- 
graphical plans  of  Egyptian  gold-mines;  a  papyrus  with  caricatures,  etc.  — 
Adjoining  is  a  small  room  containing  Cyprian  antiquities.  —  From  R.  1  we 
enter  Gallery  I,  to  the  left.  To  the  right  and  in  the  centre  are  figures  of 
Egyptian  deities,  amulets,  articles  used  in  worship;  domestic  utensils, 
vases,  textile  fabrics,  toilet-articles,  weapons,  sandals,  etc.  In  the  centre 
is  the  Tabula  Isiaca  found  in  the  pontificate  of  Paul  III.,  and  a  "Statuette 

Academy.  TURIN.  7.  Route.     33 

of  a  girl  (Nofrit),  of  the  period  of  the  New  Empire.  To  tlie  left  are  Egyp'ian 
antiquities  of  the  Hellenistic,  Roman,  early-Christian,  and  Arab  periods.  — 
Galhry  2.  To  the  right  and  in  the  centre,  prehistoric  antiquities  from 
Egypt  (before  the  3oth  cent.  B.C.);  to  the  left,  prehistoric  and  eihuo- 
graphical  collections  from  the  Congo;  weafons  and  utensils  from  Somali- 
land.  —  Room  3.  Prehistoric  collection  from  Piedmont;  ca.sts  of  the  reliefs 
of  the  triumphal  arch  at  Susa  (p.  44).  In  the  centre,  model  of  the  largest 
'Niirago'  in  Sardinia.  —  Room  4.  Roman  and  Celtic  antiquiiies  found  in 
Piedmont.  Amongst  the  former  are  some  fine  glass  and  g^'Od  bronzes  (a 
Silenus;  Athena  of  the  type  of  the  Parthenos  of  Phidias;  Roman  portrtit- 
bust  of  a  member  of  the  Ciens  Claudia).  —  Room  5.  (to  the  left  of  Gallery  2). 
In  the  1st  section  are  Egyptian  textiles  of  the  Christian  and  Arab  periods 
(including  Coptic  fabrics).  '2nd  Sec.  (antiquitirs) :  Greek  and  Roman  sta- 
tuettes and  utensils  in  bronze,  Greek  and  Etruscan  vases,  pre-Roman 
glass  and  bronzes  from  Sai'dinia,  Greek  and  Roman  coins.  In  the  centre. 
Statue  of  Cupid  by  Michael  Angela  (?).  3rd  Sec. :  Ethnographical  collections 
from  America,  the  Fiji  Islands,  etc. 

The  *Picture  Gallery  ( Pinacoteca)  embraces  21  rooms,  coutain- 
ing  over  600  paintings.  Director,  At.  Baudi  di  Vesme.  Good 
illustrated  catalogue  (1899),  4  fr.  —  The  art- collections  of  the 
House  of  Savoy  were  founded  by  Charles  Emmanuel  I.  (1580-1630) 
and  were  largely  increased  in  1741  by  the  purchase  of  Prince 
Eugene's  valuable  gallery,  which  included  many  Netherlandish 
works.  A  number  of  the  paintings  carried  off  by  the  French  in 
1798  remained  in  Paris  after  the  conclusion  of  peace  in  1815;  and 
in  1831,  the  rest,  which  had  meantime  been  scattered  through 
various  palaces,  were  collected  to  form  a  public  gallery  in  the 
Palazzo  Madama.   They  were  transferred  to  the  Academy  in  1865. 

This  collection  is  important  for  the  study  of  Macrino  d'Alba 
(1470-1528)  and  his  pupil  Defendente  de  Ferrari  (1470-1532),  and 
of  Gaudenzio  Ferrari  (c.  1471-1546),  who  was  inspired  by  Leon, 
da  Vinci  and  influenced  by  Perugino  (Nos.  46  and  51).  Sodoma 
(c.  1477-1549),  who  originally  belonged  to  the  Lombard  school,  is 
well  represented.  Lorenzo  di  Credi's  (1459-1537) Madonna,  No.  115, 
of  his  best  period,  shows  that  he  was  influenced  by  Leon,  da  Vinci. 
Among  numerous  and  important  works  of  the  old  Netherlandish 
school  are:  188.  Petrus  Cristus;  202.  Memling;  17,  264,  279,  288. 
by  Van  Dyck;  231,  261.  Genre-pictures  by  D.  Teniers  the  Younger; 
393.  Rembrandt's  Old  man  asleep. 

I.  Room.  Princes  of  the  House  of  Savoy:  1.  Horace  Vernet ,  King 
Charles  Albert ;  6.  J.  van  Schuppen,  Prince  Eugene ;  12.  iV.  Mignard,  Francoise 
d'Orleans,  first  wife  of  Charles  Emmanuel  II. ;  "17.  Van  Dyck,  Prince 
Thomas  (16,^4). 

II.  Room.  Chiefly  Piedmontcse  masters  of  the  14-16th  cent. :  21.  Barnaha 
da  Modena.  Madonna  (1370);  Macrino  d  Alba,  23.  St.  Francis  receiving  the 
stigmata  (1506),  '26.  Madonna  with  SS.  John  the  Baptist,  James,  Hugh, 
and  Jerome  (the  painter's  masterpiece;  1498),  31,  33.  Altar-wings  with 
St.  Louis  of  Toulouse  and  SS.  Peter,  Paul,  and  Bonaventura  (?);  between 
these,  29bi3.  Oiov.  Mart.  Spanzotli,  Madonna  enthroned ;  De/endente  de  Ferrari, 
36.  Betrothal  of  St.  Catharine,  36.  Madonna  with  SS.  Michael  and  Bartara 
(on  the  predella  of  the  ancient  frame,  the  Legend  of  St.  Barbara),  33.  Saints. 

III.  Room.  Gaudemio  Ferrari,  43.  Visitation,  '46.  St.  Peter  and  donor, 
48.  Joachim  driven  from  the  Temple,  49.  Madonna  enthroned  and  two 
saints,  50.  CruciOxi(  n  (in  distemper),  51.  Pieta. 

Bakukiskk.    Italy  I.     13th  Edit.  3 

34     Route  7.  TURIN.  Academy. 

IV.  Room.  Sodoma,  56.  Holy  Family,  59.  Lucretia,  '63.  Madonna 
enllironed  with  SS.  Jerome,  John  the  Evangelist,  Lncia,  and  Catharine. 

V.  Room.     Piedraontese  masters  of  the  17th  and  18th  centuries. 

VI.  Room.  Tuscan  School  (15-16th  cent.):  1U3,  101,  Fra  AngeUco  da 
Fiesole,  Adoring  angels ;  106.  Style  of  Sandro  Botticelli,  Triumph  of  Chastity  ; 
110.  Botticelli,  Madonna;  112.  Franciahigio,  Annunciation;  "115,  116.  Lor.  di 
Credi,  Madonna"! ;  117.  Fiero  Follaiiiolo,  Tobias  and  the  archangel  Raphael ; 
122,  123.  Ang.  Bromijio,  Kleonora  da  Toledo  and  he;-  husband  Cosimo  I.  of 
Medici;  Bctld.  Peruzzi,  129.  Head,  131.  Design  of  a  facade  (drawing). 

VII.  Room.  Various  Italian  Schools  (15-16th  cent.):  Ambrog.  Borgognone, 
134.  St.  Ambrose  preaching  and  consecration  of  St.  Augustine,  135.  Madonna; 
above,  140.  Oianpietrino ,  SS.  Catharine  and  Peter  Martyr;  141.  Paolo  da 
Brescia,  Madonna  and  four  saints  (triptych,  1459);  145.  Mici Raphael,  Por- 
triiit  ot  Pope  Julius  II.  (p.  492);  '146.  'Raphael,  Madonna  della  Tenda  (a 
very  fine  picture,  but  the  original  is  at  Munich);  148.  Franc.  Penni,  Good 
copy  of  Eaphaers  Entombment  in  the  Borghese  Gallery  at  Rome  (1518); 
149.  GiuUo  Clorno,  'II  Santissimo  Sudario'  (comp.  p.  30);  157.  Giov.  Bellini, 
Madonna  (ruined  by  retouching;);  155.  Franc.  Francia,  Entombment  (1515); 
161.  Titian,  St.  Jerome  (a  late  work;  injured);  162.  Gregorio  Schiavone, 
Madonna;  164.  Mantegna,  Madonna  and  saints  (much  retouched);  166.  After 
Titian,  Pope  Paul  III.  (original  at  Naples).  —  The  Ante-Room  and  Room  IX 
contain  a  collection  of  drawings,  engravings,  and  v.'oodcuts  by  old  masters 
(changed  from  time  to  time). 

VIII.  K'JOM.  167.  i^esfdeno  (7a  (SeH/^nrmo,  Madonna  (marble  relief);  168. 
Studio  of  the  Della  Robbia,  Adoration  of  the  Infant  Saviour  (terracotta 
relief).  —  169-186.  Porcelain-paintings  by  A.  Constantin  of  Geneva  (chiefly 
copies   of  famous  pictures  ;   c.  182')).   —  We  pass  through  R.  IX  to  the  — 

X.  Room.  Netherlandish  Schools  (15-17tb  cent.);  '187.  Jan  van  Et/ck(1), 
St.  Francis  receiving  the  stigmata;  188.  Petrvs  Cristus,  Madonna;  "189,  190. 
Rogier  van  der  }yetjden.  Visitation,  with  portrait  of  the  donor  (retouched); 
192.  Flemish  Master  of  the  Female  Half-figures,  Crucifixion  (triptych);  "202. 
H.  Memling,  The  Passion,  a  chronological  representation  in  tlie  popular  style 
of  the  North  (ia  the  foreground  excellent  portraits  of  the  dou^r  and  his 
wife);  218.  Teniers  the  Younger,  The  painter's  wife;  223.  Ant.  Sallaert,  Pro- 
cession in  Brussels  ;  231.  Teniers,  Tavern-scene ;  234.  JanBrueghel,  Landscape. 

XI.  Room.  Dutch  Schdol  (17th  cent.):  261.  Teniers,  Card-players;  *264. 
Van  Dyck,  Children  of  Charles  I.  of  England  (1635) ;  274.  Rubens,  Sketch 
of  his  apotheosis  of  Henri  IV  in  the  Vfiizi  (p.  495);  Van  Dyck,  '279.  Infanta 
Isabella  of  Spain,  2:?8.  Holy  Family  (showing  (hs  ialluence  ofTi'ian);  292. 
Fyt,  Still-life;  29B.  S?iyders,  Fruit. 

XII.  Room.  German  and  Spanish  Schools.  303.  II.  Holbein  the  Younger, 
Portrait  of  Erasmus  (a  copy  of  the  original  in  Parma);  313,  3l8.  Angelica 
Kauffmann ,  Sibyls;  between  these,  315.  Netscher,  Scissors-grinder  (1662); 
"320.   Velazquez,  Philip  IV.  of  Spain;  322.  Ribera,  St.  Jerome. 

XIII.  Room.  French  School  (17-18th  cent.):  330.  A'.  Poussin,  St.  Mar- 
garet; 338.  P.  Mignard,  Louis  XIV.  on  horseback;  343,  346.  Claude  Lorrain, 
Landscapes;  350.  F.  Desportes,  Siill-life;  352.  Bourguignon,  Battle  against 
the  Turks;  360.  Mms.  Vigie-Lebrun,  Portrait  (1792). 

XIV.  Room.  Netherlandish  Schools  (16-1 7th  cent.):  332.  Engelbrechtsen, 
Crucifi.Nion  (triptych);  G.  Dou,  375.  Portrait  of  a  geographer,  377.  Girl  at  a 
window  (lli(i'i) ;  379.  Frans  van  Mieris  the  Elder,  Portrait  of  himself  (1659) ; 
392.  B.  Fabritiiis,  Expulsion  of  Hagar  (1655);  *393.  Rembrandt,  Old  man 
asleep,  resembling  the  artist's  father  (an  early  work,  ca.  1629);  395.  Mytens 
and  Steenwyck,  Charles  I.  of  England  (1627);  Philips  Wouverman,  402.  Battle, 
404.  Horse-market ;  406.  Paul  Potter,  Cattle  (1649) ;  *412.  Saenredam,  Synagogue, 
the  figures  by  A.  van  Ostade;  419,  420.  /.  D.  de  Eeem,  Fruit  and  flowers. 

XV.  Room.  Landscapes  of  the  Dutch  school,  etc.;  at  the  exit,  444. 
/.  van  Rvysdael,  Landscape. 

XVI.  Room.  Italian  Schools  (17th  cent.):  464.  GiuUo  Cesare  Procaccini 
(here  attributed  to  Giov.  Batiista  Crespi),  SS.  Francis  and  Carlo  Borromeo 
adoring  the  Madonna;  *4G5.  Caravaggio,  Lute-player;  474.  Sassoferrato, 
Madonna;  478.  Carlo  Dolci,  Madonna;  479.  Carlo  Maratta,  Archangel  Gabriel; 
482.  Sassoferrato,  Madonna  dellaRosa;  above,  477,483.  G.  Poussin,  Landscapes. 

Via  Roma.  TURIN.  7.  Route.    35 

XVII.  Room.  491.  Guercino,  St.  Francesca  Romana;  492,  493.  Albani, 
Salmacis  and  the  Hermaphrodite;  4913.  Guido  Eeni,  Putti;  497.  Guercino, 
Return  of  the  Prodigal  Son;  501.  Givs.  Maria  Crespi,  St.  Nepomuk  in  the 
confessional;  50i.  Elisahetia  Sirani  (?),  Death  of  Abel.  —  In  the  corners; 
489,  495,  500,  509.  Franc.  Albani,  The  four  Elemenls. 

XVIII.  Room.    534.  Guercino,  Ecce  Homo ;  548.  Strozzi  (?),  Komer. 

XIX.  Room.  Chiefly  Venetian  Schools  (llj-lir^th  cent.):  51)4.  Paolo  Vero- 
nese, Danae  ;  5G7.  Ant.  Badile  (master  of  P.  Veronese),  Presentation  in  the 
Temple;  512.  P.  Veronese.  The  t^ueen  of  Shcba  before  Solomon;  5^3.  Oiro- 
lamo  Savoldo,  Holy  Family ;  575.  School  of  P.  Veronese,  Finding  of  Moses. 

XX.  Room.  *580.  P.  Veronese,  Mary  Magdalen  washing  the  Saviour's 
feet;  582,  585.  Bern.  Belotto,  Views  of  Turin  ;  587.  Jcic.  Bassano,  Cupid  at 
the  forge  of  Vulcan;  590.  Canaletto,  Piazzetta  in  Venice;  594.  Giov.  Bait. 
Tiepolo,  Triumph  of  Germanicus. 

XXI.  Room.     Battles  of  Prince  Eugene,  by  Euchtenbtirgh  and  others. 
Opposite  the  Academy,  to  the  E.,   is  the  large  church  of  San 

Filippo  (PI.  9;  E,  3),  erected  by  Guarini  in  1679,  and  restored  hy 
Juvara  in  1714.  The  portico  in  front  is  a  later  addition.  The  church 
contains  pictures  hy  Guercino  and  others. 

The  spacious  Piazza  San  Carlo  (PI.  D,  E,  3")  is  emhellished 
with  an  equestrian  *Statue  of  Duke  Emmanuel  Philibert,  in  bronze, 
designed  by  Marochetti  (1838\  The  relief  on  the  W.  side  represents 
the  Battle  of  St.  Quentin  (1557) ;  that  on  the  E.  side  the  Peace 
of  Cateau-Cambre'sis  (1559),  by  which  the  duchy  of  Piedmont  was 
restored  to  the  House  of  Savoy ;  the  duke  as  ^pacem  reddihirus'  is 
in  the  act  of  sheathing  his  sword.  ■ —  The  two  churches  on  the  S.  side 
of  the  piazza  are  San  Casio  and  Sant.\  Ceistina,  both  founded  at 
the  beginning  of  the  17th  cent.,  with  facades  of  later  date:  that  of 
S.  Cristina  by  Juvara  (1718),  that  of  S.  Carlo  by  Grassi  (1836). 
S.  Carlo  contains  a  monument  of  the  condottiere  Francesco  Maria 
Broglia  and  a  high-altar-piece  by  Morazzone. 

The  Via  Roma  leads  from  the  Piazza  San  Carlo  to  the  N.  to  the 
Piazza  Castello  (p.  30"),  and  to  the  S.,  passing  the  Galleria  Nazionale 
(PL  D,  4),  built  in  1889,  to  the  Piazza  Carlo  Felice  (p.  38)  and  the 
central  railway-station ;  to  the  E.  the  Via  Maria  Vittoria,  with  the 
Pal.  della  Cisterna  (PI.  44,  E  3;  at  the  corner  of  the  Via  Carlo  Al- 
berto), the  residence  of  the  Duke  of  Aosta,  leads  to  the  Piazza  Carlo 
Emanuele  Secondo  (see  below).  —  No.  32  in  the  Via  dell'  Ospedale 
is  the  Museo  Industriale  Italiano  (PI.  39,  E  4;  adm.,  see  p.  29). 

The  AicoLA  Ealbo  (PI.  E,  4),  close  by,  is  adorned  with  a  monument 
to  Daniele  Manin  (comp.  p.  '290),  by  Vela,  and  with  marble  statues  of  Cesare 
Balbo  (1789-1853),  the  minister  and  historian,  by  Vela,  and  of  the  Pied- 
montese  general  Bava,  by  Albertoni.  —  To  the  N.E.  are  the  grounds  of  the 
Pia/.za  Cavour  (PI.  E,  F,  4),  with  a  statue  of  the  general  and  statesman 
Count  liobilant  (1826-88).  —  Farther  on,  in  the  direction  of  the  Piazza  Maria 
Teresa  (PI.  F,  4),  is  a  monument  to  Gen.  Guglielmo  Pepe  (d.  li-53),  the  gallant 
defender  of  Venice  in  1849.  —  A  few  paces  to  the  S.,  in  the  Via  Mazzini, 
st;inds  the  domed  church  of  San  Kassimo  (PI.  E,  4),  built  in  1845-54  by 
C.  Sada.     The  interior  contains  good  modern  frescoes. 

The  Piaiza  Bodoni  (PI.  E,  4),  to  the  S.W.  of  the  Aiuola  Balbo,  is  adorned 
with  an  equestrian  statue  of  General  Alfonso  Lamarmora  (d.  1878),  well 
known  from  the  Crimea  and  the  wars  of  1859  and  186G. 

In  the  centre  of  the  Piazza  Carlo  Emanublk  Secondo  (PI.  E,  3, 4), 
commonly  called  the  'Piazza  Carlina',   rises  the  imposing  marble 

36     Route  7.  TURIN.  Northern 

Monument  of  Cavour,  by  Oiov.  Dwpre,  erected  in  1873.  Grateful 
Italy  presents  the  civic  crown  to  the  creator  of  Italian  unity,  who  holds 
a  scroll  in  his  left  hand  with  the  famous  words  'libera  chiesa  in  libero 
stato'.  —  A  tablet  at  Via  Cavour,  No.  8,  marks  the  house  (PI.  D,  4) 
in  which  Count  Camillo  Cavour  (1810-61)  was  born. 

Adjoining  the  Pal.  Reale  (p.  30)  on  the  N.W.,  in  Via  Venti  Set- 
tembre,  is  the  Cathedral  {San  Giovanni  Battista;  PL  E,  2),  erected 
on  the  site  of  three  earlier  churches  in  1492-9S  by  Meo  del  Caprina  of 
Florence,  in  the  Renaissance  style.  The  upper  part  of  the  tower 
dates  from  1648. 

The  Interior  consists  of  nave,  aisles,  and  transept,  with  an  octagonal 
dome.  Over  the  W.  portal  is  a  copy  of  Leon,  da  Vinci's  Last  Supper 
(p.  154).  Over  the  second  altar  on  the  right  is  an  altar-piece  (Madonna 
and  saints)  by  Dcfendente  de  Ferrari  (restored  in  1899).  Frescoes  on  the  ceil- 
ing modern.    The  seats  of  the  royal  family  are  to  the  left  of  the  high-altar. 

Behind  the  high-altar  is  the  Cappella  del  Santissimo  Sudario  or  della 
Santissima  Sindone  (open  during  morning  mass  till  9  o'clock ;  reached  by 
37  steps  to  the  right  of  the  high-altar) ,  constructed  in  1694  by  Quarini. 
It  is  a  lofty  circular  chapel  of  dark  brown  marble,  contrasting  strongly 
with  the  white  monuments,  separated  from  the  choir  by  a  glass  partition, 
and  covered  with  a  curiously  shaped  dome.  The  monuments  were  erected 
by  King  Charles  Albert  in  18.12  to  the  memory  of  illustrious  members  of 
his  family:  (r.)  Emmanuel  Philibert  (d.  1580),  'restitntor  imperii',  by  Pompeo 
Marchesi;  Prince  Thomas  (d.  1656),  'qui' magno  animo  italicam  libertatem 
armis  adseruit  nee  prins  dimicare  destitit  quam  vivere',  by  Gaggini;  Charles 
Emmanuel  II.  (d.  1675),  by  Fraccaroli;  Amadeus  711 1,  (d.  1461),  by  Cac- 
ciatori.  The  peculiar  light  from  above  enhances  the  effect.  In  a  kind 
of  urn  over  the  altar  is  preserved  the  Santissimo  Sudario  or  Santissima 
Sindone,  a  part  of  the  linen  cloth  in  which  the  body  of  the  Saviour  is 
said  to  have  been  wrapped.  This  was  brought  from  Cyprus  to  Chambe'ry 
in  1452  and  since  1578  has  been  preserved  at  Turin. 

From  the  Piazza  San  Giovanni  the  Via  Quattro  Marzo  leads  to 
the  W.  to  the  Palazzo  dl  Citta  (see  below).  —  Behind  a  railing 
on  the  right  in  the  Via  Venti  Settembre  are  some  remnants  of  the 
Roman  Town  Wall.  Farther  on  we  turn  to  the  left  and  reach  the 
Porta  Palatina,  or  Palazzo  delle  Torri  (PI.  E,  2 ;  p.  29),  a  Roman 
gateway  with  two  sixteen-sided  brick  towers,  restored  and  exposed 
to  view  in  1905.  —  At  the  S.  end  of  the  Via  Porta  Palatina,  to 
the  right,  is  the  church  of  Corpus  Domini  (PL  D,  E,  2),  erected 
in  1610  by  Ascanio  Vittozzi,  on  the  site  of  a  chapel  built  to  com- 
memorate a  miracle  of  the  Host  (1521).  The  interior  was  altered  in 
1763.  —  In  the  adjacent  church  of  Santo  Spirito,  dating  from  1610 
and  restored  in  1743,  Rousseau,  an  exile  from  (jeneva,  at  the  age 
of  16,  became  a  Roman  Catholic  in  1728,  but  he  again  professed 
Calvinism  at  Geneva  in  1754. 

The  Piazza  del  Palazzo  di  Citta,  a  few  paces  to  the  W.,  is  adorn- 
ed with  a  monument  to  Amadeus  VI.  (PL  21),  the  'Conte  Verde' 
(d.  1383 ;  p.  26),  conqueror  of  the  Turks  and  restorer  of  the  imperial 
throne  of  Greece  (d.  1383),  a  bronze  group  by  Palagi  (1853). 

The  Palazzo  di  Citt^  (PL  D,  2),  or  town-hall,  was  erected  by 
Lanfranchi  in  1669.    The  marble  statues  beside  the  entrance  of  (l.j 

Quarters.  TURIN.  7.  Route.     37 

Prince  Eugene  (d.  1736;  by  Simonetta)  and  (r.)  Prince  Ferdinand 
(d.  1855;  by  Dini),  Duke  of  Genoa  and  brother  of  Victor  Emman- 
uel XL,  were  erected  in  1858  ;  that  of  King  Charles  Albert  (d.  1849), 
by  Cauda,  in  the  colonnade  to  the  left,  was  erected  in  1859;  that  of 
King  Victor  Emmanuel  II.  (d.  1878),  by  Vela,  to  the  right,  in  1860. 
The  first  floor  contains  the  Bibiioteca  Civica. 

The  Via  Milano  leads  hence  to  the  N.  to  the  church  of  San  Do- 
menico  (PI.  8,  D  2;  founded  in  1354  and  frequently  restored), 
which  contains  a  Madonna  and  St.  Dominic  by  Guercino;  and  the 
Via  Corte  d'Appello  to  the  W.  to  Piazza  Savoia  (PI.  D,  2),  in 
which  rises  an  obelisk,  75  ft.  in  height,  commemorating  the  aboli- 
tion of  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction  by  the  minister  Siccardi  in  1850. 
—  A  few  yards  to  the  "W.,  in  the  Via  del  Carmine,  is  the  Chiesa 
del  Carmine  (VI.  1 ;  C,  D,  2),  designed  by  Juvara  (modern  facade). 

The  Via  della  Consolata  leads  from  the  Piazza  Savoia  to  the  N. 
to  the  church  of  La  Consolata,  At  the  S.  end  of  this  street  (No.  1) 
is  the  Palazzo  Paesana  (PI.  45;  D,  2),  built  in  the  18th  cent,  by 
Planter!,  a  pupil  of  Juvara,  with  an  imposing  vestibule  and  staircase. 

La  Consolata  (PI.  2;  D,  2),  formed  by  the  union  of  two  churches, 
is  a  building  in  the  baroque  style,  erected  by  Guarini  in  1679,  de- 
corated by  Juvara  in  1714,  and  sumptuously  rebuilt  in  1903-4.  The 
oval  church  of  Sant^  Andrea  is  adjoined  by  a  Campanile  (10th  cent.?), 
a  relic  of  the  convent  of  Sant'  Andrea,  and  opens,  on  the  right,  on 
a  new  chapel,  containing  a  highly-revered  image  of  the  Madonna. 
Adjoining  is  the  hexagonal  Santuario  della  Consolata,  with  several 
circular  side-chapels.  A  new  chapel  to  the  left  contains  kneeling 
statues  in  marble  of  Maria  Theresa,  Queen  of  Charles  Albert,  and 
Maria  Adelaide,  Queen  of  Victor  Emmanuel  II.  (both  of  whom  died 
in  1855),  by  Vela,  erected  in  1861. 

From  the  Piazza  Castello  (p.  30)  the  narrow  Via  Garibaldi  loads 
to  the  Piazza  dello  Stattjto  (PI.  C,  2),  with  the  huge  Mont  Cenis 
Tunnel  Monument,  by  Tabacchi  (1879):  tlie  Genius  of  Science  soars 
above  a  pile  of  granite  rocks,  on  which  lie  the  stupefied  and  con- 
quered giants  of  the  mountain.  On  a  tablet  are  the  names  of  the 

From  the  Via  Garibaldi  we  proceed  to  the  S.  by  the  Corse  Sic- 
cardi to  the  Giardino  della  Cittadella  (PI.  C,  D,  2),  with  statues  of 
Brofferio  (1802-66),  poet  and  radical  politician,  and  the  jurist  G. 
B.  Cassinis. 

Outside  the  MascMo  della  Cittadella  (PI. 20;  0,  3),  the  former 
entrance  to  the  citadel  (erected  in  1565  and  nearly  all  pulled  down 
in  1857),  is  a  monument  in  memory  of  Pietro  Micca,  the  heroic 
'soldato  minatorc',  who  at  the  sacrifice  of  his  own  life  saved  the 
citadel  of  Turin,  on  30th  Aug.,  1706,  by  springing  a  mine  when  the 
French  grenadiers  had  already  advanced  to  the  very  gates.    The  in- 

38     Route  7.  TURIN.      Norih-Western  Quarters. 

terior  accommodates  the  Museo  Nazionale  d'Arliglieria,  a  collection 
of  weapons  of  all  periods,  comprising  pieces  of  ordnance  from  the 
14th  cent,  to  the  present  day;  adm.  see  p.  29). 

In  the  pretty  grounds  of  the  ViA  della  Cernaia,  to  the  E.  of  the 
citailel,  rises  the  statue  of  General  Alessandro  Lamarmora  (d.  1855  in  the 
Crimea),  who  founded  the  Bersa^lieri  in  1836. 

In  the  Piazza  Solferin'O  (PI.  D,  3)  ri^es  an  equestrian  statue  of  Duke 
Ferdinand  of  Genoa  (p.  37),  by  Bal/.ico  (1877);  the  duke  is  represented  as 
commander  at  the  battle  of  Novara  (p.  67),  with  his  liorse  mortally  wonnded. 
The  gardens  of  the  piazza  contain  monuments  of  General  Qerhaix  de  Sonnaz 
(d.  1867),  by  Dini,  and  the  historian  Giuseppe  La  Farina  (d.  1863),  by  Auteri. 

—  To  the  S.K.  of  the  Piaz/a  Solferino,  in  the  Via  delT  Arsenale,  stands 
the  Artillery  Arsenal  (PI.  D,  3,  4),  founded  in  1659. 

Farther  on  the  Corso  Siccardi  intersects  the  Piazza  Vittorio 
Emanuele  Secondo  (pi.  C,  4),  in  which  was  unveiled  in  1899  the 
Monument  of  Victor  Emmanuel  II.,  by  P.  Costa  (d.  1901).  The  base 
is  surmounted  by  four  Doric  columns  of  red  Baveno  granite,  sup- 
porting a  colossal  statue  of  the  king.  The  total  height  of  the 
monument  is  125  ft. 

To  the  S.  of  the  Piazza,  Corso  Siccardi  30,  is  the  Museo  Civico 
di  Belle  Arti  (PI.  B,  C,  4;  adm.,  see  p.  29). 

In  the  vestibule,  sculptures  of  the  19th  cent.  :  in  the  central  row  to 
the  right,  Canora,  Siippho;  Vela,  Dante;  FantacchioUi,  Eve;  Emilio  Fran- 
cescM,  Crucifixion  of  Eulalia,  extremely  realistic  (1880);  Ei.  Ximenes,  The 
Kiss  of  Judas  (bronze;  18"'4).    Eight  rooms  contain  modern  Italian  paintings. 

—  On  the  upper  floor,  reached  from  Room  VIII,  is  the  Mttseo  del  Risorgi- 
mento,  with  battle-piece.';  and  memorials  of  Charles  Albert,  Victor  Em- 
manuel II..  Humbert,  Cavour,  and  Massimo  d'Azeglio. 

The  broad  Conso  Vittorio  Emanuele  Secondo  (PI.  A-E,  3,  4~), 
intersecting  the  entire  town,  leads  to  the  Giardino  Fubblico  (p.  40) 
and  the  Ponte  IJmherto  Prima  (p.  40).  In  the  middle,  in  front 
of  the  Central  Station  (p.  27),  to  the  left,  extends  the  Piazza  Carlo 
Felice  (PI.  D,  4),  with  its  tasteful  gardens,  adorned  with  a  bronze 
statue  of  Massimo  d'Azeglio,  patriot,  poet,  and  painter  (1798-1866), 
by  Balzico,  erected  in  1873.  This  piazza  is  adjoined  by  two  smaller 
ones,  with  statues  of  L.  Lagrange  (d.  1813;  PI.  31),  the  mathema- 
tician, and  Paleocapa  (d.  1869;  PI.  36),  the  politician. 

To  the  E.  of  the  Piazza  Carlo  Felice  is  the  Waldensian  Church 
[Tempio  Valdese;  PI.  D,  E,  4,  5 ;  see  p.  44),  the  first  Protestant 
church  built  at  Turin  after  the  establishment  of  religious  toleration 
in  1848.  A  few  paces  farther  on  rises  the  church  of  San  Oiovanni 
Evangelista  (PI.  E,  5),  built  by  Count  Mella  in  1882. 

In  the  Via  San  Secondo,  to  the  S.  of  the  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele 
Secondo,  rises  the  church  of  San  Secondo  (PI.  16;  C,  4),  completed  in  1882 
in  the  Lombard  style,  with  a  campanile  170  ft.  high.  —  A  little  to  the  S.W- 
of  the  Waldensian  church,  at  the  corner  of  the  Via  Sant'  Anselmo  and 
the  Via  Pio  Quinto,  is  the  Synagogue  (PI.  52;  I),  5),  in  the  Moorish  style 
(1881).  —  In  the  Piazza  Saluzzo ,  to  the  S.W.,  is  the  church  of  Sanli 
Pielro  e  Paolo  (PI.  14;  D,  5),  with  a  Byzantine  facade  (1865). 

In  the  Via  di  Po,  which  leads  to  the  S.E.   from  the  Piazza 
Castello,  on  the  left  (No.  17),  is  the  University  (PL  E,  3 ;  2500  stu- 

North- pMSteni  Quarters.     TL'IUN.  7.  Route.     39 

dents),  erected  in  1713  from  designs  by  Ant.  Ricca,  with  a  hand- 
some court  and  several  statues.  It  contains  a  Museo  Lapidario  of 
Roman  antiquities,  chiefly  inscriptions. 

The  Unitersity  Library,  now  the  Biblioteca  Nazionale  (adm., 
see  p.  29),  was  founded  in  1720  by  Vittorio  Amadeo  II. 

The  nucleus  of  the  collection,  which  numbers  over  275,000  printed 
Fols.  and  1500  MSS.,  consists  of  the  former  library  of  the  house  of  Savoy. 
Amon;;  the  MSS.  are  59  codices  from  Bobbio  (p.  361),  Theodoret's  Commentary 
on  the  Minor  Prophets,  with  Byzantine  miniatures  (0th  cent.),  Pliny's  Historia 
Naturalis,  with  miniatures  of  the  school  of  Mantegua,  the  Apocalypse  with 
commentaries  by  Bealus,  Cardinal  I!o-;jelli''s  missal,  and  a  French  volume 
containing  the  Riimance  of  Huon  of  Bordeaux.  The  1905  incunabula  in- 
clude the  Rationale  of  Guglielmo  Duranti,  printed  by  Fust  at  Mayence  in 
1459,  and  a  copy  of  the  great  Bible  of  Plantin,  presented  by  Philip  II.  of 
Spain  to  Charles  Emmanuel.  Fr.  Basso's  map  of  the  world  (1570),  and 
about  10,000  woodcuts  and  engravings  of  various  schools  are  also  among 
the  treasures  of  the  library.  —  A  disastrous  lire  in  1904  destroyed  about 
24,000  printed  vols,  and  about  2000  MSS.,  including  the  famous  'Heures 
de  Turin',  the  livre  d'heures  of  the  Duke  of  Berry. 

No.  6,  to  the  right  in  the  Via  Accademia  Albertiiia,  is  the 
Accademia  Alhertina  di  Belle  Arti  (PI.  E,  F,  3 ;  adm.,  see  p.  29), 
founded  in  1652,  and  transferred  hither  in  1833.  It  contains  a 
small  collection  of  pictures.  Among  the  best  of  the  older  works 
(many  copies)  are:  140,  141.  Fra  Filippo  Lippi,  Four  Fathers  of  the 
Church  (wings  of  altar-piece).  Also  numerous  *Cartoons  by  Oau- 
denzio  Ferrari  and  Bern.  Lanini,  aiid  a  cartoon  of  Leon,  da  Vinci's 
St.  Anna  with  the  Virgin  aTid  Holy  Child  (not  genuine). 

The  Via  Montebello,  the  next  cross-street  on  the  left,  leads  to 
the  so-called  Mole  Antonelliana  (PI.  F,  3  ;  adm. ,  see  p.  29),  begun 
in  1863  as  a  synagogue  by  AL  Antonclli  (d.  1888)  and  completed  by 
the  city  since  1878.  It  will  be  fitted  up  as  a  Museo  del  Risorgimento 
(comp.  p.  38).  It  is  a  square  building  (44  yds.  each  way)  resembling 
a  tower,  with  a  singular  facade  formed  of  several  rows  of  columns; 
its  height  is  536  ft.  ("Washington  Obelisk  556  ft.).  The  dome  is 
striking  from  its  bold  disregard  of  the  ordinary  technical  rules  of 
construction.  The  square  hall  beneath  the  dome  is  upwards  of  300  ft. 
high,  and  contains  three  galleries  one  above  the  other.  The  upper- 
most gallery  (1024  steps)  commands  a  splendid  *View  of  the  city 
and  the  Alps,  best  by  morning  light.  (Comp.  the  Panorama  and 
p.  41.) 

In  the  Via  Gaudenzio  Ferrari,  No.  1,  is  the  Museo  Civico  d'Arte 
applicata  all'  Industria  (PI.  F,  3;  adm.,  see  p.  29). 

First  Flock.  1st  Room.  Paintings  by  0.  Honthorst,  Carlo  Cignani,  Jan 
Victors,  etc.  —  2nd  Room.  Paintings  by  Bugiardini^  Ant.  Vivarini,  etc.  The 
central  case  contLiins  illuminateil  manuscripts  ;  missal  of  Card.  Dom.  della 
Rovere  (loth  cent.);  statutes  of  the  town  of  Turin;  old  prints.  —  3rd  Room. 
Caskets  (14-17th  cent.),  old  furniture  and  musical  instruments,  views  of 
Turin,  etc.  —  Second  Floor.  4th  Room  (ante -room).  Iron  and  brass 
works.  —  5th  Room.  Han<lsome  locks  and  keys;  bronzes  and  bronze  uten- 
sils, medals,  plaqueltes.  —  6th  Room.  Knamels,  glass  vessels,  precious 
stones,  stained  glass;  in  the  middle,  clocks,  snufl'-boxes,  etc.  —  7th  Room. 
•Collection  of  Eglomis.'s  (painted  glass,  13-18th  cent.).  —  8th  *  9lh  Rooms. 
Spanish-Mauresque  and  Italian  ceramic  ware,   including  admirable   speci- 

40     Route  7.  TURIN.       South-Eastern  Quarters. 

mens  from  Vinovo  (1776-1820)  and  Capodimonte  and  early  Viennese  ware.  — 
10th  Room.  Sculptures  in  marble,  ivory,  and  wood.  Six  pieces  of  sculp- 
ture from  the  tomb  of  Gaston  de  Foix  (p.  149),  by  Bamhaia.  —  llth  Room. 
Textiles  and  costumes  (18th  cent.).  —  12th  Room.  Embroideries;  lace.  — 
13th  Room  (ante-room).  Costumes,  shoes,  etc.  —  We  return  to  the  First 
Floor.  14th  Room.  Wood-carvings.  —  15th  Room.  Carved  furniture  and 
panels.  —  16th  Room.  Choir-stalls  from  the  abbey  of  Staffarda  (16th  cent.). 
—  17th  Room.  Furniture  of  the  17th  and  18th  centuries.  —  We  descend 
to  the  Ground  Floor.  20th  Room  (gallery).  Fragments  of  buildings  and 
.•sculptures,  terracottas.  —  21st  Room.  Carved  wooden  Gothic  ceiling  from 
St.  Marcel  in  the  Val  d'Aosta  (15lh  cent.).  —  23rd  Room.  State  carriages 
of  the  Archbishop  of  Turin  (end  of  the  18th  cent.)  and  of  Cavour,  Gari- 
baldi's travelling  carriage.  —  24th  Room.  Model  of  a  large  Venetian  galley 
(peoia)  of  1730. 

The  Via  di  Po  fp.  38)  ends  at  the  large  Piazza  Vittoeio  Ema- 
NUELE  Primo  [PL  r,  4),  on  the  other  side  of  which  is  the  handsome 
Ponte  Vittorio  Emanuele  Primo  (PI.  F,  G,  4),  crossing  to  the  Gran 
Madre  di  Dio(p.  41).  From  the  S.  side  of  the  piazza  the  Corso  Cairdli 
(PI.  F,  4,  5),  adorned  with  a  Monument  of  Garibaldi,  leads  to  the 
Ponte  JJmberlo  Primo  (PI.  F,  5),  the  iron  bridge  at  the  E.  end  of  the 
Corso  Vitt.  Emanuele  II.  (p.  38),  and  to  the  Giardino  Piihblico. 

The  Giardino  Pnbblico  or  Parco  del  Valentino  (PI.  E,  5-7),  an 
attractive  promenade  (cafe- restaurant) ,  commands  attractive  views 
of  the  well-wooded  right  bank  of  the  Po  (several  piers  on  the  river). 
In  the  middle  of  the  park  are  the  Botanical  Garden  and  the  *CasteUo 
del  Valentino,  a  building  in  the  French  style  with  four  towers, 
begun  in  1650  for  the  Madama  Reale  Christine,  wife  of  Vittorio 
Amedeo  I.,  by  a  pupil  of  Sal.  Debrosse,  but  left  unfinished.  Since 
1860  the  chateau  has  been  occupied  by  the  Polytechnic  School  (Reale 
Scuola  d' Applicazione  per  gli  Jngegneri).  In  the  court  is  a  bronze 
statue  of  Quintino  Sella,  the  scholar  and  statesman  (1826-84).  On 
the  S.  side  of  the  garden,  beyond  the  lake  (skating  in  winter,  pat- 
tinaggio),  rises  the  colossal  bronze  equestrian  statue  of  Duke  Amadeus 
ofAosla  (1845-90;  1870-73  king  of  Spain),  by  Calandra  (1902);  on 
the  pedestal  are  reliefs  representing  scenes  from  the  history  of  the 
princes  of  the  house  of  Savoy.  A  little  to  the  E.,  on  the  Po,  is  the 
Castello  Medioevale  (adm.,  see  p.  29)  ,  an  interesting  reproduction 
of  a  castle  of  the  loth  cent.,  and  of  the  little  borough  belonging  to 
it  (1884;  restaurant). 

On  the  Right  Bank  of  the  river,  at  the  E.  end  of  the  Corso  Vittorio 
Emanuele  Secondo  (p.  38),  stands  the  large  Crimean  Monument 
(PI.  26;  F,  5),  by  Luigi  Belli,  erected  in  1892  to  commemorate  the 
war  of  1855-56. 

The  Via  Moncalieri  leads  from  the  bridge  to  the  left,  along  the 
bank  of  the  river,  to  (5  min.)  the  Monte  del  Cappuccini  (PL  F,  G,  5 ; 
958  ft.),  a  wooded  hill  rising  164  ft.  above  the  Po  and  ascended  by 
a  cable -tramway  (return -fare  15  c.).  At  the  top  are  a  Capuchin 
monastery,  founded  in  1683,  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  del  Monte, 
a  garden-restaurant,  and  a  Station  of  the  Italian  Alpine  Club,  with 
maps  and  other  collections,  and  a  belvedere  (adm.,  see  p.  29). 

5  /  V'  _ 


Enmrons.  TURIN.  7.  Route.     41 

The  'View  (best  by  morning-light)  embraces  the  river,  city,  plain,  and 
the  chain  of  the  Alps  in  the  background.  The  prominent  heights  are  :  to 
the  N.,  the  snowy  peaks  of  Monte  Rosa  (15,215  ft.);  to  the  N.W.,  the  Gran 
Paradise  (13,324  ft.;  concealing  Mont  HKanc),  Monte  Levanna  (11,875  ft.),  and 
the  Ciamarelhi  (12,060  ff.);  more  to  the  W.  is  the  Rocciamelone  (11,604  ft.), 
concealing  Mt.  Cenis ;  then,  to  tha  left,  the  valley  of  Susa  (p.  44),  with  the 
Sagra  di  San  Michele  (p.  3)  on  a  conspicuous  hill;  farther  to  the  S.W. 
Monte  Viso  (12,610  ft.). 

Near  tlie  Monte  dei  Cappucclni ,  opposite  the  Ponte  Vittorio 
Emanuele  Prime  (p.  40),  stands  the  church  of  Gran  Madre  di  Dio 
(PI.  G,  4),  erected  by  Ferd.  Bonsignore  in  1818-31  in  imitation  of 
the  Pantheon  at  Rome,  to  commemorate  the  return  of  King  Victor 
Emmanuel  I.  in  1814.  In  front  of  the  church  rises  a  monument  of 
the  liing  by  Gaggini. 

The  Cemetery  (Campo  Santo  Oenerale;  PI.  G,  H,  1),  11/4  M.  to 
the  N.E.  of  the  Piazza  Castello  (open  10-4  in  winter  in  fine  weather; 
in  March,  April,  Sept.,  and  Oct.  9-6;  in  summer  8-12  and  2-7),  is 
entered  from  the  end  of  the  Via  Catania,  which  is  reached  from  the 
Ponte  dalle  Benno  by  the  Strada  del  Kegio  Parco,  a  shady  avenue 
(tramway  from  the  Piazza  Castello).  In  the  front  section,  to  the  left 
by  the  wall,  is  the  tomb  of  Silvio  Pellico  (d.  1864);  in  the  section 
behind  we  observe  the  names  of  D'Azeglio,  Bava,  Brofferio,  Gioberti, 
Pepe,  Pinelli,  and  other  eminent  Italians.  —  At  the  S.  end  is  a  Cre- 
matorium (PI.  G,  H,  1,  2;  adm.  9-12). 

The  *Superga  or  Soperga  (2205  ft.),  the  royal  burial  -  church 
since  1778,  conspicuously  situated  on  a  hiU  to  the  E.  of  Turin,  is 
well  worthy  of  a  visit  in  fine  weather.  A  steam-tramway  plies  from 
the  Piazza  Castello  to  the  village  of  (3  M.)  Sassi  in  1/2  ^^- !  thence 
we  reach  the  top  by  cable-tramway  in  20  min. ;  no  change  of  carriages 
in  the  case  of  treni  diretti;  return-fares  to  Sassi  60  or  50  c,  to  the 
Superga  4  fr.  60  or  3  fr.  40  c.  (on  Sun.  and  holidays  2  fr.  16  or 
1  fr.  65  c).  From  Sassi  the  top  may  also  be  reached  on  foot  in 
I'/o  lir-  ^Y  ^  shady  road  (to  the  right  as  we  quit  the  station,  then 
by  the  first  turning  to  the  left). 

Tiie  Superga,  a  votive  offering  dedicated  by  Victor  Amadeus  II. 
on  the  occasion  of  the  raising  of  the  siege  of  Turin  in  1706  (p.  26), 
and  erected  in  1717-31  from  designs  hy  Juvara ,  is  a  handsome 
edifice  with  a  lofty  dome  and  an  imposing  portico  in  the  style  of  an 
antique  temple,  and  has  a  spacious  octagonal  interior.  It  includes 
a  library  and  a  suite  of  royal  apartments  (never  occupied).  We  enter 
by  the  door  on  the  left  of  the  church.  In  the  interior  (closed  12-2) 
are  shown  a  room  hung  with  indifferent  portraits  of  all  the  popes,  the 
church,  and  the  crypt  containing  monuments  of  the  kings  from 
Victor  Amadeus  II.  to  Charles  Albert,  and  of  Queen  Maria  Adelaide 
(p.  37)  and  Duke  Amadeus  of  Aosta  (p.  40).  The  dome  (245  ft. 
high;  311  steps)  commands  a  splendid  **View  of  the  Alps,  from 
Moute  Viso   to  the  Adamello  Group  (comp.  the  panorama,   and 

42     Route  7.  TURIN.  Environs. 

Cherubini's  relief  in  the  station-'building),  the  Apennines,  the  valley 
of  thePo,  and  the  Colli  Torinesi  (p.  29).  —  Alhergo  Ristorante  delta 
Ferrovia  Funicolare ,  dej.  2,  D.  3-4,  pens.  7  fr. ;  Ristorante  Bel- 
vedere, de'j.  11/2,  D.  2-3  fr.,  plainer. 

About  4V2  M.  to  the  S.  of  Turin,  on  the  line  to  Genoa  (R.  lib)  and 
also  on  the  electric  tramway  to  Trofarello  (return-fare  80c.),  lies  Moncalieri 
(Alhergo  Roma;  Bistorante  GroUa  Gino),  a  pleasant  little  town  of  10,000  in- 
hab..  picturesquely  situated  on  the  S.W.  verf;c  of  the  Colli  Torinesi,  and 
commanding  a  superb  view.  On  a  height  above  the  town  is  the  royal 
CMteau  (15th  cent.;  rebuilt  17th  cent.),  in  which  Victor  Emmanuel  I.  died 
in  1H'.;4.  It  is  now  the  residence  of  Princess  Clotilda  nf  Savoy,  widow 
of  Prince  .Te'riime  Bonaparte.  The  picture-gallery  in  the  W.  wing  contains 
a  series  of  large  paintings  illustrating  the  history  of  the  House  of  Savoy. 
The  last  of  the  series,  'Delivery  of  the  Plebiscite  of  Tuscany  by  Baron 
Ricasoli  in  1860\  is  interesting  from  its  numerous  portraits  (fee  '/2-I  fr-)- 
Visitors  to  the  chateau  alight  at  the   tramway-station  before  the  town. 

About  6  M.  to  the  S.W.  of  Turin  (steam-tr.imway,  see  p.  27)  lies  Stupi- 
nigi  (800  ft.;  Albergo  del  Castel  Vecc/iio,  at  the  back  of  the  chateau,  plain 
but  good),  a  royal  chateau,  erected  from  designs  by  Juvara  in  the  reign  of 
Charles  Emmanuel  III.  and  occupied  since  1900  as  a  summer-residence 
by  the  Queen-Dowager  Margherita.  It  contains  several  rooms  with  fine 
frescoes  and  is  surrounded  by  an  extensive  deer-park  (visitors  not  always 

Another  steam-tramway  (p.  27)  connects  Turin  with  Carignano  (774  ft.), 
a  town  with  4700  inUab.  and  several  fine  churches,  situated  on  the  highroad 
to  Nice.  San  Giovanni  Battista  was  erected  by  Count  Alfieri ;  Santa  Maria 
delle  Grazie  contains  a  monument  to  Bianca  Palseologus,  daxighter  of  Gug- 
lielmo  IV.,  Marquis  of  Montferrat,  and  wife  of  Dnke  Charles  I.,  at  whose 
court  the  'Chevalier  Bayard'  was  brought  up.  —  Carignano,  with  the  title 
of  a  principality,  was  given  as  an  appanage  to  Thomas  Francis  (d.  1656), 
fourth  son  of  Charles  Emmanuel  I.,  from  whom  the  present  royal  family 
is  descended.  —  Steam-tramway  to  Carmagnola,  see  p.  50. 

8.  The  Alpine  Valleys  to  the  West  of  Turin. 

strangers  are  not  allowed  to  approach  within  1  kilometre  ('/2  M.)  of 
any  frontier-fortress;  and  photographs  must  not  be  taken  within  10  kilo- 
metres (6  M.)  of  a  fort. 

a.  From  Turin  to  Ceresolb  Rbalb.  To  (28  M.)  Cuoryne,  lail- 
■way  In  1^/4-2  hrs.  (fares  3  fr.  45,  2  fr.  15  c).  The  trains  start  at  the 
Stazione  dl  Porta  Siisa  (p.  27).  The  most  important  intermediate 
stations  are  (71/0  M.)  Settimo  Torinese  (p.  65),  (21 Y2  M.)  Rivarolo 
Canavese,  junction  of  a  hranrh-line  via  Ozegna  (omn.  to  the  royal 
chateau  of  Aglic?)  to  Castellamonte,  and  (26  M.)  Valperga  (1280  ft.), 
the  last  commanded  by  the  (lt/4hr.)  Santuario  di  Belmonte  (2380ft.; 
now  an  Observantine  convent;  view),  founded  by  King  Arduin 
(p.  54)  in  1010  and  rebuilt  in  1300.  —  From  Cuorgni  (1350  ft. ; 
Alb.  della  Corona  Grossa;  Cafe-Restaurant  de  Paris;  omn.  to  Locana 
twice  daily  in  274  hrs.,  II/2  fr.;  one-horse  carr.  to  Noasca  16,  two- 
horse  27  fr. ;  carr.  from  the  Grand  Hotel  at  Ceresole  Reale  meet  the 
first  morning  train)  a  road  ascends  to  the  "W.  through  the  valley  of 
the  Oreo  (Val  Locana)  via  (31/2  M.)  Ponte  Canavese  (1600  ft.;  Alb. 
del  Valentino) ,  a  picturesque  little  town  at  the  mouth  of  the  Val 
Soana,  Locana  (2025  ft.;  Corona  Grossa;  Tre  Pernici;  Cervo),  and 
Perebecche  (p.  62),  to  (2O72  M.)  Noasca  (8485  ft.;  *Alb.  Reale, 

LANZO  TORINESE.  S.  Route.     43 

K.  31/2  fr-)-  ^"  *^^  neightouvhood  is  the  pretty  waterfall  of  the 
Noaachetta.  —  A  road  (41/2  M.)  leads  from  Noasca  through  the  -wild 
gorge  of  the  Oreo  (the  ^Scalari  or  ''Scalee  di  CeresoW^  to  — 

Ceresole  Reale  (4905ft.;  *Orand  Hotel,  R.  from  31/2,  B.  IV4, 
d(?j.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  incl.  wine  12  fr. ;  Hot-Pens.  Bellagarda,  pens, 
from  8  fr.,  well  spoken  of;  Alb.  Levanna,  plain),  a  village  with 
300  inhab.,  situated  in  a  wide  valley  at  the  N.E.  base  of  the  four- 
peaked  Levanna  (11,875  ft.),  is  frequented  as  a  summer-resort  and 
possesses  a  chalybeate  spring. 

Excursions  (guides,  Paolo  Colombo,  Bart.  Rolando,  5-6  fr.  per  day;  mule 
and  driver  10  fr).  Via  Grosso  and  throuijli  fine  fir-wooda  (o  the  (1  hr.)  Alpi 
Grvsionay  (5806  ft.),  the  (1  hr.)  Alpi  Liet,  and  the  (26  min.)  Laghelti  della 
Bellagarda  (T3iO  ft.),  on  the  N.E.  slope  of  the  Monte  Bellagarda  (9642  ft.). 
—  A'ia  Frera  to  the  (2  hrs.)  Lago  di  Ores  (6S30  ft.),  afTordin^  a  fine  view  of 
the  Levannetta  (11,2S0  ft.).  —  From  the  j[72  hr.)  Parrocchia  (p.  59)  to  the 
(2V2  hrs.)  Alpi  di  Nel  and  the  Lago  di  Nel  (7SU0  ft.),  at  the  foot  of  the  vast 
Nel  Glacier.  —  Over  the  Col  de  Nivolet  to  Val  Sararanche  (with  ascent  of 
the  Gran  Paradiso)  and  Villeneuve  (Aosta),    see   p.  59;    to  Cogne,   see  p.  Q'i. 

b.  Fkom  Turin  to  Lanzo  ,  20  M.,  railway  in  1-1 V4  ^^-  (fares 
3  fr.  35,  2  fr.  25,  1  fr.  50  c),  starting  from  the  Via  Ponte  Mosca 
(PI.  E,  1).  —  41/2  M.  Venaria  Reale,  with  the  ruins  of  a  royal  hunt- 
ing-chateau, at  the  influx  of  the  Ceronda  into  the  Stura.  The  train 
crosses  both  streams  and  ascends  the  valley  of  the  latter.  —  13  M. 
Cirie  (1130  ft. ;  Leon  d'Oro,  etc.),  with  a  13th  cent.  Gothic  church. 

20  M.  Lanzo  Torinese  (1770  ft.  ;  Pasta;  Europa;  Rail.  Restau- 
rant),  prettily  situated  on  a  hill,  with  a  ruined  castle ,  and  sur- 
rounded with  villas.  The  Ponte  del  Roc ,  which  crosses  the  Stura 
near  Lanzo  with  an  arch  120  ft.  in  width,  was  built  in  1378. 

To  the  N.  of  Lanzo  opens  the  pretty  valley  of  the  Tesso,  the  chief 
place  in  which  is  Coassolo  Torinese  (2395  ft.;  Alb.  d'ltalia,  etc.);  cm  the 
J/cnte  Dastia,  iMz  hr.  to  the  W.,  is  the  Saniuario  di  Sanf  Ignazio  (3060  ft.). 

Lanzo  is  the  best  starting-point  for  excursions  in  the  three  Valleys 
of  the  Upper  Stura  (omn.  in  summer  to  Usseglio,  Ealme,  and  Forno).  The 
southernmost  of  these  is  the  Vallk  di  Yiu,  with  the  villages  of  Viii  (2475  ft.; 
Alb.-Ristor.  Marchis ;  Corona  Reale;  Alb.  di  Viii),  Le7nie  (8150  ft.;  Stella; 
San  Michele),  and  Usseglio  (4100  ft.;  Alb.  diFranoia;  Cibrario ;  etc.).  The 
Rifugio  Pera  Caval  (8465  fr.),  between  the  Monte  Lera  (11,010  ft.)  and  the 
Croce  Rossa  (11,100  It.),  lies  4  hrs.  to  the  W.  —  In  the  middle  is  the  Vallk 
d'Ala,  which  diverges  from  the  N.  or  chief  valley  at  Ceres  (2310  ft. ;  Alb.  di 
Ceres;  Italin),  and  contains  the  villages  of  Ala  di  Slura  (3545  ft.;  Bruneri) 
and  Balme  (4785  ft. ;  Alb.  Keale ;  Belvedere).  Between  the  two  villages  are 
the  fine  wateifall  of  the  Gorgia  di  Mondrone,  the  Albergo  Broggi  (5605  ft.) 
on  the  I'iano  della  Mvssa  (near  the  Tesla  Ciarvn  and  Rocci  Nera,  of  interest 
to  geologists),  and  the  Rifugio  Gastaldi  (8690  tt.),  the  starting-point  for  the 
ascents  of  the  Ciamanila  (12,060  ft.;  guide  from  Balme  15-20  fr.)  and  the 
Bessaiiese  (11,915  ft.;  difficult;  guide  25  fr.).  —  Through  the  northernmost, 
or  Valle  Gkasde,  a  road  ascends  via  Chialamberto  (2b05  ft.;  Posta;  Albero 
Fiorito)  and  Groscavallo  (3615  ft.,  Piajictta;  di  Groscavallo)  to  Forno  Alpi 
Qraie  (3935  ft.;  Alb.  delle  Aliii),  at  the  S.E.  base  of  Monte  Levanna  (see 
above).  About  '/-j  hr.  to  the  S.  is  the  pilzrimage-church  Santuario  della 
Madonna  dtl  Forno;  and  2'/2  hrs.  to  the  W.  is  the  Rifvgio  della  Oura 
(7315  ft.).  —  For  ascents  and  passes  to  Savoy,  see  Baedeker's  Suuihern  France 
and  C.  Eatti's  Guida  nelle  Valli  di  Lanzo  (Casanova;  Turin,  1904). 

c.  From  Turin  to  Susa.  —  To  (28  M.)  Bussoleno  by  the  Mont 
Cenis  Railway,  see  pp.  3,2.    To  the  left,   above  Sanf  Ambrogio, 

44     Route  8.  TORRE  PELLICE. 

appears  the  abbey  of  Sagra  di  San  Michele  (p.  3).  —  From  Bus- 
soleno  a  short  branch-line  (4^/2  M.,  in  1/4  hi.)  runs  to  Susa  (1625  ft. ; 
Sole),  a  small  and  ancient  town,  the  Roman  Segusio,  picturesquely 
situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Dora.  A  garden  on  the  W.  side  of 
the  town  contains  a  Triumphal  Aich,  44  ft.  in  height,  39  ft.  in  width, 
and  24  ft.  in  depth,  with  projecting  Corinthian  columns  at  the  cor- 
ners and  sacrificial  scenes  on  the  frieze,  erected  according  to  the  in- 
scription in  A.D.  8  to  Augustus.  There  are  also  a  few  other  Roman 
relics.  The  church  of  San  Giusto  dates  from  the  11th  century.  On 
the  opposite  bank  of  the  Dora  rises  the  ruined  castle  of  Brunetta. 

d.  From  Turin  to  Torre  Pellice,  34  M.,  railway  in  2-272  hrs. 
(fares  4  fr.  45,  3  fr.,  1  fr.  95  c).  —  The  train  diverges  from  the 
Genoa  line  (p.  51)  at  Sangone  and  turns  to  the  S.W.  —  151/2  M. 
Airasca  (850  ft.),  whence  a  branch  runs  via  Moretta  (p.  45)  and 
Saluzzo  (p.  45)  to  Cuneo  (43  M.;  p.  46).  —  231/2  M.  Pinerolo, 
Fr.  P/f/neroI  (1234  ft. ;  Campana;  rannone  d'Oro,  well  spoken  of), 
a  town  with  12,600  inhab.,  long  the  residence  of  the  Acaia  family 
in  the  middle  ages,  contains  an  old  Cathedral  (11th  cent.).  A  new 
vault  (1898)  in  the  church  of /San  Maurizio  contains  the  tombs  of 
eight  princes  of  Savoy  (1334-1490).  A  little  to  the  E.,  above  the 
road  to  Riva,  is  the  convent  of  Monte  Oliveto,  in  the  possession  of 
French  Carthusian  monks  since  1903  (comp.  p.  449). 

A  flteam-tramway  runs  hence  via  Cavonr  (985  ft.)  to  Saluzzo  (see  p.  46). 
Cavour,  from  the  17th  cent,  onwards  the  seat  of  the  now  extinct  Counts 
of  Cavour,  lies  at  the  foot  of  the  Rocca  (1505  ft.),  an  isolated  granite  cone.  — 
Another  steam-tramway  runs  from  Pinerolo  to  Perosa  Argentina  (2015  ft.), 
in  the  Val  Chisone ,  whence  a  diligence  plies  to  Perrero  (2795  ft.)  and 
Fenestrelle  (3785  ft.). 

29  M.  Bricherasio  (branch -line  to  Barge,  see  below).  —  34  M. 
Torre  Pellice,  Fr.  La  Tour  (1695  ft.;  Orso,  very  fair;  Leone;  Pens. 
Bel-Air,  6-7  fr. ;  Pens.  Suisse,  6  fr. ;  Pens.  Bellevue,  5-6  fr.),  a  town 
of  4000  inhab.  and  the  capital  of  the  "Waldensian  Valleys. 

The  Waldensian  Valleys  (Vallies  Vaiidoises),  adjoining  the  French 
frontier,  were  the  home  of  those  well-known  Protestant  communities  (about 
25,000  souls)  who  have  resided  here  for  upwards  of  six  centuries  and  were 
formerly  so  cruelly  persecuted.  The  language  of  the  valleys  is  French. 
After  Torre  Pellice  the  chief  settlements  are  Z/tiserna,  Villar,  and  Bobbio 
Pellice  (2400  ft.;  Hut.  Flora;  Hut.  Michelin),  all  three  in  the  valley  of  the 
Pellice;  Angrogna  (2565  ft.),  in  the  beautiful  valley  of  the  same  name  to 
the  N.  of  Torre  Pellice;  San  Oermano  (1595  ft.),  in  the  Val  Chisone;  and 
Perrero  (see  above),  in  the  Val  Germanasca. 

e.  From  Turin  to  Crissolo.  Railway  to  (371/2  M.)  Barge  in 
21/2  hrs.  (5  fr.  10,  3  fr.  25,  2  fr.  10  c).  —  Our  line  diverges  to  the 
S.  at  (29  M.)  Bricherasio  (see  above)  from  that  to  Torre  Pellice.  — 
From  Barge  roads  lead  in  one  direction  to  Revello  (p.  4B ;  diligence 
twice  daily),  and  in  the  other  to  (3  M.)  Paesana  (p.  46)  and  up  the 
valley  of  the  Po  to  (91/2  M. ;  diligence  twice  daily)  Crissolo,  Fr. 
Crussol  (4375  ft.;  Alb.  della  Corona,  R.  from  II/2  fr.;  guide.  Ant. 
Gilli  and  others).  Near  Crissolo  is  the  Caverna  del  Rio  Martina 
(guide  and  illumination  of  the  cave,  5  fr.),  a  dolomite  cavern. 

SALUZZO.  9.  Route.    45 

Crisaolo  is  the  sfarling-point  for  the  ascent  of 'Monte  Vise  (12,CC0  ft.), 
the  highest  summit  of  the  Cottlan  Alps  (not  recommended  to  any  but  ex- 
perts; guide  25  fr.).  We  follow  the  bridle-path  leading  to  the  W.  to  the 
Col  de  la  Traverselte  (8680  ft.)  past  the  Plan  Mdzi  (5777  ft.;  Alb.  della 
Regina)  as  far  as  the  (2  hrs.)  Piaii  del  Re  (0625  ft. ;  Alb.  Alpine),  near  the 
sources  of  the  Po.  Thence  we  proceed  to  the  S.  to  the  (2'/2  hrs.)  Rifugio 
Alb.  Quinlino  Sella  (8G95  ft.),  near  the  Lago  Grande.  From  this  point  we 
reach  the  summit  by  a  still'  climb  of  4  hrs.  up  the  S.  face.  The  summit 
commands  a  splendid  panorama,  embracing  Mont  Blanc  and  Monte  Rosa 
on  the  N.  —  From  the  Col  de  la  Travenctte  to  Abrih,  see  Baedeker's  Sotith-  ■ 
em  France. 

9.  From  Turin  to  Ventimiglia  via  Cuneo  and  Tenda. 

1131/2  M.  Railway  to  (54V2  M.)  Cwteo  in  21/4-8  hrs.  (fares  10  fr.  25, 
7  Ir.  15,  4  fr.  60  c.);  thence  to  (26i/i  W.)  Vievola  in  13/4  hr.  (fares  5  fr., 
3  fr.  50,  2  fr.  25  c).  The  railway  is  to  be  continued  to  Ventimiglia.  In 
the  meantime  a  Diligence  runs  thrice  daily  from  Vievola  to  (32V2  M.) 
Ventimiglia  in  53/4-71/4  hrs.  (81/2  fr.).  Carr.  and  jiair  from  Tenda  to  Venti- 
miglia 25  fr.  (4V'.;  hrs.).  —  Beyond  Tenda  the  road  runs  for  some  distance 
through  French  territory,  So  that  the  custom-house  formalities  have  to  be 
undergone  twice. 

The  train  traverses  the  zone  of  the  Brian^ouuais,  the  closely  com- 
pressed region  of  the  Ligurian  and  Maritime  Alps  ,  which,  including  the 
adjacent  Cottian  Alps  on  the  N.,  extends  from  Savona  to  Briancon  in 
Dauphine.  The  geological  characteristics  of  this  mountain-region  are  huge 
and  precipitous  clilVs  of  limestone,  twisted  and  compressed  strata  of  slate, 
and  extensive  dislocations. 

From  Turin  to  (18  M.)  Carmagnola,  see  pp.  49,  50.  —  231/2^. 
Racconhji  (835  ft.),  with  a  royal  chateau  built  in  1670  and  restored 
in  1834  and  1902;  the  park  was  laid  out  in  1755  in  the  style  of 
Le  Notre.  The  chateau  is  the  summer-residence  of  the  King,  and 
the  birthplace  of  the  crowu-prince  Humbert  (1904).  —  From  (28  M.) 
Cavallerinaggiore  (940  ft.)  branch-lines  run  E.  to  (8  M.)  Bra  (p.  50) 
and  W.  to  (10  M.)  Moretta  (p.  44). 

321/2  M.  Savigliano  (1050  ft.;  Alb.  Corona),  a  town  of  9900  in- 
hab.,  on  the  Maira,  has  railway-carriage  works.  The  principal  church 
contains  paintings  by  Giov.  Ant.  Mplinari  (1577-1640),  a  native  of 
the  town. 

From  Savif^liano  a  branch-line  (10  M.,  in  V2  hr. ;  fares  1  fr.  90,  1  fr.  36, 
85  c.)  runs  to  Saluzzo  (1122  ft. ;  "Corona  Orossa,  R.  2-3  fr.),  capital  of  the 
province  (formerly  marquisate)  of  that  name,  with  10,300  inhab.,  the  seat 
of  a  bishop,  and  a  flourishing;  trade  and  industries.  It  is  the  junction  for 
the  line  from  Airasca  to  Cuneo  (p.  44).  The  Cathedral,  built  in  1491-1501 
but  modernized  in  the  interior,  contains  a  large  crucifix  of  1500  in  the 
choir.  Near  the  cathedriil  is  a  monument  to  Silvio  Pellico,  the  poet  (d.  1854), 
author  of  'Le  Mie  Prigioni'  and  the  tragedy  of  'Francesca  da  Rimini', 
who  was  born  at  Salu/.zo  in  17)^8  and  expiated  his  patriotic  efforts  by  ten 
years'  imprisonment  in  Santa  Blargherita,  the  Doges'  Palace  (see  p.  8(K)), 
and  the  Spielberg  at  Briinn.  The  higher  part  of  the  town  alfords  a  fine 
survey  of  the  Piedmontese  plain.  Among  its  quaint  buildings  are  the 
mediaval  Torre  del  Comune  and  the  Casa  del  Giurecoiuulto  Casazza(\6\\i  cent.), 
now  the  Mnieo  Cicico.  A  visit  should  he  paid  to  the  church  of  San  Giovanni, 
in  the  French  Gothic  style,  with  a  raised  choir.  The  late-Gothic  interior 
contains  the  tomb  of  Marjuis  Lodovico  II.,  by  Ben.  Briosco,  and  many  other 
sculptures  by  Lombard  artists.  —  Pleasant  excursion  to  the  Casldlo  della 
ilunta,  once  a  chateau  of  (he  marquis,  with  frescoes  (I5th  cent.). 

46     Route  9.  VALDIERI.  From  Turin 

Steam  Teamwats  from  Saluzzo  to  Turin,  p.  27;  to  Pinerolo,  p.  44;  to 
Venasca;  and  to  (12'/2  M.)  Paesana  (p.  44)  via  (5  M.)  Revello,  where  there 
is  an  ancient  copy  of  Lenn.  da  Vinci's  Last  Supper  (p.  154),  with  variations. 

391/2  M.  Fossano  (1180  ft.;  Rail.  Restaurant),  with  7700  inhab., 
situated  on  a  spur  of  the  Apennines  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Stura, 
commanded  by  a  castle,  is  the  seat  of  a  bishop,  and  has  an  academy 
and  mineral  baths  (branch-line  to  Mondov)  and  ViUanova,  p.  49).  — 
.  47  M.  Centallo,  a  considerable  place  with  remains  of  mediaeval  for- 

541/2  M.  Cuneo,  or  Coni  (1755  ft.;  Alb.  Superga,  Barra  di 
Ferro,  both  very  fair),  the  capital  of  a  province,  with  15,400  inhab. 
and  silk-factories,  lies  on  a  view-commanding  hill  at  the  confluence 
of  the  Stura  and  the  Gesso.  The  fortifications  have  been  converted 
into  shady  promenades,  which  afl'ord  splendid  views  of  the  Maritime 
Alps,  of  Monte  Viso  (p.  45  i  N.W.),  and  the  Besimauda  (p.49;  S.E.), 
The  Gothic  Franciscan  Church  (14-16th  cent.)  is  now  a  military 
magazine.    Pleasant  walk  to  the  Madonna  degli  Angeli. 

Railway  from  Cuneo  to  the  Certosa  di  Pesio  and  to  Mondavi,  see  p.  49; 
to  (43  M.)  Airasca  via  Saluzzo  and  Jloretta,  see  p.  4i.  —  Steam  Tramway 
from  Cuneo,  via  Caraglio,  to  (11  M.)  Dronero,  situated  to  the  N.W.  in  the 
Maira  valley ;  and  also  to  Borgo  San  Dalmazzo  (see  below),  and  to  Boves 
(1905  ft.). 

The  railway  to  Vievola  crosses  the  Gesso,  beyond  which  the 
line  to  Mondovi  diverges  from  it;  it  then  traverses  a  plain  covered 
with  groves  of  chestnuts.  —  621/0  M.  Borgo  San  Dalmazzo  (2070  ft. ; 
Tre  Galli;  Delfino),  a  small  town  with  3600  inhab.,  the  Vrbs  Pedona 
of  the  Romans  ,  is  overlooked  by  the  church  of  Madonna  del  Mon- 
serrato  (view). 

From  Borgo  San  Dalmazzo  a  delightful  excursion  may  be  mude  to  the 
Upper  Valley  of  the  Gesso  (diligence  twice  dally  in  summer  as  far  as  the 
Terme  di  Valdieri).  —  The  road  ascends  along  the  left  bank  of  the  Gesso 
to  (6  M.)  Valdieri  (2485  ft.;  Corona  Grossa),  which  is  the  starting-point  for 
an  ascent  of  the  Mcnte  VArp  (tOOOft.),  an  excellent  point  of  view.  — 
From  the  Ponte  Rosso,  about  l'/4  M.  beyond  Valdieri,  a  road  leads  to  the 
left  to  Entraque  (2958  ft.  ;  Atiffelo ,  Mora,  both  plain  but  good),  a  village 
of  1700  inhab.,  finely  situated  in  a  lateral  valley,  9V4  M.  Irom  Borgo  San 
Dalmazzo.  From  this  point  excur.nons  (guide,  Giov.  Demichelis)  may  be 
made  to  the  Bousset  ValUn,  through  which  a  road  ascends  to  (2V2  hrs.)  a 
waterfall  984  ft.  high;  to  (21/2  hrs.)  the  XnJe  of  Rovina  (5117  ft.)  and  on, 
past  a  picturesque  waterfall,  to  the  (41/2  hrs.)  mountain-lake  of  Brocan 
(6610  ft. ;  Rifugio  Genova  of  the  I.  A.  C,  in  the  neighbouring  VaUe  delle 
Rovine) ,  with  a  magnificent  environment,  a  good  starting-point  for  an 
ascent  of  the  Punta  deW  Argentera  (4  hrs.;  see  below)  and  of  the  Bee  d''Orel 
(8145  ft.;  'View).  Good  road  through  beech-woods  to  (6  M.)  San  Oiacomo, 
whence  bridle-paths  lead  to  the  glacier-filled  head  of  the  valley  at  the  foot 
of  Mont  Clapier,  and  across  the  Colle  delle  Finestre  to  (S  hrs.  {St.  Martin- 
Visubie  (see  Baedeker^s  Southern  France). 

The  main  road  continues  to  ascend  the  Gesso  valley,  passing  large 
quarries  and  a  royal  hunting -lodge.  About  8  M.  above  Valdieri,  in  a 
sequestered  upland  valley,  lie  the  Terme  di  Valdieri  (4410  ft.),  with  thirty- 
six  warm  sulphur  springs  (100-156°  Fahr.)  and  a  well-equipped  hotel  (season, 
June  25th  to  Sept.  30th;  pens.  8-10  fr.).  The  splendid  situation  attracts 
many  other  guests  beside  the  patients.  To  the  E.  lies  a  fine  beech-forest. 
To  the  W.  a  pleasant  excursion  may  be  made  into  the  Vallasco  Valley. 
The  ascent  of  the  "Monte  Matio  (10,130  ft.)  is  fatiguing  though  not  difficult 
(5  hrs. ;  guide  10  fr.).     That  of  the  Punta  dell'  Argentera  (10,883  ft. ;  6  hrs. : 

to  Ventimiglia.  LIMONE.  9.  Route.     47 

guide  12  fr.),  the  highest  of  the  Maritime  Alps,  is  recommended  to  experts 
only;  the  splendid  panorama  from  the  top  includes  the  plain  of  the  Po 
and  the  Tyrolese  Alps  on  the  N.E.,  the  Cottian  Alps  on  the  W.,  the  coast 
of  Provence  on  the  S.W.,  from  the  lower  valley  of  the  Var  to  the  Islands 
of  Hyeres,  and  Corsica  on  the  S. 

Another  road  connects  Borgo  San  Halmazzo  with  the  Upper  Valley  ok 
TiiE  Stura  (diligence  to  Eagni  di  Vinadio  in  summer).  The  capital  of 
this  fair  valley  ,  known  to  the  Romans  as  the  Vatlis  Aurea  on  account 
of  its  fertility,  is  (IO1/2  M.)  Dtmonte  (2495  ft.  -,  Alb.  Garibaldi),  an  industrial 
place  with  2400  inhab.,  pleasantly  .<:ituated  in  an  open  part  of  the  valley. 
Above  Denionte  the  valley  contracts.  The  next  villages  are  (171/2  M.) 
Vinadio  (2970  ft. ;  Alb.  d'ltalia),  picturesquely  situated  and  encircled  by 
strontc  fortifications,  Sambnco,  and  Argenlera  (V't.  Argentiire ;  5515  ft.),  with 
the  Italian  custom-house.  |From  Argentera  over  the  Col  de  Larche  or  Col  de 
VArgeniiire  to  Larche  and  Barcelonnette,  in  France,  see  Baedeker's  Southern 
France.]  —  A  road  to  the  left,  halfway  between  Vinadio  and  Sambuco, 
leads  to  the  Bagni  di  Vinadio  (4363  ft.),  situated  in  a  lateral  valley,  7  M. 
to  the  S.W.  of  Vinadio,  and  possessing  a  hotel  (pens.  7'/2-9  fr.)  and  eight 
htit  sulphur-.springs  (85-144°  Fahr.).  A  pleasant  excursion  may  be  made 
hence  to  the  (1  hr.)  hamlet  of  Callieri,  with  its  old  woods  of  beech  and  pine 
and  a  fine  waterfall.  Admirable  views  are  had  from  the  Bccco  d'' Jschiatbr 
(9860  ft.;  5hrs.),  reached  bypassing  the  lakes  of  the  same  name,  and  from 
the  Monte  Tinibras  (9950  ft.);  but  the  ascent  in  each  case  is  fatiguing 
(guide  12  fr.). 

631/2  M.  Roccavione  (2120  ft.),  surrounded  by  chestnut  woods, 
with  a  ruined  castle.  The  train  enters  the  valley  of  the  Verinenagna, 
enclosed  by  wooded  heights,  Tarying  with  precipitous  limestone 
cliffs.  Numerous  tunnels.  —  70  M.  Verna7ite  (2620  ft.).  We  pass 
through  a  long  spiral  tunnel  and  across  a  lofty  viaduct. 

741/2  M.  Limone  (3300  ft. ;  Posta,  Europa,  both  plain),  a  sum- 
mer-resort with  3000  inhab.,  lies  in  an  open  stretch  of  the  valley, 
at  the  N.  base  of  the  Col  di  Tenda.  The  Gothic  parish-church  of 
San  Fietro  in  Vincoli  (1360)  contains  frescoes  of  the  15th  cent,  and 
a  pulpit  from  the  Certosa  di  Pesio  (p.  49).  —  Ascent  of  the  Besi- 
maudOj  see  p.  49. 

The  old  road  over  (he  forlified  Col  di  Tenda,  or  di  Cornio  (6145  ft.), 
where  the  Maritime  AJps  (W.)  terminate  and  the  Ligurian  Alps  (E.)  begin, 
is  now  closed  to  ordinary  traffic.  The  new  road ,  constructed  in  1883, 
penetrates  the  slate -mountains  bv  means  of  a  tunnel,  nearly  2  M.  long 
(N.  entrance  4330  ft.,  S.  entrance  "4196  ft.).  From  the  central  point  both 
ends  are  visible.  The  road  then  descends  through  the  valley  of  the  Roia 
t )  (8V2  M.)  Vievola  (see  below). 

The  railway  now  traverses  the  Tenda  Tunnel  (5  M.  long),  com- 
pleted in  1899,  and  enters  the  valley  of  the  Roia.  —  81  M.  Vievola 
(3210  ft.),  the  present  terminus  of  the  railway.  Diligence  to  Venti- 
miglia, see  p.  45. 

The  fine  Koau  to  Ventimiglia  passes  through  a  ravine,  enclosed 
by  curious  sandstone  rocks,  and  reaches  — 

21/2  M.  (from  Vievola)  Tenda  (2675  ft. ;  Alb.  Nazionale,  Savoia, 
both  very  fair;  Croce  Bianca,  Stazione,  both  plain;  diligence  to 
Nice,  see  p.  48),  a  picturesque  little  town  with  2200  inhab.,  over- 
hung by  the  precipitous  Monte  Ripa  di  Bemo  (5820  ft.).  A  few 
fragments  of  the  castle  where  Beatrice  di  Tenda  was  born  (comp. 
p.  162)  stand  on  a  rock  near  the  cemetery. 

48     Route  9.  S.  DALMAZZO  DI  TENDA. 

Excursions  (guide,  Maurizio  Sassi)  may  be  made  fi-om  Tenda  tlirough 
the  Urno  Wood  to  (4  hrs.)  the  top  of  the  Monte  Ciagore  (7525  ft.),  which 
commands  a  view  extending  to  the  sea;  to  the  N.E.,  through  the  pic- 
turesque valley  of  the  Rio  Freddo  and  over  the  (4  hrs.)  Colle  dei  Signori 
(refuge-hut),  to  the  top  of  the  (6  hrs.)  Ciina  Margarets  (8090  ft.),  the  highest 
summit  of  the  Liguriaa  Alps  ('Vievi'). 

We  now  descend  through  a  narrow  rocky  valley,  past  large 
quarries  of  pietra  vcrde,  to  — 

51/2  M.  San  Dalmazzo  di  Tenda  (2250  ft.;  Grand  Hotel,  pens, 
from  8  fr. ;  Italian  custom-housi:),  situated  amid  luxuriant  groves 
of  chestnut,  with  several  villas  and  an  old  Carthusian  abbey.  Some 
interesting  caves  have  recently  been  discovered  in  the  vicinity. 

About  2  M.  to  the  E.  of  San  Dalmazzo  lies  Briga(2^Cfy  ft.;  Hotel  de  la 
Source,  well  spoken  of),  in  the  valley  of  the  Levema,  with  an  interesting 
church.  A  little  to  the  S.  is  the  pine-forest  of  Find.  —  A  bridle-path  leads 
to  the  W.  to  (3  hrs.)  Casterino  (5110  ft.;  good  accommodation),  in  an 
attractive  valley,  surrounded  by  larcU-vvoods.  Excursions  (guides)  may 
be  made  from  this  point  past  the  old  zinc,  silver,  and  lead  mine  of  Vallauria, 
once  worked  by  the  Saracens,  to  the  wild  Valle  delf  Inferno,  strewn  with 
huge  block.s  of  rock  and  containing  14  small  lakes,  and  on  to  (3  hrs.)  the 
Meraviglie  (7213  ft.),  rock."!  of  slate  in.scribed  with  rude  drawings  of  unknown 
antiquity;  via  the  Fontanalba  Valley,  with  similar  drawing.'^,  to  the  (5  hrs.) 
top  of  the  Monte  Beyo  (9425  ft.),  which  commands  a  splendid  view  of  the 
Alps,  Nice,  and  the  Riviera  (a.'Cent  fatiguing  but  not  difficult);  and  to 
the  three  large  mountain-lakes  of  Valmasca,  which  lie  in  a  rocky  solitude, 
one  above  another,  the  largest  (2V2  hrs. ;  toilsome  walk)  at  a  height  of 
7675  ft.  at  the  foot  of  the  Mle.  Ciamineias  (9556  ft.). 

Near  the  (8  M.)  French  frontier  the  valley  contracts  to  the  *Gola 
di  Oaudarena,  one  of  the  most  imposing  gorges  of  the  Alps,  so  nar- 
row at  places  as  barely  to  leave  room  for  river  and  road  between 
the  perpendicular  rocks  (700-800  ft.).  —  At  (IO1/2  M.)  Fontana 
(Fr.  Fontan,  1424  ft.),  with  the  French  custom-house,  the  scenery 
assumes  a  more  southern  character  and  the  first  olives  appear. 
Farther  on  Saorgio  (Fr.  Saorge;  1830  ft.),  on  a  lofty  rocky  terrace  to 
the  left,  with  the  ruins  of  a  castle  destroyed  by  the  French  in  1702, 
commands  the  road.    Adjacent  is  a  former  monastery. 

At  (151/0  M.)  La  Giandola  (1250  ft. ;  Hotel  desEtrangers-Poste), 
situated  in  a  green  valley  at  the  foot  of  bare  cliffs  of  slate,  the  roads 
to  Nice  and  Ventimiglia  part  company. 

The  Road  to  Nice  (38  M. ;  diligence  from  Tenda  once  daily  in  11  hrs.) 
leads  over  the  Col  di  Brouis  (2748  ft.)  to  Sospello,  Fr.  Sospel  (1175  ft.;  Hotel 
de  France),  and  then  over  the  Col  de  Braus  (827S  ft.)  to  LEscarhie  (Ital. 
Scarend).  Finally  we  descend  along  the  Paillon.  —  Comp.  BaedekerU  Southern 

The  road  to  Ventimiglia  follows  the  picturesque  valley  of  the 
Roia,  passes  the  little  town  oi  Breglio  ov  Br eil  (Jidt.  de  France, 
very  fair),  with  the  ruined  castle  of  CriveUa ,  and  regains  Italian 
soil  (custom-house).  It  then  threads  two  tunnels,  below  the  rocky 
nest  of  Plena,  and  farther  on  traverses  the  villages  of  (23  M.)  San 
Michele  and  (26  M.)  Airole. 

32'/2  M.  VentimigUa,  see  p.  106. 

10.  From  Cuneo  to  Bastia  (Turin,  Savona). 

23  M.  Kailwat  in  IV2  hr.  (fares  4  fr.  30,  3  fr.  5,  1  fr.  95  c). 

Cuneo,  see  p.  46.  —  From  (5  M.)  Beinette  a  diligence  runs  thrice 
daily  to  (3  M.)  the  little  town  of  Chiusa  di  Peslo  (1950  ft.),  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Pesio  Valley;  and  in  summer  another  omnibus  runs 
daily  (6.46  p.m.;  fare  1  fr.)  to  the  secularized  Certosa  di  Pedo, 
which  lies  about  6  M.  farther  to  the  S. 

The  "Certosa  di  Pesio  (3190  ft.),  in  the  lonely  and  well-wooded  Val 
Pesio,  was  founded  in  ilTii,  and  is  now  a  hydropathic  and  pleasant  health- 
resort  open  from  June  lat  to  the  end  of  Sept.  (pens.  6-10  fr.).  An  excursion 
maj'  be  made  hence  to  the  Sources  of  the  Fesio  (590U  ft.),  in  a  rocky  ravine 
below  the  steep  N.  side  of  the  Cima  Mar<jareis  (p.  48).  The  Certosa  is  also 
the  starting-point  for  the  ascent  of  the  CoHe  del  Mascherone  (5900  ft.),  with 
its  large  alpine  meadows,  and  of  the  ~ Besimauda  (7885  ft.),  commanding 
a  splendid  view  of  the  valley  of  the  Po  and  the  Ligurian  Alps  (mule-path, 
4  hrs. ;  descent  to  Linioue,  see  p.  47). 

17  m.  Mondovi  (1835  ft. ;  Tre  Limoni  d'Oro,  mediocre),  a  town 
of  9200  inhab,,  was  the  seat  of  a  university  from  1560  to  1719. 
From  the  Breo,  or  lower  and  industrial  part  of  the  town,  a  cable- 
tramway  ascends  to  the  Piazza,  or  upper  part  of  the  town,  with  the 
Cathedral  (16th  cent.)  and  a  monument  to  Francesco  Beccaria,  the 
physicist  (1716-81).  The  Belvedere  (1873  ft.),  with  its  Gothic 
tower,  commands  a  splendid  view  of  the  Alps. 

From  Mondiivi  a  tramway  runs  to  (20  min.)  the  ' Santuario  di  Vico, 
a  huge  domed  structure,  erected  in  1596-1736  from  the  plans  of  Ascanio 
Vittozzi.     It  contains  the  tomb  of  Charles  Emmanuel  I.  (p.  26). 

From  Mondovi  a  railway  runs  to  (15'/-.;  M.)  Fossano  (p.  46)  to  the  N., 
and  to  the  S.W.  ascends  the  valley  of  the  Ellevo,  passing  (3^4  M.)  Frabosa- 
Bossia,  to  (4'/2  M.)  Villanova  Mondovi  (2010  ft.;  inn),  a  picturesque  little 
town  on  the  slope  of  the  Monte  Calvario  (2410  ft.;  view).  About  l'/4  M.  to 
the  W.  of  Villanova,  and  reached  from  the  Ouneo-Beinette  road  by  a  steep 
zigzag  path  in  a  few  minutes,  is  the  Qrotta  dei  Dossi,  rendered  accessible 
in  1893  (adm.,  May-Oct.,  1  fr.).  An  exploration  of  the  cave  takes  about 
Vahr.  (electric  light).  —  About  11  M.  to  the  S.  of  the  Frabosa-Bossea  sta- 
tion, in  the  beautiful  Valle  di  Corsaglia,  is  the  much  finer  ^Orotta  di  Bossia, 
which  is  illuminated  with  ma^nesium-Ught.  It  is  reached  in  3-4  hrs.,  via 
(5  M.)  Frabosa-  Sottana  and  the  summer-resort  of  (7  M.)  Frabosa-  Soprana 
(2900  ft. ;  Alb.  Gastone,  clean).  The  cave  is  open  from  June  to  Oct.  (adm. 
21/4  fr.,  parlies  cheaper;  no  fees);  the  inn  beside  it  is  open  from  July  20th 
to  the  beginning  of  September. 

Steam  Tramwat  from  Mondovi  to  San  Michele  in  */4  hr.  From  S.  Michel  e 
a  diligence  runs  to  Ceva  (p.  50). 

23  M.  Bastia,  on  the  railway  from  Turin  to  Savona,  see  p.  50. 

11.  From  Turin  to  Genoa. 

a.  Yi&  Btk  and  Savona. 

From  Turin  to  Savona,  gO'/x  M.,  in  41/4-6  hrs.  (fares  16  fr.  95,  11  fr.  90, 
7  fr.  65  c. ;  express  18  fr.  65,  13  fr.  5,  8  fr.  50  c.) ;  thence  to  Genoa,  26V2  M., 
in  IV4-I3/4  br.  (fares  5  fr.,  3  fr.  50,  2  fr.  25  c. ;  express  5  fr.  50,  3  fr.  85  c). 
Finest  views  to  the  right. 

From  Turin  to  Trofarello,  8  M.,  see  p.  51.  —  12 V2  M.  Villa- 

Baedeker.     Italy  I.    I3th  Edit.  4   5 

50     };oule  71.  BRA,  From  Turin 

18  M.  Carmagnola  (785  ft.),  with  3200  inhab.,  was  the  birth- 
place (1390)  of  the  famous  coudottiere  Francesco  Bussone,  son  of 
a  swineherd,  usually  called  Count  of  Carmagnola,  who  reconquered 
a  great  part  of  Lombardy  for  Duke  Filippo  Maria  Viscoiiti,  and  be- 
came Generalissimo  of  the  Republic  of  Venice  in  1426.  At  length 
his  fidelity  was  suspected  by  the  Council  of  Ten,  and  he  was 
beheaded  on  5th  May,  1432.  Bussone'sfate  is  the  subject  of  a  tragedy 
by  Manzoni,  —  The  'Carmagnole',  the  celebrated  republican  dance 
and  song  of  the  French  Revolution,  was  named  after  this  town,  the 
home  of  many  of  the  street-musicians  of  Paris.  —  Steam-tramway 
to  Carignano  (p.  42)  and  Turin.  —  To  Cuneo  (Ventimigiia),  se(; 
pp.  45-48. 

31  M.  Brh.  (910  ft.;  11,300  inhab.),  with  a  busy  trade  in  wine, 
cattle,  truffles,  and  silk,  is  situated  on  the  S.  spurs  of  the  Colli 
Torinesi  (p.  29),  which  here  approach  the  Apennines.  Braiich  to 
Cavallermaggiore,  see  p.  45. 

From  Bra  to  Alessandria,  53  M.,  railway  in  S'/^-S'A  hrs.  (fares  9  fr. 
'JU,  6  fr.  95,  4  fr.  45  c).  —  4V2  M.  Santa  Vittoria;  pleasant  excursion  thence 
to  the  royal  chateau  of  Pollemo,  with  the  remains  of  the  Itoman  town  of 
Pollenlia.  —  11  W.  Alba  {5G5  ft.  ;  Alb.  del  Cannon  cTOro;  Buoi  Bossi^  etc.), 
with  8300  inhab.;  the  cathedral  of  San  Lorenzo  dates  from  the  15th  cent- 
ury. Wine-growing  ('Barbaresco'  and  'Barolo',  p.  xxiii)  and  the  rearing  of 
silk-worius  flourish  in  the  environs.  —  lO'/^  M.  Cas(u<jnole  Lame;  branch- 
line  to  Aiti  {p.  51).  We  next  traverse  a  fertile  wine-country.  —  25'/2  M.  Santo 
S  efano  Belbo,  on  the  BelOo,  the  valley  of  which  the  train  traverses  for 
some  distance.  —  34  M.  Nizza  Monferrato,  also  on  the  Asti-Ovada-Genoa 
lino  (p.  52).  —  48  M.  Cantalupo  and  thence  to  (53  M.)  Alessandria.,  see  p.  53. 

36  M.  Cherasco,  at  the  confiuence  of  the  Tanaro  (p.  51)  and  the 
Slura,  is  not  seen  from  the  line,  which  ascends  the  former. 
53  M.  Baslia,  the  junction  of  the  line  to  Cuneo  (R.  10). 
62'/2  M.  Ceva  (1270  ft.),  on  the  Tanaro,  with  an  old  castle. 

From  Ckva  to  Ormea,  221/2  M,,  railway  in  IV4-2V2  '»rs.  (fares  4  fr.  20, 
2  fr.  95,  1  fr.  90  c).  —  The  train  ascends  the  valley  of  the  Tanaro,  intersect- 
ing the  ridges  of  the  Brianronnais  zone  (p.  45).  —  Beyond  (il^/'- M. )  Priohi 
a  picturesque  ruined  castle  appears  on  the  left.  ■ —  15V2  M-  Gnressio  (1950  ft. ; 
Leon  d'Oro ;  Rosa  Rossa),  with  a  ruined  castle  and  marble  quarries,  is 
connected  with  (21 '/2  M.)  Albenga  (p.  97)  by  a  road  crossing  the  pass  of  San 
Bernardo  (3105 ft.).  —  221/2  M.  Ormea  (2398  ft. ; '  Grand-IIdtel,  with  hydropnthic, 
pens,  from  7  fr. ;  Albert/a  Na-ionale),  an  ancient  and  picturesque  little  town, 
with  a  ruined  castle  and  marble  quarries,  is  frequented  as  a  summer- 
resort.  Pleasant  excursions  may  be  made  to  the  (1''4  hr.)  stalactite  cavern 
of  Nava,  and  through  the  rocky  gorges  of  the  Negrone  to  (4  hrs.){inn\ 
guides).  From  Viozene  we  may  ascend  the  Mongioie  (8630  ft. ;  3  his.),  the 
Pizzo  d'Orme.!  (8125  ft.:,  41/2  brs.),  and  \\i&  Armetta  (5705  ft.;  3  brs.),  on  the 
light  bank  of  the  Tanaro;  or  visit  the  meadows  on  the  Monte  Antoroto 
(7035  ft  ;  rich  Alpiae  flora)  and  proceed  via  the  (3V4  hrs.)  CoUe  di  Termini 
(6660  ft.)  to  the  (2'/2  hrs.)  Orotta  di  Bossia  (p.  49).  On  all  these  excursions 
we  enjoy  flne  views  of  the  Ligurian  Alps  and  the  sea,  and  of  the  valley 
of  (he  Po  with  the  Alps  in  the  distance.  —  From  Ormea  a  picturesque  road 
leads  across  the  fortified  Colle  di  JSava  (3074  ft.)  and  past  the  prettily  situated 
village  of  Pieve  di  Teco,    in  the  Arroscia  valley,  to  (31  M.)  Oneglia  (p.  89). 

The  train  passes  under  the  castle  of  Ceva  by  a  tunnel  and  begins 
to  cross  the  Ligurian  Alps ,  the  most  imposing  part  of  the  line. 
Between  this  point  and  Savona  are  numerous  viaducts  and  28  tunnels. 

to  Genoa.  ASTI.  11.  Route.     51 

The  train  quits  tbe  Tanaro  and  ascends.  Beyond  (BB'/o  M.)  Sale 
delle  Langhe  is  the  Galleria  del  Belbo,  a  tunnel  upwards  of  3  M.  in 
length,  the  longest  on  the  line.  731/2  M.  Cengio,  in  the  valley  of 
the  Bormida  di  Millesimo. 

79  M.  San  Giuseppe  di  Cairo  (1120  ft.),  on  the  Bormida  di  Spigno, 
through  the  valley  of  which  the  Acqui  railway  descends  (see  p.  52). 

Interesting  journey  amid  the  deep  ravines  and  precipices  of  the 
Apennines.  Tunnels  and  viaducts  in  rapid  succession.  871/2  M- 
Santuario  di  Snvona,  a  pilgrimage-church,  founded  in  1536. 

901/2  M.  Savona,  and  thence  to  Genoa,  see  pp.  96-94. 

b.  ViS,  Acqui  and  Ovada. 

99V2M.  Railwai  in  6-8^4  hrs.  (fares  18  fr.  60,  13  fr.,  8  fr.  40  c.). 

The  line  at  first  runs  at  some  distance  from  the  left  bank  of  the 
Po,  crosses  its  affluent  the  Sangone  (beyond  which  the  branch-line 
to  Pinerolo  diverges,  p.  44),  and  then  the  Po  itself  by  a  bridge  of 
seven  arches.  —  5  M.  Moncalieri,  commanded  by  royal  chateau 
(p.  42).  A  final  retrospect  is  now  obtained  of  the  hills  of  Turin, 
and  of  the  snowy  peaks  of  the  Alps  to  the  left. 

8  M.  Trofarello  is  the  junction  for  branch-lines  to  Savona  and 
Cuneo-Vievola  (RR.  11a,  9). 

The  line  from  Turin  to  (IS'/a  M.,  in  ca.  3/i  hr.)  Cuieri  also  diverges 
at  TrofarelU'.  —  Chieri  (950  ft.),  an  industrial  town  with  11,900  inhab., 
contains  a  Gotliic  Cathidral  (14th  cent.)  and  a  freely  restored  octagonal 
Baptistery  (13th  cent.),  with  an  altar-pieco  by  Defendente  de  Ferrari.  —  A 
pretty  road  (diligence  twice  daily  in  IV^l'A  hr.)  leads  to  (he  E.  tVom 
Chieri,  through  an  undulating  wine  growing  di-trict,  to  Castelnuoio  (TAsti 
(775  ft.).  This  is  within  an  hour's  drive  o(  the  {ormer  Abbazin  di  Vezzolano 
(said  to  have  been  founded  by  Charlemagne),  the  Romanesque  church  of 
which  (l'2thcent. ;  interior  recently  restored)  has  an  interesting  sculptured 
portal  and  contains  a  fine  rood-lnft  and  frescoes  of  the  15th  century.  The 
adjoining  cloisters  are  partly  Gothic. 

Beyond  (I91/2  M.)  Villanova  d'Asti  (853  ft.)  the  line  enters  the 
fertile  uplands  of  the  Colli  Torineai  (p.  29).  —  301/2  M.  San  Damiano. 
The  train  then  crosses  the  Borbore  and  reaches  the  valley  of  the 
Tanaro^  which  flows  down  to  the  Po  through  the  valley  between 
the  Colli  Torinesi  and  the  Apennines. 

35  M.  Asti  (395  ft.;  Albergo  Reale;  Leon  d'Oro ;  Rail.  Restau- 
ranf),  the  ancient  ^sta,  a  mediieval-looking  town  with  18,900  inhab. 
and  numerous  towers,  is  famous  for  its  sparkling  wine  (Asti  spumante) 
and  its  horticulture.  The  left  aisle  of  the  Gothic  Cathedral^  erected 
in  1348,  contains  two  altar-pieces  by  a  master  of  the  school  of  Ver- 
celli.  The  adjacent  church  of  San  Giovanni  (the  sacristan  of  the 
cathedral  keeps  the  key)  is  built  over  an  ancient  Christian  basilica, 
part  of  which  has  again  been  rendered  accessible,  and  has  mono- 
lithic columns  with  capitals  bearing  Christian  symbols  (Gth  cent.). 
In  the  Piazza  Allieri  is  a  statue  of  the  poet  Alfieri  (1749-1803);  the 
house  in  which  he  was  born  was  converted  into  an  Alfieri  Museum 
in  1901.    Near  the  Porta  Alessandria  is  the  small  octagonal  Bap- 


52     Route  11.  ACQUI.  From  Turin 

tislery  of  San  Pietro  (iiih  cent.),  borne  by  short  columns  with  square 
capitals,  and  enclosed  by  a  low  polygonal  gallery.  —  Asti  is  the 
junction  of  the  line  to  Geneva  via  Alessandria  (R.  11  c). 

From  Abti  to  Moktara  (Milan),  46  M.,  in  3V4  3V4  hrs.  (fares  8  fr.  60, 
6  fr.  5,  3  fr.  90  c).  Stations  unimportant ;  28  M.  Casale-ilonffrralo,  see  p.  G6 ; 
Mortara,  see  p.  190.  —  From  Asti  to  Castagnole  (p.  50j,  13  M.,  in  V4-IV2  br. 
—  Steam  Tramways  from  Asti  to  Corlanze,  Canale,  and  Montemagno  (p.  66). 

The  Genoa  line  now  crosses  the  Tanaro  and  near  (881/2  M.) 
San  Marzanotto-Rivi  reaches  the  wine-growing  hill-district  of  the 
Colli  Astigiani.  On  a  height  is  the  old  chateau  of  Bellangero.  ■ — 
4072  M.  Mongardino.  "We  thread  a  tunnel  and  enter  the  valley  of 
the  Tiglione.  —  -iB'^  M.  Agliano-Castelnuovo-Calcea,  —  The  line 
crosses  the  Belbo  and  unites  with  that  from  Brk  to  Alessandria  at 
(5OV2  M.)  Nizza  Monferrato  (p.  50),  a  town  of  9200  inhab.  —  65 1/2  M. 
Mombaruzzo,  in  the  Val  Cervino.  —  We  thread  a  long  tunnel  and 
near  (581/2  M.)  Alice-Bel  Colle  reach  the  valley  of  the  Medrio. 

631/2  M.  Acqui  (555  ft. ;  Orand  Hotel ;  Mora ;  Italia;  Alb.  Nazio- 
nale),  the  Aquae  Stiiiellae  of  the  Romans,  an  episcopal  town  on  the 
Bormida,  with  9500  inhab.,  is  known  for  its  warm  saline  sulphur 
springs  (84-167°),  efficacious  against  rheumatism.  The  Vecchie 
Terine,  beyond  the  Bormida,  are  used  in  summer  (June-Sept.),  the 
Nuovz  Terine,  in  the  town,  in  winter.  The  Cathedral  (12th  cent.) 
has  double  aisles.  Good  wine  is  produced  in  the  vicinity.  —  To 
Alessandria  and  Savona,  see  p.  53. 

We  cross  the  Bormida  by  a  bridge  of  15  arches.  65  M.  Visone; 
671/2  M.  Prasco-Cremolino.  The  tunnel  of  Cremolino,  2  M.  long, 
brings  us  to  the  valley  of  the  Orba,  an  affluent  of  the  Tanaro.  — 
721/2  M.  Ovada  (610  ft.),  a  town  with  8600  inhab.,  at  the  confluence 
of  the  Stura  with  the  Orba.  Branch-railway  to  Alessandria  (p.  53) 
under  construction.    Steam-tramway  to  Novi,  see  p.  53. 

We  now  ascend  the  pretty  valley  of  the  Stura.  771/2  M.  Rossig- 
lione  (984  ft.).  —  Numerous  viaducts  and  tunnels.  Beyond  (81 1/2  M.) 
Campoliyure  (1166  ft.),  the  highest  point  of  the  line,  it  pierces  the 
crest  of  the  Apennines  by  the  Qalleria  del  Turchino  (3  M.  long). 
Overhead  is  the  pass  of  the  same  name  (1745  ft.).  We  then  descend 
to  (851/2  M.)  Mete,  about  3  M.  above  Voltri  (p.  95). 

Farther  on  the  line  skirts  the  slopes  of  the  mountains.  88  M. 
Acquasanta;  92  M.  Oranara;  941/2  M.  Borzoli.  Several  fine  views 
of  the  sea  are  obtained  to  the  right.  —  971/2  M.  San  Pier  d^ Arena, 
and  thence  to  Genoa,  see  p.  94.  —  991/2  M.  Genoa,  see  p.  75. 

c.  Yik  Alessandria  and  Novi. 

103  M.  Railway  in  3-8'/2  hrs.  (fares  19  fr.  30,  13  fr.  50,  8  fr.  70  c. ;  ex- 
press 21  fr.  20,  14  fr.  85  c.  ;  by  the  Paris-Eome  'train  de  luxe'  28  fr.  65  c).  — 
Holders  of  through- tickets  to  San  Remo  and  Ventimiglia  change  carriages 
at  San  Pier  d'Arena. 

From  Turin  to  (35  M.)  Asti,  see  R.  lib.  —  Thence  our  line 
ascends  the  valley  of  the  Tanaro.  —  47  M.  Felizzano.    Country  flat 

to  Genoa.  ALESSANDRIA,  11.  Route.    53 

ajid  fertile.  Near  Alessandria  the  line  to  Bellinzona  and  Arona 
(R.  30)  diverges  to  the  N.    We  cross  the  Tanaro. 

5672  M.  Alessandria  (310ft.;  Rail.  Restaurant;  H6t.  de  V Europe, 
R.  from  2'/2,  omn.  3/4  fr.,  very  fair;  Hot.  Grand  Mogol  et  dea  Etran- 
gers,  well  spoken  of;  Alb.  di  Londra^,  an  industrial  town  with 
35,900  inhah.,  situated  on  the  Tanaro  in  a  well-watered  district,  is 
the  capital  of  a  province.  It  was  founded  in  1168  by  the  Lombard 
towns  allied  against  the  Emp,  Frederick  Barbarossa,  and  named 
after  Pope  Alexander  III. 

Alessandria  teing  a  junction  of  several  lines,  carriages  are  generally 
clianged  here.  Railway  lo  Vercelli  ^ia  Valenza,  see  p.  66;  \ia  Novara  to 
Bellinzona  ;  nd  to  Arona,  see  pp.  J90,  189;  to  Slilan  via  M' rtcra  rnd  Vige- 
varo,  see  p.  190;  to  Pa'*  ia  via  Torre  Berretii ,  see  p.  205;  to  P^acenza, 
Parma,  Bologna,  etc.  see  RR.  49  ;.nd  50;  to  IJra  (Cavallermaggiore),  see 
p.  EO.     Branch  lire  to  Ovada  (p.  52)  under  construction. 

Steam  Tkamwats  from  Alessandria  via.  JIarengo  to  Sale  (p.  206),  to 
Casale-ifonferralo  (p.  66),  to  Mandrogne  via  Spinetla  (p.  357),  and  to  Monte- 
magno  (p.  66)  via  AUaviUa. 

Fbom  AiESSASDRiA  TO  Savona  (via  Acqui),  65  JI.,  in  about  4Vi-4V2  t>rs. 
(fares  12  fr.  20,  8  fr.  55,  5  fr.  50  c).  —  As  far  as  (5  M.)  Cantalupo  the  line 
is  the  same  as  to  Bra  (see  p.  50).  —  21  M.  Acqui,  also  a  station  on  the 
railway  from  Asti  to  Ovada  and  Genoa  (see  p.  52).  —  The  line  ascends  the 
valley  of  the  Bormida,  passing  through  ten  tunnels.  Stations  of  little  im- 
portance.    52  31.  San  Giuseppe  di  Cairo,  see  p.  51.  —  65  M.  Savona,  see  p.  96. 

The  line  quits  the  Tanaro  valley  and  crosses  the  Bormida.  About 
1  '/4  M^-  to  the  E.  of  the  bridge,  in  the  plain  between  the  Bormida  and 
the  Scrivia,  lies  the  village  of  Marengo,  near  which,  on  14th  June, 
1800,  Napoleon  defeated  the  Austrians  in  a  momentous  battle. 

69  V2  ^i-  Novi  Ligure  (^645  ft. ;  Hot.  Novi),  a  town  with  17,900  in- 
hab.,  commanded  to  the  right  by  hills  with  a  belvedere-tower,  was 
the  scene  of  a  victory  gained  by  the  Austrians  and  Russians  under 
Suvoroff  over  the  French  on  15th  Aug.,  1799. 

Branch-line  to  Pavia  and  Jlilan  via  Torlona  and  Vogheia,  see  R.  32. 
Steam-tramway  to  Ovada,  see  p.  52. 

At  (74  M.)  Serravalle  Scrivia  the  train  enters  a  mountainous 
region.  —  77  M.  Arquata  (820  ft.),  with  a  ruined  castle.  Between 
this  and  Genoa  there  are  twenty-four  tunnels.  The  train  threads 
its  way  through  rocky  ravines  (la  Bocchetta)  and  over  lofty  embank- 
ments, crossing  the  Scrivia  several  times.  Scenery  imposing.  — 
83  M.  Jaola  del  Cantone;  on  the  hill  to  the  right  a  ruined  castle, 

85'/2M-  Konco(1065ft.). 

AtRoECo  the  old  line  via  Bttsalla,  which  some  trains  follow,  diverges 
to  the  Uft  frfm  the  main  line.  Beyond  Busalla  it  passes  three  manu- 
factuiing  places  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Pol  evera  (see  beli.w):  Pontedecimo 
(tramway  to  Genoa,  p.  77),  with  jute-spinning  and  weaving  indu.'^tries, 
Bolzanelo ,  with  a  .«ugar-rifineiy  and  a  corn-mill,  and  Rnarolo,  with  a 
sugar-refinery  and  a  S'  ap- factory.   —  I5V2  M.  Son  Piei'  d''Arenfi  (p.  54). 

The  main  line  enters  the  Ronco  Tunnel,  upwards  of  5  M.  in 
length,  and  then  descends  the  narrow  Polcevera  Valley  through  num- 
erous viaducts  and  cuttings.  —  9172  ^-  Mignanego;  9572  M.  San 
Quirico.  The  valley  expands;  its  well-cultivated  slopes  are  dotted 
with  the  summer-villas  of  the  Genoese.  —  We  cross  the  river. 

54    Route  VJ.  IVREA. 

101  M.  San  Pier  d'Arena  (p.  1)4;  Rail.  liestauriint,  dej.  cJi/i, 
D.  31/2-41/2  ff-)  iiicl.  winej.  On  the  right  are  the  lighthouse  and 
the  rocky  headland,  mentioned  on  p.  91  ,  below  vfhich  the  train 
passes  by  a  tunnel. 

103  M.  Genoa,  see  p.  76. 

12.  From  Turin  to  Aosta  and  Courmayeur. 

Railway  to  (80  M.)  Aosta  in  3i/i-5V2  hrs.  (fares  15  fr.,  10  fr.  50,  6  fr.  15  c. ; 
express  train  in  summer  only).  The  part  of  the  line  between  Ivrea  and 
Aosta  (411/2  M. ;  fares  7  fr.  80,  5  fr.  45,  3  fr.  50  c.)  is  distinguished  both  by 
the  beauty  of  the  scenery  and  the  boldness  of  its  engineering.  —  From 
Aosta  to  Courmayeur,  21  M.,  Omnibus  4  times  daily  in  July  and  Aug.  (at 
other  times  twice  daily)  in  0  hrs.  (return  4'/2  hrs.),  fare  5  fr.  (outside  seat 
6  fr.) ;  each  trunk  1  fr.  One-horse  carr.  15,  two-horse  25  fr.  —  Comp.  the 
Map  p.  60. 

From  Turin  to  (18  M.)  Chivasso,  see  pp.  65,  66.  —  The  line  to 
Aosta  here  diverges  to  the  N.  from  that  to  Milan.  Between  the  de- 
pressions of  the  lower  mountains  peep  tlie  Gran  Paradiso,  and  to  the 
E.,  farther  on,  Monte  Rosa.  —  Beyond  (261/2  M.)  Caluso  Canavese 
the  train  traverses  a  tunnel  below  the  Moraine  Circus  of  Ivrea,  the 
name  given  to  the  chain  of  hills  (12  M.  by  18  M.)  on  the  S.  side  of 
the  former  Dora  glacier,  which  projects  in  the  form  of  a  delta  into 
the  plain  of  the  Po.  Behind  the  hills  a  mossy  and  swampy  region 
with  numerous  ponds  marks  the  site  of  an  ancient  moraine-lake. 
Beyond  (33  M.)  Strambmo  we  cross  the  Chiusella.  To  the  E,  rises 
the  Serra  d'lvrea  (see  below). 

381/2  M.  Ivrea  (876  ft. ;  *Alb.  Scudo  di  Francia,  with  tourist- 
office,  R.  from  2,  de'j.  2'/27  D-  ^  fi'-i  incl.  wine;  Hot.  Vniverso;  Alb. 
d' Italia,  etc.),  the  capital  of  the  Canavese,  is  a  town  with  6000  inhab., 
picturesquely  situated  on  the  Dora  Baltea  (Fr.  Doire').  The  hill,  on 
the  slope  of  which  it  lies,  is  crowned  by  the  Castello  delle  Quattro 
Torri,  built  by  Amadeus  VI,  (p.  26)  in  1358,  and  now  a  prison. 
Only  three  of  the  lofty  brick  towers  remain,  the  fourth  having  been 
destroyed  by  lightning  in  1676.  The  Cathedral,  a  building  of  an- 
cient origin  but  frequently  restored,  is  adjoined  by  cloisters  of  the 
10-llth  centuries.  An  ancient  sarcophagus  adorns  the  adjoining 
Piazza.  In  the  Palazzo  Municipale  is  the  small  Museo  Garda,  with 
ethnographical  collections  from  E.  Asia.  —  Ivrea,  the  ancient  Epo- 
redia,  was  colonised  by  the  Romans,  B.C.  100,  in  order  to  command 
the  Alpine  routes  over  the  Great  and  Little  St.  Bernard.  Of  the 
marquises  of  Ivrea  the  best-known  are  Berengar  II.  (d.  966)  and 
Arduin  (d.  1016),  who  obtained  the  Italian  crown  at  Pavia  (p.  202). 

Pleasant  walk  to  the  Madonna  del  Monte  (pilgrimage- church)  and  the 
Lago  Sirio  or  Zago  di  iSan  Giiisejipe. 

Steam-tramway  from  Ivrea  in  2  hrs.  to  (I8V2  M.)  lianthiii,  (p.  68;  fares 
1  fr.  80,  1  fr.  50  c).  The  line  runs  near  the  S.W.  edge  of  the  Serra,  a 
hilly  ridge  10  M.  in  length,  the  longest  moraine  in  Europe,  at  one  time 
the  lateral  moraine  of  the  glacier  of  the  Dora  valley. 

The  train  penetrates  the  hUl  on  which  Ivrea  stands  by  means  of 
a  tunnel,  1200  yds.  long,  and  ascends  the  fertile  valley  of  the  Dora. 

VERRES.  7^,  Route.     55 

41  M.  MonlaUo  Dora,  with  a  battlemented  castle  (l'2-15tli  cent.).  — 
43  M.  Borgofranco  (830  ft.)  has  arsenical  springs. 

49  M.  Pont-St-Martin.  The  village  (1030  ft.;  Hol.-Pens.  Dela- 
pierre,  very  fair),  with  a  ruined  castle,  foundries,  and  a  Roman 
bridge  over  the  Lys,  is  picturesquely  situated  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Val  Gressoney,  1  M.  from  the  station. 

In  the  beautiful  Val  Gressoney  a  good  road  (ciiligence  to  Gressoney- 
St-Joan  in  summer  twice  daily  in  5V2  hrs.)  ascends  through  chestnut-woods 
via  LiUianes  and  FoiHainemore  to  (17  M.)  Issime  (30-0  ft. ;  "Eot.  Mont-Siry, 
R.  2-;!,  pens.  6  8  fr.),  whence  the  "Punta  Frudiera  (^Mont  Niry ;  10,070  ft.), 
with  splendid  view,  may  be  ascended  via  the  CoUe  di  Chasten  in  7-8  hrs. 
(guiile  12  fr.).  Thence  via  Oaby  (3395  ft.;  Grand-Hotel  Rezina)  to  (11  M.) 
Gressoney-St-Jean  (4.545  ft. ;  ' Hotel  Delapierre,  R.  2-3V2,  D.  41/2,  pens.  8-10  fr. ; 
•mtel  du  Lyskamm,  R.  4-6,  D.  5  fr. ;  Sdtel  du  Moni-Eose,  R.  2-8,  pens.  5-8  ir.), 
the  capital  of  the  valley,  and  past  the  (13y2  M.)  prettily -situated  "Hotel 
Pens.  Miravalle  (5270  ft.  ;  R.  3-5.  D.  4,  pens.  10-14  fr.)  to  (15  M.)  Gressoney- 
la-Trinite  (5370  ft.;  HiH.-Pens.  Thidy,  R.  2V2-3'/2,  I>.  5  fr.  ;  Hitel  du  Lac), 
fho  last  village,  l'>nely  situated  near  the  glaciers  of  Hlonte  Rosa.  Gressoney- 
St-Jean  and  La  Trinite  are  both  much  frequented  by  summer-visitors  aud 
mountaineers  (for  details,  see  Baedeker's  Switzerland').  Bridle-path  over  the 
Col  d'Olen  to  (6-7  hrs.)  Alagna,  see  p.  72. 

We  next  cross  the  Lys  and  follow  the  broad  valley,  flanked 
by  line  moimtalns ,  to  (601/2  M.)  the  prettily- situated  Donnaz 
(1056  ft.;  Rosa).  The  train  now  ascends  a  rocky  defile  and  passes 
through  a  tunnel  under  Fort  Bard  (1282  ft.),  which  was  built  iu  the 
beginning  of  the  11th  cent,  and  was  taken  in  1242  by  Amadeus  IV. 
of  Savoy  after  a  long  siege,  while  in  May.  1800,  before  the  battle  of 
Marengo,  it  was  gallantly  defended  by  400  Austrians,  who  kept  the 
French  army  in  check  for  a  week.  The  train  then  crosses  the  Dora 
to  (52  M.)  Hone-Bard,  beautifully  situated.  On  the  left  opens  the 
Val  diCamporciero,  or  Champorcher,  with  its  fine  rocky  peaks  (p.  62); 
to  the  N.W.  towers  the  Becca  di  Liiseney  (11,500  ft.).  —  The  train 
intersects  a  cone  of  de'bris  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Dora.  —  54^/2  M. 
Arnnz,  with  a  ruined  castle. 

56'/2  M.  Verrds.  The  village  (1280  ft.;  Alb.  d' Italia,  very  fair; 
Hot.  Eden;  Alb.  degli  Amici),  with  1100  inhab.  and  an  old  castle 
(Rocca)  of  the  former  Counts  of  Challant  (built  in  1390,  refortifltd 
in  1636),  lies  picturesquely  at  the  entrance  of  the  Val  Challant, 
3/4  M.  from  the  station.  Opposite,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Dora, 
lies  Issogne,  also  with  an  interesting  *Chateau  of  the  Counts  of 
Challant  (ca.  1480;  interior  tastefully  restored).  To  the  N.E.,  be- 
tween the  Challant  and  Gressoney  valleys,  towers  the  rocky  pyramid 
of  the  Becca  di  Vloti  (9948  ft.). 

The  valleys  of  Aosta  and  Susa  (p.  44)  were  alternately  occupied  by 
the  Franks  and  the  Longobards,  and  belonged  to  the  Franconian  Empire, 
in  consequence  of  which  a  South  French  dialect  (langue  ralddtaine)  still 
predominates  in  these  Italian  districts.  The  village  of  Bard  (below  the  fort) 
is  the  point  of  transition  from  Italian  to  French. 

Above  Verres  the  valley  expands,  but  soon  contracts  again.  Ex- 
tensive vineyards  are  passed.  We  cross  the  Evan^on  and  the  Dora. 
On  the  slope  to  the  left  is  the  village  of  Champ  de  Praz.  lying  at 
the  entrance  of  the  ValChalame,  the  torrent  of  which  has  overspread 

56     Route  12.  CHATILLON.  From  Turin 

the  valley  of  the  Dora  with  detritus.  Farther  on  lofty  walls  of  rock 
rise  to  the  left.  —  Near  (60  M.)  Montjovet  appear  on  the  right, 
high  above  ns,  the  extensive  rnlns  of  the  chateau  of  Montjovet  or 
St.  Oermain.  The  train  crosses  the  Dora  hy  means  of  a  long  viaduct 
and  enters  the  picturesque  *Defile  of  Montjovet,  the  grandest  part 
of  the  line,  with  a  succession  of  tunnels  and  buttresses  of  masonry, 
and  the  brawling  Dora  far  below. 

631/2  M.  St.  Vincent  (1415  ft.),  at  the  end  of  the  defile.  To  the 
right,  1  M.  above  the  station.  lies  the  village  (1886  ft. ;  Hot.  du  Lion 
d'Or,  very  fair;  Scudo  di  Francia;  Corona;  hotels  generally  closed 
in  winter);  8/4  M.  higher  up  (cable  railway)  there  is  a  mineral 
spring  (Grand  Hotel). 

*Mont  Zerbion  (8925  ft.),  which  may  be  aPcenJed  either  from  St.  Vincent 
iir  Chatillon,  via  the  chalets  oi  Francon  (6655  ft.),  in  5-6  hrs.,  commands  a 
magnificent  view  of  the  Alpine  chain  from  Monte  Rosa  to  Mont  Blanc  and 
of  the  Gran  Paradise  group. 

Loftily  perched  on  the  left  is  the  old  castle  of  Vssel  (ca.  1350), 
belonging  to  the  Counts  of  Challant. 

641/2  M.  Chatillon  (1807  ft. ;  H6t.  des  Alpes,  at  the  station;  *ndt. 
de  Londres,  R.  31/2,  pens.  7-10  fr.,  *H6t.  Pens.  Suisse^i  both  in  the 
town,  beside  the  bridge;  Hot.  du  Nord;  Caff e - Ristorante  Alpine , 
beyond  the  bridge),  with  3100  inhab.,  is  finely  situated  1  M.  above 
the  station,  at  the  entrance  to  the  Val  Tournanche.  Its  houses  are 
picturesquely  scattered  over  the  gorge  of  the  Matmoire  or  Marmore, 
a  torrent  descending  from  the  Matterhorn  ;  and  in  the  middle  of  the 
town  is  a  bridge  spanning  the  ravine  in  one  fine  arch. 

In  the  picturesque  and  finely  wooded  Val  Tournanche  (diligence  to 
Valtournanche  in  summer  daily  in  3^/4  hrs.;  one-horse  carriage  15,  two- 
horse  25  fr.)  a  good  road  ascends  via  (41/2  M.)  Grands-ifonlins  (3280  ft.),  where 
the  imposing  Matterhorn  suddenly  appear?,  and  (6  M.)  Fiernaz  (3445  ft. ; 
Hotel  Bellevue)  to  (111/2  M.)  Valtournanche  (5000  It.;  ""Eetel  dti  Mont-Rose, 
R.  21/2,  pens.  7-10  fr. ;  Hdl.  Meynet,  E.  2V2-3'/2,  pens.  6-9  fr.),  the  principal 
place  of  the  valley.  Bridle-path  henre  (mule  to  Giomein  8  fr.)  past  the 
interesting  GouiTre  de  BusseraiUe  (Hotel  des  Alpes)  to  (2^/2  hrsO  the  chalets 
of  Breuil  (6710  ft.;  Edtel  des  Jumeavx,  R.  3,  D.  31/2,  pens.  7-l()  fr. ;  H6(.  du 
Breuil,  R.  21/2,  !>.  3-3V2  fr.),  10  min.  above  which  is  the  *HStel  du  Mont- 
Cervin  at  Qiomein  (6880  ft.;  R.  4,  D.  5,  pens.  10-12  fr.).  Mountain-ascents, 
and  passage  over  the  Thiodule  Pass  (10,900  ft.)  to  (7-71/2  hrs.)  Zermali,  see 
Baedeker's  Switzerland. 

The  line  crosses  the  Matmoire,  traverses  a  deep  cutting  through  a 
deposit  of  debris,  threads  two  tunnels,  and  reaches  (671/2 M.)  Cham- 
have  (1565  ft.),  noted  for  its  wine.  To  the  W.  opens  the  view  of  the 
beautiful  valley  of  Aosta,  rich  in  fruit  and  surrounded  by  lofty 
mountains,  with  the  three-peaked  Rutor  (p.  64)  in  the  background. 

The  line  traverses  a  mass  of  de'bris  at  Diemoz  (viaduct  107  yds. 
long).  To  the  left  lies  the  picturesque  chateau  of  *Fenis  (with  old 
mural  paintings),  at  the  mouth  of  the  Val  de  Clavalite,  through  which 
peeps  the  snowy  peak  of  the  Tersiva  (p.  61).  —  72  M.  Nus  (1755  ft. ; 
Croce  d'Oro),  with  a  ruined  castle,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Val  St.  Bar- 
thilemy.  —  On  the  slope  above  (73i/2  M.)  St.  Marcel,  which  lies  at 
the  mouth  of  the  valley  of  the  same  name  (p.  62),  is  the  much- 

tn  Courmayeur.  AOSTA.  72.  Route.     T)? 

frequented  pilgrimage-ohurch  of  Plou.  —  75  M.  Quart-  Villefranche 
(1755  ft.),  with  the  chateau  of  Quart  on  a  hill  to  the  right  (2485  ft.). 
We  then  cross  the  Bagnere  and  the  Buthier. 

80  M.  Aosta.  —  HJT.  DO  Mont-Blanc,  at  the  W.  end  of  the  town, 
R.  3-3V2,  B.  l'/2,  1>.  5  fr. ;  *Hotel  Royal  Victoria,  opposite  the  station, 
R.  3-3V:i,  L.  Vm  a.  1,  B.  IV2,  Aij-  3,  D.  5,  pens.  incl.  wine  9-12  fr.,  these 
two  open  in  summer  only.  —  Second  class:  Albergo  Corona,  R.  2V2,  pens. 
8-10  fi-.,  Italian,  very  fair,  Hot.  Centoz,  R.  2-21/2,  pens.  6-8  fr.,  Hot.  de  la 
PosTE,  R.  2,  D.  4,  pens.  6V2-8V'2  fr.,  all  three  in  the  Piazza  Carlo  Alberto 
or  market-place;  Hot.  Suisse,  Via  delT  Ospedale,  R.  l'/i-3  fr.;  Alb.  Alpino, 
(;orso  Vittorio  Emanuele.  —  Carf^-Histo/'ante  Nazionale,  in  the  market-place. 
Beer  at  Zimmerniann's,  in  (he  Via  Saverio  di  Maistre,  near  the  market- 
place. Good  bedrooms  (3  fr.)  at  the  omnibus-office  in  the  market-place.  — 
Omnibus  and  carriaj;es  to  Courmayeur,  see  p.  51. 

Aosta  (1910ft.),  with  6100  inhab.,  the  Augusta Praetoria Salas- 
sorum  of  the  Romans  and  now  the  capital  of  the  Italian  province  of 
Aosta,  lies  at  the  confluence  of  the  Buthier  and  the  Dora  Baltea. 

The  valley  was  anciently  inhabited  by  the  Salaasi,  a  Celtic  race,  who 
commanded  the  passage  of  the  Great  and  the  Little  St.  Bernard,  the  two 
chief  routes  from  Italy  to  Gaul.  They  frequently  harassed  the  Romans  in 
various  ways,  until  tlioy  were  conquered  in  B.C.  25  by  Terentius  Varro, 
who  sold  many  of  them  as  slaves  at  Eporedia  (p.  54).  To  protect  the  roads 
Varro  then  founded  a  camp,  7t0  yds.  long  and  C25  yds.  broad,  with  20 
square  towers,  and  garrisoned  it  with  3000  soldiers  of  the  Prretorian  cohort?. 
The    importance  of  the  Roman  Aosta  13  indicated  by  the  extant  remains. 

Froui  the  railway-station,  which  lies  on  the  S.  side  of  the  town, 
the  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  Secondo  leads  past  the  little  Oiardino 
I'uhblico,  in  which  is  a  bronze  Statue  of  Victor  Emmanuel  JI.,  'roi 
chasseur',  by  Tortone,  on  a  lofty  rock  pedestal.  Farther  on  we  reach 
the  Roman  Town  Walls,  which  are  201/.2  ft.  high  and  preserved 
almost  in  their  entire  extent,  while  on  the  S.W.  side  the  ancient 
fa(-iiig  and  cornice  are  still  in  situ.  A  few  paces  to  the  right  is  the 
Tour  du  PaiUeron,  restored  in  1892. 

The  Corso  Vitt.  Emanuele  II.  ends  at  the  market-place  (Piazza 
Carlo  Alberto)  with  the  Palazzo  di  Citlci,  containing  the  collections 
of  the  Italian  Alpine  Club. 

From  the  market-place,  where  the  main  streets  of  the  town, 
still  preserving  the  old  Roman  arrangement,  intersect  each  other, 
the  Via  Umberto  Primo  leads  to  the  well-preserved  E.  town-gate, 
the  ancient  three-arched  Poeta  Ph..s:toria,  whence  the  Via  Sant' 
Anselmo  proceeds  straight  on  to  the  handsome  *IIoNoaARY  Arch 
OF  Augustus,  with  its  ten  Corinthian  pilasters.  We  then  cross  the 
Huthier,  which  has  changed  its  channel,  to  the  massy  arch  of  the 
old  Roman  Bridge,  now  half-buried  in  the  earth. 

In  the  Borgo  di  Sant'  Orso,  the  E.  suburb,  lies  the  cburch  of 
St.  Oubs  or  SanV  Orso,  founded  in  425  and  rebuilt  in  the  12th  cent- 
ury. The  choir  contains  the  tomb  of  Bishop  Gallus  (d.  546)  and  finely 
carved  stalls  of  the  15th  century.  The  old  crypt  is  borne  by  Roman 
columns.  The  cloisters  contain  early-Romanesque  columns  (12th 
cent.),  with  interesting  capitals.  Near  the  church  rises  a  Campanile, 
built  of  Roman  hewn  stones  in  the  12th  cent.,  opposite  which  are 

58     Route  12.  AOSTA.  From  Turin 

two  ancient  columns  in  front  of  a  cliapcl.  In  the  same  piazza  is 
the  picturesque  Priory  of  St.  Ours  (15th  cent.),  with  terracotta 
ornamentation  and  an  octagonal  tower.  The  interior  contains  good 
wood-carvings  and  frescoes. 

The  Amphitheatre,  destroyed  all  but  a  few  arcades,  in  the  old 
Convento  di  Santa  Cateriiia,  is  reached  from  the  Borgo  Sant'  Orso 
by  the  new  street  beside  the  Tour  des  Prisons  or  Tour  clu  Builliaye 
(12-i4ih  cent.),  the  N.E.  corner  of  the  town-wall,  or  by  the  Vicolo 
del  Bailliage,  leading  to  the  N.  from  the  Porta  Prajtoria.  Close  by, 
in  the  Via  del  Teatro,  is  the  Roman  Theatre^  of  which  the  S. 
wall  (70  ft.  high)  is  now  standing. 

The  Cathedral,  in  the  N.  part  of  the  town,  owes  its  present 
form  to  the  14th  century.  Above  the  portal  is  a  painted  terracotta 
relief;  in  the  choir,  two  mosaic  pavements  of  1429  and  Gothic 
stalls  of  the  15th  century.  The  treasury  contains  two  shrines  of  the 
13th  and  15th  cent.  (SS.  Gratus  and  Jucundus),  a  cameo  of  a  Roman 
empress  in  a  setting  of  the  13th  cent.,  and  an  ivory  diptych  of  the 
Consul  Probus  (406)  with  a  representation  of  the  Emp.  Honorius. 
The  cloisters  date  from  1460.  —  In  the  Accademia  di  Sant'  Ansdmo, 
close  by,  are  Celtic  and  Roman  antiquities. 

By  the  S.  town-gate  (the  ancient  Porta  Principalis  De.vfra,  re- 
cently freed  from  encroaching  buildings)  rises  the  Torre  Bramafam 
(12th  cent.?),  a  relic  of  a  castle  of  the  Counts  of  Challant.  It  contains 
an  inscription  dedicated  to  Augustus  by  the  Salassi.  —  By  the  W. 
wall  is  the  mediaeval  Torre  del  Lelbroso,  or  Tour  du  Lepreux,  de- 
scribed in  Xavier  Le  Maistre's  story,  in  which  a  leper  named  Guasco 
(d.  1803)  and  his  sister  Angelica  (d.  1791)  dragged  out  their  mis- 
erable existence.  —  Numerous  cre'tiiis  will  be  seen  in  Aosta. 

The  -Becca  di  Nona  (10,305  ft.),  rising  to  the  S.  of  Aosta,  commands 
a  superb  view  of  the  Alps.  Ascent  6-7  hvs.,  with  guide  (16  fr.);  provisions 
should  be  taken.  A  bridle-path  leads  to  the  village  of  Charvensod  (2445  ft.; 
guide,  Gregoire  Come)  and  thence  via  the  hermitage  of  St.  Qrat  (5815  ft.) 
to  the  Col  de  Plan  Fenctre  (7300  ft.)  and  the  (4V2  hrs.)  Alp  Comhoi  (6960  ft. ; 
night-quarters).  The  Signal  Sismonda  (7700  ft.),  '/-z  hr.  above  (S.)  the  Col 
de  Plan  Fenetre,  command'*  a  fine  view  of  the  Rutor  and  the  Pennine  Alps. 
From  the  Alp  Comboe  a  good  zigzag  path  ascends  in  2V2  h'"s.  to  the  top 
of  the  Kecca  di  Nona  (a  few  yards  below  it  is  the  Rifugio  Biickhn  of  tlie 
Italian  Alpine  Club).  —  The  Mont  Emilius  (11,677  ft.)  may  be  ascended 
from  Comboe  in  4V2  brs.  (fatiguing;  for  adepts  only;  guide  30  fr.).  The 
view  is  still  more  extensive  than  that  from  the  Becca  di  Nona. 

From  Aosta  over  the  Great  St.  Bernard  to  Martigny^  see  Baedeker''s 

The  Road  to  Couemayeub,  (omn.,  see  p.  54)  ascends  the  broad 
and  shadeless  valley  of  the  Dora  Baltea,  passing  the  handsome  royal 
chateau  of  Sarre  (1968  ft.),  built  in  1710  ;  opposite  is  Aymaville 
(2120  ft.),  with  a  chateau  with  four  towers  (14th  cent.),  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Val  de  Cogne  (p.  61).  Beyond  St.  Pierre  ('2170  ft.'), 
with  its  church  and  picturesque  chateau  (14th  cent.;  partly  restored), 
we  continue,  enjoying  a  line  view  of  the  Rutor  and  Grivola,  and  near 
tlie  old  tower  of  Colin  (1  Ith  cent.?)  cross  the  Dora  to  ■ — 

to  Courmayeur.  PRE-ST-DIDIER.  12.  Route.   59 

572  M.  Villeneuve  [2165  ft.;  Alh.  Rhtonmte  deW  Unione;  Risto- 
rante  Petiijat},  a  picturesquely  situated  village,  commanded  by  tlie 
rock-pon-.lied  ruin  of  Argent. 

From  ViLi.ENEUVE  to  Ceresoi.e  Reale  ( !■)  hrs.)-  Ascent  from  Villeneuve 
by  a  ])ave(l  path,  iiuigli  and  steep.  To  the  W.,  a  fine  view  of  Mont  Blanc. 
Opposite  (3/i  lir.)  Champlong,  where  we  i-cach  the  lowest  part  of  the  Val 
Sdvarrmche  (p.  63j,  the  beautifully  wooded  \'<il  de  Rhcrnes  opens  on  the  W. ; 
on  the  h('i;:ht  between  the  valleys  rises  the  chateau  of  Introd  (p.  63). 
Fiilldwing  the  lofty  right  bank  of  the  deep  valley,  wc  ne.\t  come  to  (3  hrs.) 
Degioz-Valsavaranche  (p.  (33),  then  Tignet  (p.  63)  and  Bien  and  (2V4  hrs.) 
rmt-Valsararancha  (63:^5  ft.;  Hot.  Orivula,  plain  but  good),  the  highest 
hamlet  in  the  Vul  Savaranche,  at  the  W.  base  of  the  Gran  Paradiso  (p.  63). 

The  Val  Savaranche  divides  here.  We  cross  the  brook  descending 
from  the  W.  branch  of  the  valley,  and  ascend  f,  steep  rocky  slope  in 
numerou.s  windings,  passing  a  fine  waterfall,  to  the  (1  hr.)  Croix  d''Aro- 
letta  (TSCOft.),  a  cross  on  the  brink  of  a  precipice,  where  we  en,ioy  a 
niagnilicent  survey  of  the  Oran  Paradiso  and  its  three  peaks  opposite  to 
us,  to  the  N.  of  which  are  the  Becca  Jfontandeyne,  Pointe  Herbetet,  and 
the  Grivola.  Traversing  a  desolate,  and  at  places  marshy,  valley  ,  with 
numerous  traces  of  glacier-friction,  we  ne.xt  pass  the  h'mlet  of  Gran  Collet 
(T£05ft.;  accommodation),  then  (I  hr.)  the  Chalets  de  Nivolet  and  a  small 
lake  with  a  royal  shooting-box,  and  reach  the  (1  hr.)  Col  de  Nivolet 
(8065  ft.),  a  narrow  ridge  of  rock  with  a  superb  view,  to  the  S.,  of  the  Le- 
rfinna  (p.  43)  rising  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  deep  Val  d'Orco.  To  the 
W.  are  the  lofty  Col  de  la  Oalise  and  the  Cima  di  Bousaon ;  to  the  E.,  the 
chain  of  the  draii  ParadUo.  (A  route  leads  to  the  N.W.  across  the  Colle 
Jiosscito  into  the  Val  de  R/iemes.) 

Our  route  descends  a  steep  rocky  slope,  in  many  windings,  to  a  bleak 
valley  with  several  small  tarns  and  a  few  chalets,  and  thence  by  steep 
zigzags  on  the  left  side  of  the  Agnello,  with  its  numerous  falls,  to  ('2  hrs.) 
C/iiapili  di  Sopra  (5718  ft.),  the  highest  hamlet  in  the  valley  of  the  Oreo. 
Farther  on  we  pass  the  beautifully  situated  Parrocchia  or  parish-church 
(5315  ft.)  and  fiually  reach  (2  hrs.)  Ceresole  lieale  (p.  43). 

Beyond  Villeneuve  we  cross  the  Savaranche  and  ascend  rapidly 
to  (3* '2  M. )  Arvier  (2646  ft. ;  Croce  Bianca).  High  np  on  the  precip- 
itous cliff  to  the  right  stauds  the  church  of  St.  Nicolas  (3925  ft.). 
Ill  front  of  us  is  the  snowy  Rutor  (p.  G4).  —  Near  the  beautifully 
situated  but  dirty  village  of  ('Vi  M-)  Liverogne  (2395  ft.;  Hot.  du 
Col  du  Mont^  plain)  we  cross  the  deep  gorge  of  the  Dora  di  Val- 
gri.ianche  ( p.  04),  and  traverse  a  rocky  gorge  to  Ruinaz  (2680  ft. ; 
Croix,  poor).  (Opposite  lies  Avi/^e^  with  a  ruined  castle  and  au  old 
cbun-h.  Mont  Blanc  now  comes  in  sight.  The  road  passes  through 
another  wild  defile  (Pierre  Taillee)  and  crosses  to  the  left  bank  by 
the  (2  M.)  Pont  d'E'{uilive  (2570  ft.).  The  valley  expands.  On  the 
light  bank  is  the  pretty  Cascade  de  Derby,  descending  in  several 
leaps.  3  M.  Morgex  (3020  ft.;  Chene  Verl;  Ajiye).  Between  Morgex 
and  Courmayeur  tlie  Dora  valley  intersects  the  limestone  and  quartz- 
ite  zone,  which  extends  to  the  S.E.  of  Mont  Blanc  from  Sion  to 
Moutiers  (p.  2).  The  road  now  follows  the  lofty  slope  for  some 
distance,  with  a  fine  retrospective  view  of  the  (irivola  (p.  61),  and 
crosses  to  the  right  bank  of  the  Dora  Baltea  near  (3  M.)  — 

Pre-St-Didier  (3250  ft.;  *H6tel  de  I'Univers,  R.  from  3,  B.  I1/4, 
de'J.  3,  D.  5,  pens,  from  9  fr.,  incl.  wine;  Hot.  de  Londres),  a  pictur- 
esquely situated  village  with  baths,  where  the  road  to  the  Little  St. 

60    Route  12.  COURMAYEUR. 

Bernard  diverges  to  the  loft  (see  below).  Near  tlie  warm  salt  springs, 
1/4  M,  lower,  the  TlmUe  has  forced  its  way  to  the  Dora  valley  through 
precipitous  cliffs. 

Excursions.  The  ascent  of  the  *Tete  de  Crammont  (8980  ft.),  4  hrs.  to 
the  W.  of  Pre-St-Didier  is  highly  interesting  (riding  practicable  to  within 
'/2  hr.  of  the  top).  Following  the  Little  St.  Bernard  road  to  a  point  about 
6  min.  above  the  first  tunnel  (shorter  footpath  in  20  min.),  we  thence  ascend 
in  zigzags  to  the  right  to  the  (2  hrs.)  hamlet  of  Chanlon  (5970  ft.),  whence 
we  reach  the  summit  in  I'/z  hr.  more.  Splendid  view  of  Mont  Blanc  and 
the  Graian  Alps.  About  5  min.  below  the  top  is  the  Capanna  De  Saussure,  a 
refuge-hut  of  the  Italian  Alpine  Club.  Another  and  easier  route  diverges 
to  the  right  from  the  St.  Bernard  road  at  Elevaz,  3  M.  from  Pre'-St-Didier, 
joining  the  above  route  at  Chanton.    Experts  may  dispense  with  a  guide. 

From  Pre-St-Didier  via  Balme  and  (6  M.)  La  Thuile  (4726  ft.;  Alb. 
Nazionalc,  Alb.  della  Goletta,  both  primitive;  guide,  Maurizio  Boguier), 
the  best  starting-point  for  the  ascent  of  the  Rulor  (comp.  p.  64),  to  the  pass 
of  the  lA'tle  St.  Bernard  (7175  ft.)  and  Bourg  -  SI  -  Maurice,  see  Baedeker's 
Southern  France. 

Beyond  Pre-St-Didier  the  road  ascends  the  left  bank  to  (8/4  M.) 
Palesieux,  and  winds  through  a  wooded  ravine  to  (270  M.)  — 

21  M.  Courmayeur.  —  "Grand  Hotel  Rotal-Bertolini,  with  garden, 
K.  from  3,  B.  fi/i,  dej.  31/2,  D.  5,  pens,  from  11  fr.  (open  in  summer  only); 
Geand  Hotel  de  l'Ange,  similar  charges;  'Union,  E.  3-4,  B.  IV2,  dej.  3, 
D.  41/2,  pens.  8'/2-ll  fr.,  incl.  wine;  "Mont  Blanc,  '/z  M.  to  the  N.  of  the 
village,  R.  21/2-4,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  lO'/^fr.,  incl.  wine;  Hot.-Restadrant 
Savote,  R.  2-21/2,  B.  1,  dej.  3,  D.  3V2,  pens,  from  7  fr.,  incl.  wine.—  Ca/J 
du  Mont-Blanc.  —  Diligence  to  Aosta,  see  p.  54;  carr.  with  one  horse  15, 
with  two  25  fr.  —  English  Church  Service  in  the  season  at  the  Grand  Hotel 

Courmayeur  (4030  ft.),  a  considerable  village  beautifully  situated 
at  the  head  of  the  Aosta  valley,  is  much  frequented  by  Italians  as  a 
summer-resort  and  for  its  chalybeate  springs.  The  highest  pealc 
of  Mont  Blanc  is  concealed  from  Courmayeur  by  the  Mont  Chetif 
(7685  ft.},  but  is  seen  from  the  Pr(5-St-Didier  road,  V2  M.  to  the  S. 
—  About  11/4  M.  to  the  N.  are  the  small  sulphur  baths  of  La  Saxe. 

The  *Mont  de  la  Saxe  (7735  ft.;  3  hrs.;  guide,  6  fr.,  unnecessary) 
affords  a  complete  view  of  the  E.  side  of  Mont  Blanc  with  its  glaciers, 
from  the  Col  de  la  Seigne  to  the  Col  de  Ferret,  the  Dent  du  G^ant  and 
the  Jorasses  being  prominent.  A  good  bridle-path  ascends  from  Cour- 
mayeur, by  Villair,  to  the  (2  hrs.)  Chalets  du  Pri  (64S0  ft.)  and  the  (1  hr.) 
summit.  The  descent  may  be  made  by  the  Chalets  du  Leuchi  (6306  ft.)  into 
the  Val  Ferret.  —  Excursions  in  the  Mont  Blanc  chain,  to  Chamunix,  etc., 
see  Baedeker''s  Switzerland  or  Southern  France. 

13.  From  Aosta  to  the  Graian  Alps. 

The  Graian  Alps,  an  extensive  mountain-system  culminating  in  the 
Oran  Paradito  (13,324  ft.)  and  the  Orivola  (13,022  ft.),  lie  between  the 
valleys  of  the  Bora  Baltea  and  the  Mre  on  the  N.,  and  those  of  the 
Bora  Riparia  and  the  Arc  on  the  S.  We  here  describe  a  few  of  the  most 
interesting  routes  through  the  E.  part  of  this  grand  mountain-region, 
in  the  form  of  a  circular  tour  of  four  days  from  Aosta ,  taking  in  Cogne, 
Valsavarajiche,  Rhemes  Notre-Dame,  and  Valgrisanche.  Cogne  is  the  best 
centre  for  excursions. 

The  mountains  of  Cogne  are  a  favourite  chasse  of  the  Kings  of  Italy, 
and  the  mountain  goat  ('steinbock',  Ital.  'stambecco',  Fr.  'bouquetin'), 
elsewhere  nearly  extinct,  is  still  found  here.  Several  excellent  bridle-paths, 
leading  to  the  royal  shooting-lodges,  are  a  great  assistance  to  the  pedestrian. 


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COGNE.  13.  Route.    61 

1st  Day.  —  FroM  Aosta  to  Cognb  (6'/2  trs.).  As  far  as  (6  M.) 
Aymaville  (2120  ft.)  we  may  follow  the  highroad  (p,  68),  but  it  is 
preferable  to  cross  the  Dora  near  Aosta,  and  to  go  by  Gressan  and  Jo- 
renfan,  across  meadows  and  fields.  The  bridle-path  then  ascends 
rapidly  past  the  church  of  St.  Martin  to  Poia  (2790  ft.),  and  enters 
the  monotonous  Yal  de  Cogne  at  a  great  height  above  the  ravine  of 
the  brawling  Orand'  Eyvie.  Far  below  we  soon  observe  the  houses 
of  Pont  d'Ael  (2865  ft.),  with  its  admirably  preserved  *Roman 
Bridge  (formerly  an  aqueduct),  60  yds.  long  and  395  ft.  above  the 
stream.  It  was  erected  in  the  reign  of  Augustus.  The  valley  con- 
tracts. Near  the  bridge  by  which  we  cross  the  stream  we  obtain  a 
view  of  the  Grivola  for  a  short  time.  —  "We  next  reach  (lY2hr.) 
Vieyes  (3734  ft.;  cantine),  at  tlie  mouth  of  the  Comhe  de  Nomenon 
(pretty  waterfall),  with  the  Grivola  and  the  Gran  Nomenon 
(11,444  ft.)  in  the  background.  Beyond  (V4l>r0  Siivenoire  (right) 
and  a  deserted  iron-foundry  we  again  cross  the  brook  by  the  Pont 
de  Laval  (4480  ft.),  where  the  mountains  of  Cogne  are  revealed, 
to  (IV2  li'"0  Spinel  (4765  ft.),  opposite  the  lofty  Punta  del  Pousset 
(^see  below)  and  the  Traio  Glacier.  —  At  (V2  ^r.)  Cretaz  the  Val- 
noniey  descends  from  the  S.  to  the  Grand'  Eyvie.  —  20  min.  — 

Cogne  (5083ft.;  Couronne,  R.  i^p-'^^-i,  B.  IV2.  de'j.  21/2,  D-  31/2, 
pens.  61/2  fr..  very  fair;  Grivola,  similar  charges,  clean),  charmingly 
situated,  with  a  beautiful  view  of  the  Gran  Paradise  and  the  Tour 
du  Grand  St.  Pierre,  with  their  glaciers  (Glacier  de  la  Tribulation, 
du  Grand  Crou,  dii  Money,  etc.)  to  the  S.,  and  of  the  Mont  Blanc  to 
the  N.W.,  is  an  excellent  starting-point  for  excursions.  Three 
valleys  converge  here :  the  Vallone  di  Valnontey  from  the  S.,  the 
Vallone  d'Vrtier  from  the  S.E.,  and  the  Vallone  di  Grauson  from 
the  N.E. 

Ascents  and  Passes  (guides  :  Gasp,  and  Pietro  Gerard).  —  "^Punta  del 
Pousset  (9994  ft. ;  5  lirs.;  guide  6,  with  mule  12  fr.),  a  superb  point  of  view. 
At  Cviiaz  (sec  above)  the  bridle-path  crosse.s  the  Valnontey  and  enters  a 
wood  and  then  ascends  grassy  slopes  to  the  chalets  of  Ors-Dessus  and  (3  hrs.) 
Fonssei-Desxus  or  Superiori  (8390  ft.).  Thence  a  steep  climb  of  l^/z  hr., 
passing  a  very  giddy  place  near  the  top,  brings  us  to  the  rocky  crest  of 
the  Punta  del  Pousset.  Close  to  us,  above  the  Tiaio  Glacier,  towers  the 
Grivola,  which,  on  this  side,  is  hardly  inferior  in  bnldness  to  the  Matter- 
horn,  while  other  mountains  of  the  Pennine  and  Graian  Alps  are  also 
visible.  —  The  Grivola  (13,022  ft. ;  from  Cogne  9  hrs.  \  two  guides  at  28  fr. 
each)  is  difficult  and  fit  for  experts  only.  Ascent  from  Valsavaranche  still 
mure  difficult. 

The 'Punta  di  Tersiva  (11,526  ft.;  7  hrs.,  with  guide)  presents  no  dif- 
ficulty to  adepts.  Wc  proceed  through  the  Vallone  di  Ornuson  to  the 
(2'/2  hrs.)  chalets  of  Orauson  (7450  ft.)  and  to  (S/i  hr.)  Ervillih-e  (8'2i5ft.); 
thence,  passing  the  little  Lac  Ooriere,  to  the  (1  hr.)  Passo  d" Invergneux 
(9485  ft.)  and  by  the  W.  arete  to  the  (2Vz  hrs.)  summit.  JIagnilicent  view 
of  the  Graian  imd  Pennine  Alps  and  of  the  plain  of  Piedmont  (Turin),  etc. 
The  ascent  may  be  also  made  from  the  S.  from  the  Val  d'' Uriief  via  the  Pon- 
tcn  Alp,  or  from  the  N.  (more  difficult)  from  the   Val  de  Clavalili  (p.  56). 

In  the  Vallone  di  Valnontey,  opening  to  the  S.  of  Cogne,  lie  the  (3  hrs. ; 
steep  final  ascent)  chalets  of  Le  Money  (7G74  ft.),  which  command  an  ad- 
mirable view  of  the  Gran  Parad'so  with  its  glaciers  (ascent,  see  p.  63). 
Two  difficult  glacier  passes,  the  CoUe  Grand  Crou  or  Col  Tuckett  (11,139  ft.), 

62     Route  13.  COGNE.  Graian 

between  the  Oi-ctn  Paradiso  and  Becca  di  Gay,  and  tbc  CoUe  Money  (11,?80  ft.), 
between  the  Roccia  Viva  (11,975  ft.;  small  lake  on  the  top)  and  the  Tour  du 
Grand  St.  Pierre  (  ee  below),  lead  from  the  head  of  the  Vallone  de  Val- 
nontey  to  the  Val  d'Orco  (see  below;  guide  15  fr.). 

From  CoGNE  TO  Hone-Bard,  11-12  brs.,  attractive  and  not  difficult.  A 
bridle-path  (royal  hunting-path)  crosses  the  Urtier  at  ('/a  hr.)  Champlong 
(5185  ft.),  and  ascends  the  valley  of  the  stream  with  its  abundant  flowers 
and  waterfalls,  commanding  fine  views  of  the  Grivola  to  the  W.  and  of 
the  Combe  de  Valeille  (see  below),  cnclo?ed  by  glacier.'?,  to  the  S.  VVc  next 
pass  the  chapel  of  Cret  to  the  (2  hrs.)  chalets  of  Cliavanis,  whence  wc  may 
either  follow  the  lower  path  to  the  right  by  Bvidot  and  Peyrasas,  or  that 
to  the  left  along  the  slope  of  the  Tersiva  (p.  61),  via  Piatids  and  Ponton, 
with  its  little  lake,  and  along  the  Tour  de  Ponton,  to  the  (2  hrs.)  Col  de 
Cogne  (Fenetre  de  Coyne  or  Finesfra  Champorcfier ;  9288  ft.),  between  the  Tour 
de  Ponton  and  the  heceo  Costnssa.  We  descend  into  the  pastoral  Val  Cham- 
porcfier or  Camporciero,  passing  the  chalets  of  Dondenna,  to  (S'/s  hrs,)  Chain- 
porcher  (4650  ft.;  rustic  inn),  and  thence  by  Pont-Bosel  to  (21/2  hrs.)  H6ne- 
Bard  (p.  55). 

Fkom  Cogne  to  St.  Marokl,  8  hrs.,  not  difficult  (practicable  for  mules). 
The  route  leads  through  the  Vallone  di  Grauson  to  the  (21/?  hrs.)  chalets  of 
Orauson  (p.  61),  and  thence  past  the  little  Coronas  Lake  to  the  (2  hrs.) 
Col  de  St.  Marcel  [Colle  di  Coronas,  9535  ft.),  a  saddle  of  the  Cresta  del 
Tessonet.  We  descend  through  the  wooded  Vallone  di  St.  Marcel  to  (S'/a  hrs.) 
St.  Marcel  (p.  56). 

Feom  Cogne  to  Aosta,  9  hrs.  (with  guide),  fatiguing  but  interesting. 
The  route  ascends  via  the  chalets  of  Chavanis  and  Arpisson  ("7630  ft.)  to 
the  Col  d'Arbole  (9300  ft.);  fine  view  of  the  Grim  Paradiso  and  Grivola. 
Descent  via  the  Chalets  d'Arlole  (8190  ft.)  and  the  hermitage  of  SI.  Oral 
(5815  ft.;  p.  58).  —  To  Aymaville  (p.  5S)  over  the  Colle  de  Chaz-SMie 
(9250  ft.)  or  the  Colle  del  Drinc  (8705  ft.),  7-8  hrs.,  both  attractive  and  not 

From  Cogne  to  the  Val  Soana  across  the  Colle  della  Nouva,  7-8  hrs. 
to  Ciiiiipiglia,  attractive  and  not  diflicult.  Passing  the  chalets  of  Chavanis 
and  Briilot  (see  above)  to  the  foot  of  the  glacier  and  skirting  this  to  the 
right,  we  reach  (3  hrs.)  the  CoUe  della  Nouva  (Colle  delV  Arietta;  9670  ft.), 
and  enjoy  an  admirable  view  of  Mont  Blanc  and  the  S.  side  of  the  Graian 
Alps.  Steep  descent  to  the  chalets  of  Arietta,  and  through  the  Val  Cam- 
piglia  to  (3  hrs.)  CampigUa,  (Vs  hr.)  Valprato,  and  ('/z  hr.)  lionco  (3087  ft. ; 
Alb.  Nazionale;  Universe;  omn.  to  Cuorgne),  in  the  Val  Soana,  S'/z  hrs. 
above  Ponl  Canavese  (p.  ■42).  —  Two  other  passes  to  the  Val  Soana  load 
respectively  across  the  Colle  Bar doney  (9295  ft.),  between  the  Punta  Lavina 
and  the  Punta  Rol  (fatiguing),  and  across  the  Boecheita  di  Rancio  (G8G0  ft.), 
to  the  N.  of  the  Punta  Lavina  (difficult). 

To  THE  Val  dOroo  (  Val  Locana)  over  the  Colle  Grand  Crou  or  the  Colle 
Money,  see  above.  Two  other  diflicult  passes  lead  from  the  Vallone  di 
Valeihe,  the  lateral  valley  parallel  to  the  Vallone  d'Urtier  on  the  S.  (see 
above),  to  the  Ricovero  Piantonetto  (9140  ft.)  in  the  Val  PiantonMo  and  to 
Perebecche  (p.  42)  in  the  Val  d'Orco:  the  Colle  di  Teleocio  (10,910  ft.), 
between  the  Tour  du  Grand  St.  Pierre  (12,113  ft.;  the  difficult  ascent  of 
which  may  be  made  from  the  pass)  and  the  Ondezana;  and  tbc  Colle 
Sengie  (10,520  ft.),  between  the  Oudczana  and  the  Punta  Senijic. 

'2nd  Day.  —  Feom  Cognb  to  Valsavabanche  (8-9  hrs. ),  attrac- 
tive (guide,  10  fr.,  not  indispensable).  From  (8/4  hr.)  Valnontey 
(5505  ft.)  the  bridle-path  ascends  to  the  right,  through  wood, 
passing  a  pretty  fall  of  the  Lauzon,  to  the  (21/2  hrs.)  royal  shooting- 
lodge  ('Campement  du  Roi' ;  8490  ft.)  and  the  (2  hrs.)  Colle  Lauzon 
(10,830  ft.),  with  an  admirable  view  (still  more  extensive  from  a 
height  a  few  minutes  to  the  S.).  We  now  descend,  enjoying  superb 
views  of  the  Gran  Paradiso,  on  the  left,  and  Grivola,   on  the  right, 

Alps.  VALSAVARANCHE.  13.  Route.    63 

to  (1  Vj  hr.)  the  Chalets  de  Leviona  (7766  ft.).  (Good  walkers,  with 
a  guiilf ,  may  cross  the  brook  here  near  the  small  waterfall,  and 
descend  by  a  steep  path  direct  to  Valsayaranche.)  The  bridle- 
path follows  the  left  bank  and  reaches  the  bottom  of  the  Val  Sava- 
ranche  near  (lV2^r.}  the  hamlet  of  Tignet,  1  M.  to  the  S.  of  Degioz- 
Valsavaranche  (5055  ft.;  Hot.  dii  Grand  Paradis,  Hot.- Restaurant 
du  Club  Aipin,  11.  172i  ^-  ^72  f""-)  ^otl^  plain  but  good),  the  chief 
village  in  the  Valsavarancho  (guides ,  Pietro  and  Albino  Dayne', 
Gius.  Prayet). 

Two  other  somewhat  fatiguing  passes  from  Cogne  to  ValsavaraDche 
are  the  Col  de  VBerhetet  (10,830  ft.)  and  the  Colle  ifesoneles  (10,170  ft.).  — 
From  Valsavaranche  to  Ceresole  Reale,  see  p.  59. 

The  Gran  Paradiso  (13,32  i  ft. ;  difficult,  fur  adepts  only;  guide  30  fr.) 
may  be  ascended  in  6-7  hrs.  from  (2'/4  hrs.)  Poni -VaUuiaranche  (p.  59). 
About  i/*  !"'•  to  the  S.  of  Pont  we  ascend  to  the  left  to  the  (2  hrs.)  Rifugio 
Viitorio  Emanuele  fiecondo  (9105  ft.;  inn),  above  the  Moncorvi  Alp,  and 
thence  cross  the  Glacier  de  Moiicorri  to  the  (4-5  hrs.)  summit.  The  descent 
may  be  made  to  the  Chalet  d'Uerhelet  (accommodation)  and  through  the 
Vttlnontey  (p.  61)  to  Cogne  (very  difficult). 

3rd  Day.  —  From  Valsavaranche  to  Khemks  Notrk-Damf. 
(G  hrs.;  guide  6  fr.).  The  bridle-path  ascends  from  Valsavaranche 
by  (1  M.)  Cretan,  at  first  somewhat  steeply,  to  (2  hrs.)  a  royal 
sliooting -lodge  (7185  ft.)  ,  and  thence  leads  in  zigzags  along  the 
slope  to  the  left,  passing  (II/4  hr.)  the  small  Lago  di  Djouan 
(8280  It.)  and  the  Lago  Nero  (9075  ft.),  to  the  (11/2^1-.)  CoUe 
d'Entrelor  (9872  ft.),  between  the  Cima  di  Gollien  (10,120  ft.)  and 
the  Cimn  di  Percla  (10,110  ft.).  Fine  view  of  the  Rutor  to  the  W., 
and  of  the  Gran  Paradise  and  Grivola  to  the  E.  Descent  rather 
steep  through  the  Vallone  d'Entrelor,  with  the  Becca  di  Sambeina 
(10,370  ft.)  on  the  left,  to  (2'/2  hrs.)  Rheines  Notre-Dame  (6015  ft. ; 
poor  cantine,  or  a  bed  at  the  cure's),  the  chief  place  in  the  Val  de 
Rhemes,  which  is  enclosed  by  imposing  glaciers  (guide,  C.  The'ri- 
sod),  Notre-Dame  is  5  hrs.  from  Villeneuve.  The  route  down  the 
valley  passes  Rlitmes-St-Georyes  and  Introd  (2885  ft.),  where  the 
Val  de  Uht'mfs  unites  with  the  Val  Savaranche  (p.  59).  In  descend- 
ing we  obtain  a  fine  view  of  Mont  Velan  and  the  Grand  Combin  to 
the  N. 

A  shorter  but  more  toilsome  route  than  the  Col  d'Entrelor  leads  from 
Valsavaranche  to  Rhemes  Notre-Dame  across  the  Colle  di  Sort  (9735  ft.), 
which  lies  to  the  S.  of  the  MIe.  Roletla  (11,1U0  ft.). 

4th  Day.  —  From  Rhemes  Notre-Dame  to  Valgrisanchb,  and 
THENCK  to  Liverogne  AND  AosTA  (6  hrs.  to  Valgrisauche ;  guide 
0  fr. ;  3  hrs.  more  to  Liverogne).  Steep  ascent  to  the  (372  hrs.) 
Colle  della  Finestra  (9340  ft. ),  between  the  Becca  di  Tei,  on  the 
right,  and  the  Becca  dell'  Invergnau  (11,838  ft.),  on  the  left,  with 
fine  view  of  the  Ormelune  and  the  Rutor.  The  path  descends  through 
the  stony  Vallone  del  Bouc.  Where  it  divides,  we  keep  to  the  left. 
On  our  left  are  the  Glacier  de  Rabuiyne  and  Mont  Forciat,  which 
conceals  the  Becca  dell'  Invergnau.  Passing  (172  ^^•)  ^^^  ^'Z* 
Nouva  (7025  ft.),  we  descend  and  crosa  the  brook  to  Fornet  (6680  ft. ; 

04     Route  14.  BIELLA. 

small  inn),  the  highest  hamlet  in  the  Vnl  Grisanche;  then  to  Sevey, 
Mondange,  and  (2  hrs.)  Valgrisanche  (5460  ft. ;  accommodation  at 
the  Cantine  du  Col  du  Mont  or  at  the  cure''s;  guides,  Sev.  Ponton 
and  G.  S.  Rosier),  a  village  prettily  situated  at  the  base  of  the 
Rutor  or  Ruitor. 

The  ascent  of  the  Rutor,  an  extensive,  glacier-clad  mountain  with 
several  peaks  (S.  and  highest  peak  il,4o6ft.;  N.  peak  11,315  ft.),  either 
from  Valgrisanche,  or  better  from  La  Thuile  (p.  60),  presents  no  serious 
difficulty  (guide  40  fr.).  From  La  Thuile  a  bridle-path  leads  through  the 
deep  and  narrovi'  Rutor  valley  via  La  Joiix  to  the  (2  hrs.)  grand  "Fallt  of 
the  Rutor  ((3345  ft.),  whence  we  ascend  to  the  left  to  the  (I'/z  hr.)  Rifugio  di 
Santa  Mavgherita  (8038  ft.),  situated  on  the  Lago  del  Rntov,  5  min.  to  the 
N.E.  of  a  height  (808S  ft.)  commanding  a  magnificent  *View.  Thence  acros.s 
the  large  Rutor  Glacier  to  the  (3  hrs.)  T<te  du  Rutor  (11,436  ft.),  which 
commands  a  most  splendid  panorama  of  Mont  Blanc,  etc.  (refuge-hut  of 
the  Italian  Alpine  Club  on  the  top). 

The  bridle-path  from  Valgrisanche  to  Liverogne  (3  hrs.)  leads 
through  the  beautifully  wooded  Val  Grisanche,  on  the  left  bank  of 
the  Dora  di  Valgrisanche,  to  Ceres  or  iScrre  (Hot.  Frassy,  rustic)  and 
Revers,  where  the  river  disappears  for  a  short  distance  under  rocks. 
The  hamlet  of  PLanaval  lies  to  the  left.  The  valley  contracts  to  a 
wild  ravine.  The  path  on  its  left  side  skirts  a  precipice  high  above 
the  roaring  torrent.  On  the  opposite  bank,  on  an  apparently  in- 
accessible rock ,  is  perched  the  ruined  castle  of  Montmajeur  or 
Tour  d'Arboe.  —  Liverogne,  see  p.  59.  Near  Liverogne  the  path 
quits  the  gorge  and  descends  to  the  left  through  meadows  and  groups 
of  trees  to  the  road  from  Courmayeur  to  Aosta  (p.  58). 

14.  From  Santhik  (Turin)  to  Siella. 

18"A  M.  Railway  in  ca    I-IV2  hr.  (fares  3  fr.  40,  2  fr.  55,  1  fr.  70  c). 

From  Turin  to  (3iii/2  M.)  Santhid,  see  p.  65.  The  intermediate 
stations  are  unimportant,  but  the  mountain-views  are  flue. 

18*/.2  M.  Biella.  —  Hotels.  'Tksta  Grigia;  Angelo;  Leon  d'Oro  ; 
Alb.  Centkale,  all  in  the  new  town;  Gkand  Hotel,  with  hydropathic, 
in  the  old  town.  —  Photographs  at  Vittorio  SeUa''s.  —  Cable  Railway  to 
the  old  town  (10  c). 

Biella,  an  episcopal  see  with  16,300  inhab.,  lies  on  the  Cervo  and 
is  divided  into  Biella  Piazzo  (1558  ft.),  the  high-lying  old  town,  and 
Biella  Piano  (1345  ft.),  the  new  town.  The  power  for  the  electric 
lighting  of  the  industrial  new  town  and  for  its  factories  is  furnished 
by  the  Chiusellai^.  54)  and  the  Dora  (near  Pont-St-Martin,  p.  55). 
The  town  possesses  arcaded  streets  and  a  fine  Cathedral  of  the 
15th  cent.,  with  a  facade  of  1825.  Near  the  cathedral  is  an  early- 
Christian  Baptistery  (9th  cent.?).  The  church  of  San  Sebastiano  is  a 
handsome  Renaissance  structure  of  1504.  The  palaces  of  the  old 
town  are  now  tenanted  by  the  lower  classes. 

About  3  M.  to  the  N.E.  of  Biella,  near  the  village  oi  Bioglio  (2235  ft.), 
lies  the  Villa  Sella,  with  a  beautiful  garden  and  a  splendid  view  of  the 
Alps  (visitors  admitted). 

ROMAGNANO.  75.  Route.     65 

From  Biella  Steam  Tramways  run  to  (13  Sf.)  Valle  Mosso  via  (7  M.) 
Cotsuto,  and  to  (5'/2  M.)  Mongrando  via  (2  M.)  Occhieppo  (see  below).  A 
third  line,  a.icends  to  the  N.  through  the  valley  of  the  Cervo  to  (5  M.)  An- 
dorno  (17S8  ft.;  Orand  H6tel  Sella^  with  hydropathic,  pens.  11-14  fr. ;  Croce 
Rosfa;  Engl.  Ch.  service  at  the  Grand  Hotel).  The  Gothic  church  (1304) 
has  been  modernized.  —  Beyond  Andorno  the  tramway  goes  on  to  (81/2  M.) 
/Saima,  noted  for  its  large  granite-quarry,  whence  omnibuses  (25  c.)  run 
to  Campiglia  (2460  ft. ;  inn).  From  Campiglia  a  road  ascends  via  Fonte 
Concresio  (see  below)  and  Eosazza  (Alb.  della  Gragliasca)  to  Piedicavallo 
(3405  ft.;  Alb.  Mulogna,  well  spoken  of),  whence  Monte  Bo  (8385  ft.;  'View) 
may  be  ascended  in  41/2  hrs.  (guide  5  fr.). 

A  pleasant  excursion  may  be  made  also  via  (II/4  M.)  Cotsila  (17£0  ft.), 
with  its  water-cure,  and  Favaro  (2^60  ft.)  to  Oropa  (3870  ft.),  6  M.  to  the 
N.W.  of  Biella  (omn.  thrice  daily,  21/2  'r.,  down  II/2  fr.  ;  electric  tramway 
under  construction).  Here  stand  a  large  Stabilimento  Idrotei'apico  (3480  ft. ; 
open  .Tune-Sept.),  and  the  famous  pilgrimage-church  of  Madonna  d^Oropa. 
From  Oropa  a  road  runs  to  the  N.,  piercing  the  pa?s  of  the  CoUe  della 
Colma  by  a  tunnel  765  yds.  long,  to  the  Santuario  di  San  Cioranm  (3345  ft.) 
and  to  PonU  Concresio  (see  above),  in  the  Cervo  valley. 

About  71/231.  to  the  W.  of  Biella  (road  via  Occhieppo^  see  above;  omn. 
from  the  Leon  d'Oro  2V2  fr. ;  carr.  with  one  horse  6,  with  two  12  fr.)  lie 
the  pilgrimage-church  and  hydropathic  of  Oraglia  (2664  ft.),  situated  2  M. 
above  the  village  of  that  name,  amid  a  splendid  array  of  mountains.  —  Con^p, 
Fertmi-RalH,  Gaida  pel  Villeggiante  nel  Biellese  (Turin,  Casanova;   1901). 

15.  From  Turin  vid  Santhia  andSorgomanero  to  Arona 

(Simplon  Railway). 

77  M.  Railway,  opened  in  19C6,  in  S'/i-S^A  hrs.  —  Views  of  the  Alps 
to  the  left. 

From  Turin  to  (861/2  M.)  Santhi(i,  see  telow  and  p.  66.  —  The 
railway  diverges  to  theN.E.  from  the  Milan  line  and  beyond  (39 1/2  M.) 
Carisio  crosses  the  Elvo  and  the  Cervo.  —  45  M.  Buronzo;  50  M. 
Roasenda;  56  M.  Oattinara  (870  ft.). 

Crossing  the  Sesia  by  an  iron  bridge  of  three  spans,  wo  next 
reach  (581/2  M-)  Romagnano  Sesia,  junction  for  the  line  from 
Novara  to  Varallo  (p.  68).  Thence  we  descend  in  a  fertile  un- 
dulating region,  via  (6472  ^^0  Oureggio  (1140  ft.),  to  the  valley 
of  the  Agogna. 

67  M.  Borgomanero  (1005  ft.;  p.  70),  junction  of  the  liiie  from 
Novara  to  Orta  and  Domodossola.  —  Our  line  pierces  the  spurs  of 
the  Margozzolo  Group  (p. 201)  by  means  of  a  tunnel,  2  M.  in  length. 

77  M.  Arona  and  thence  to  Domodossola  (Brigue)  or  Milan,  see 
p.  201  andR.2. 

16.  From  Turin  to  Milan  via  Novara. 

93  M.  Railway  in  3-5  hrs.  (fares  17  fr.  40,  12  fr.  20,  7  fr.  85  c. ;  ex- 
press 19  fr.  15,  13  fr.  40  c).     Glimpses  of  the  Alps  to  the  left. 

Turin ,  see  p.  27.  —  The  Dora  Riparia  is  crossed ,  then  the 
Stura  between  (5  M.)  Torino  Dora  and  (IOI/2  M.)  Settimo  Tori- 
nese,  whence  a  railway  runs  N.  to  Rivarolo,  with  branches  thence 
to  Cuorgnh  (p.  42)  and  Castellamonte.   "We  cross  the  Oreo. 

Baedekur.   Italy  I.    13th  Kdit.  5 

66     Uoute  16.  VEUCELLI.  From  Turin 

18 M.  Chivasso  (600 ft. ;  Alb.  del  Moro),  a  town  with  4200  inhab., 
noar  tlie  influx  of  the  Oreo  into  the  Po.  The  parish-church  contains 
a  painting  by  DefeiiJente  de  Ferrari. 

Branch  Lines  hence  to  Aosta  (p.  57)  and  (MV2  M.)  Casale  Monferrato 
(see  below).  —  Light  Railway  from  Turin  (comp.  p.  27)  via  (14  M.) 
Cliivasso  and  (22'/2  M.)  Cavagnolo  (olil  church  of  Santa  Fede  with  Roman- 
esque carvings)  to  (23  M.)  Brusasco  (555  It.),  on  the  N.  verge  of  the  Colli 
Torinesi  (p.  1^9). 

A  road  leads  from  Chivasso  to  the  S.  to  (2  M.)  San  Oenesio,  with  sul- 
phur baths  (Gr.  Hot.  San  Genesio,  pens,  from  8  fr.,  open  May  to  Nov.). 

Near  (25  M.)  Saluggia  the  train  crosses  the  impetuous  Dora 
Baltea  (p.  54).  To  tlie  left,  a  glimpse  of  the  Graiau  Alps;  then  of 
the  Val  d'Aosta.  —  29  M.  Livorno  Ve.rcellese. 

36 Y2  *!•  Santhia  (Rail.  Restaurant;  Alb.  del  Pallone),  with  5200 
inhabitants.  The  church  contains  an  altar-piece  by  Gaud. Ferrari.  — 
Hallway  to  Biella,  see  p.  64;  steam-tramway  to  Ivrea,  see  p.  54. 

49  M.  Vercelli  (430  ft.;  Tre  Re;  Leon  d'Oro),  an  episcopal 
town  with  17,900  inhab.  From  the  station  we  see  the  imposing 
clHirch  of  Sant'  Andrea,  founded  in  1219,  with  a  dome  and  two  W. 
towers  like  those  of  northern  churches.  Interior  early-Gothic.  Ad- 
jacent is  a  Museo  Lapidario,  with  Roman  inscriptions  and  sculptures. 
The  church  of  San  Cristoforo  contains  frescoes  by  G.  Ferrari  (1532- 
38)  and  B.  Lanini ;  by  the  high-altar,  *Madonna  and  St.  Christopher 
in  an  orchard,  by  Gaud.  Ferrari.  Santa  Caterina  and  San  Paolo 
each  contain  a  work  by  G.  Ferrari,  and  there  is  another  (a  Pieta, 
after  Perugino)  in  the  Jstituto  di  Belle  Arti.  In  the  cathedral- 
library  are  some  rare  old  MSS.  —  To  the  S.  of  Vercelli  lie  the 
Campi  Raudii,  where  Marius  defeated  the  Cimbri  in  B.C.  101. 

Steam-tramways  ply  from  Vercelli  to  Trino  on  the  S.W.,  to  Casale 
Monferrato  (see  below)  on  the  S.,  to  the  N.  to  Aranco-Bovgosesia  (p.  68) 
and  to  Biandraie  and  Fara,  and  to  the  N.W.  to  Biella  (p.  61). 

From  Vercelli  to  Alessandria,  35  M.,  railway  in  ca.  2  hrs.  (fares 
6  fr.  50,  4  fr.  55,  2  fr.  95  c.).  —  The  chief  intermediate  station  is  (Ui/^  M. 
Casale  Monferrato  (380  ft.;  Rosa  Rossa,  with  steam-heating;  Angela),  on 
the  right  bank  of  the  Po,  with  18,900  inhab.,  the  ancient  capital  of  the 
Duchy  of  Monferrato,  which  parsed  in  153B  to  the  Gonzagas  (p.  258).  The 
interesting  Romanesque  Cathedral,  a  vaulted  basilica  with  double  aisles 
and  a  fine  atrium,  was  founded  in  741  by  the  Lombard  king  Liutprand, 
and  rebuilt  in  1107.  It  contains  several  good  paintings  (by  G.  Ferrari  and 
others),  and  sculptures  by  Lombard  masters.  The  church  of  San  Domenico, 
in  the  Renaissance  style,  the  Palazzo  di  Cilth,  with  a  handsome  colonnade, 
and  the  old  citadel  of  San  Giorgio  are  also  noteworthy.  The  Ghibelline 
prince  William  of  Montferrat  is  mentioned  by  Dante  in  his  Purgatory 
(VII.  134).  A  visit  may  be  paid  from  Casale  to  the  Sacro  Monte  di  Crea, 
a  pilgrim-resort  resembling  the  Mt.  Calvary  at  Varallo.  The  chapels  con- 
tain terracotta  groups  by  Tabacchetii  and  others  (nearly  all  freely  restored); 
and  in  the  church  is  a  painting  by  Macrino  d'Alba.  —  Casale  Monferrato  is 
the  junction  of  the  Asti-Mortara  line  (p.  52)  and  of  that  to  Chivasso  (see 
above).  It  is  also  connected  with  Alessandria,  with  Vercelli  (see  above), 
and  with  Montemagno  (p.  52:  via  Altavilla)  by  tramways.  —  Various  small 
stations,  including  (28  M.)  Valenza  (p.  190).  —  35  M.  Alessandria,  see  p.  53. 

From  Vercelli  to  Pavia,  see  p.  190. 

The  train  crosses  the  Sesia  (p.  71);  to  the  left  rise  the  Alps, 
with  the  magnificent  Monte  Rosa  group.  —  52  M.  Borgo  Vercelli. 

to  Milan. 


Id.  RouU. 


62  M.  Novara  (490  ft.;  Rail.  Restaurant;  Alb.  d' Italia,  Via 
lleiiedetto  Oairoli,  II.  3,  omii.  ^/^  fV. ;  Hot.  de  la  Ville,  Via  Gaiidcnzio 
Ferrari,  R.  21/2,  omii.  72 f''-  j  ^^^-  TreRe,  clean),  the  Roman  Novaria, 
an  episcopal  town  and  formerly  a  fortress,  with  17,600  inhab.,  was 
the  scene  of  a  victory  gained  by  the  Anstrians  under  Radetzky  over 
the  Piedmontese  in  1849,  which  led  to  the  abdication  of  Charles 
Albert  (in  the  Palazzo  Bellini,  sec  p.  68). 


From  the  station  we  follow  the  Via  Garibaldi  to  the  Piazza 
Cavour.  A  little  to  the  W.,  at  the  end  of  the  Via  Gaudenzio  Ferrari, 
rises  the  church  of  San  Gaudenzio,  erected  about  1570  by  Tibaldi, 
with  a  dome  39G  ft.  high,  added  by  AntonelH  (p.  39)  in  1875-78. 
The  church,  without  aisles,  in  imitation  of  Sant'  Andrea  at  Mantua, 
contains    (^nd  chapel  to  the  left)    a  large  altar-piece  by  Qaud. 

68     Route  16.  MAGENTA. 

Ferrari  (1514,  restored  in  1902).  The  tower  commands  a  wide 
view.  —  To  the  S.,  in  the  Via  Negroni,  rises  the  Palazzo  Bellini, 
huilt  by  P.  Tibaldi;  the  facade  dates  from  about  1680,  the  pretty 
rococo  decoration  of  the  interior  from  the  18th  century. 

The  Cathedral,  originally  an  early-Christian  edifice,  has  been 
entirely  altered  by  rebuilding  and  by  additions  due  to  Antonelli. 
It  contains  frescoes  by  Bern.  Lavini  and  a  Marriage  of  St.  Catharine, 
by  Qaud.  Ferrari.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  entrance-court  is  an 
early-Romanesque  BapHaterxj.  —  A  few  yards  to  the  W.  is  a  marble 
statue  of  Charles  Emmanuel  III.,  by  Marches!. 

On  the  S.  side  of  the  Piazza  Vittorio  Emannele  is  the  old  Castello. 
From  the  ramparts,  close  by,  a  fine  view  of  the  Alps  is  obtained. 
—  The  Biblioteca  Civica  possesses  two  small  works  (angels)  by 
G.  Ferrari.  —  The  tasteful  terracotta  ornamentation  (15th  cent.) 
on  the  Casa  della  Forth,  Via  Cannobio  8,  should  be  noticed. 

Tramway  to  Yigevano  (p.  180)  and  to  Biandrate  (p.  66). 

From  Novara  to  Varallo,  34  M.,  railway  in  2'/i  bra.  (fares  6  fr.  40, 
4  fr.  50,  2  fr.  90  c.).  —  lOV-2  M.  Briona  (710  ft.)-,  I8V2  M.  RomagnanoSesia 
(p.  65),  junction  of  the  line  from  Turin  to  Arena;  25V2  M.  Yolduggia, 
station  for  the  villafte  of  that  name,  3  M.  to  the  E.,  where  Gaudenzio 
Ferrari  (ca.  i471-i5''4)  was  horn-,  26V2  Borgosesia  (light  railway  to  Ver- 
celli,  see  p.  66);  3OV2  M.  Quarona,  with  a  Madonna  by  Gaud.  Ferrari  in 
the  parish-church.  —   Varallo,  see  p.  71. 

From  Novaea  to  Seregno  ,  831/2  M.,  railway  in  1 1/2-21/2  hrs.  (fares 
6  fr.  60,  3  fr.  65,  2  fr.  25  c).  —  8  51.  Turligo,  on  the  Naviglio  Grande  (see 
below),  with  brge  electric  works  (1903).  —  16  M.  Bvsto-Arsizio  (p.  5).  — 
18  31.  Castdlanza  (p.  165).  —  25  M.  Saronno  (p.  164).  —  331/2  M.  Seregno 
(p.  167). 

At  Novara  the  Turin  and  Milan  line  is  crossed  by  those  from 
Domodossola  (p.  4)  and  from  Arona  (p.  201)  and  Bellinzona  to  Genoa 
(R.  30).   Carriages  are  often  changed  at  Novara. 

681/2  M.  Trecate.  The  line  crosses  the  Ticino  by  a  handsome  stone 
bridge  of  eleven  arches ,  which  the  Austrians  partially  destroyed 
before  the  battle  of  Magenta.  Farther  on  we  cross  the  Naviglio 
Grande  (p.  132),  a  navigable  canal  constructed  in  the  13th  century. 

76  M.  Magenta  (450  ft.). 

Near  Magenta  stands  the  Church  of  San  Martino,  by  Perrucchetti,  erected 
in  1903  to  commemorate  the  victory  of  the  French  and  Sardinians  over 
the  Austrians  on  4th  June,  1859,  which  compelled  the  latter  to  evacuate 
Lombardy.  Opposite  the  station,  on  an  eminence,  are  a  charnel-house 
and  a  bronze  statue  of  M;  cMahon,  by  Luigi  Secchi  (1895). 

The  line  intersects  numerous  rice-flelds,  which  are  kept  under 
water  for  months  at  a  time.  —  "^^^li  M.  Vitttione;  841/2  M.  Rhb 
(p.  5),  where  the  line  unites  with  the  Simplon  Railway. 

93  M.   Milan  (see  p.  128). 


17.  From  Domodossola  to  Xovara.    Lake  of  Orta. 
From  Orta  to  Varallo. 

56  M.  Railway  in  31/2-4  hrs.  (farea  10  fr.  45,  7  fr.  35,  4  fr.  70  c.);  to 
Qravellona,  the  station  for  the  Lago  Magiziore  (omn.  to  Pallanza  and  to 
Locarno,  see  pp.  197,  192),  I81/2  M.,  in  1  hr.  (fares  3  fr.  50,  2  fr.  45,  1  fr.  65  c). 

Domodossola ,  see  p.  4.  The  railway  runs  straight  through  the 
Val  d'Ossola,  following  the  right  bank  of  the  Toce  or  Tosa  (p.  4), 
while  the  Simplon  Railway  (II.  2)  follows  the  left  hank.  —  At 
(3'/2  M.)  Villadossola,  the  Antrona  Valley  opens  on  the  right  (see 
Baedeker  s  Switzerland).  At  (7  M.)  Pied jmwiera  (810  ft. ;  Corona; 
Alb.  Piedimulera ;  Alb.  della  Stazione)  the  Val  Anzasca  opens  to 
the  right  (road  to  Macugnaya,  '20  M.,  see  Baedeker  s  Switzerland). 
The  railway  crosses  the  Anza  and  then  the  Tosa  (bridge  980  yds. 
long).  9  M.  Vogogna;  11  M.  Premosello;  13  M.  Cuzzago;  stations 
on  the  Simplon  Railway  also  (see  p.  4).  —  Beyond  the  last  the  Tosa 
is  crossed  (bridge  510  yds.  long)  to  (151/2  M.)  Omavasso  (690  ft.; 
Italia;  Croce  Bianca). 

I81/2  M.  Gravellona  Toce  (Rail.  Restaurant;  inns  poor),  with 
large  cotton-mills,  at  the  junction  of  the  Strona  with  the  Tosa. 

Gravellona  lies  about  2V4  M.  to  the  S.W.  of  the  station  Pallanza-Fondo 
Toce  on  the  Simplon  llailwiiy  (comp.  p.  5).  ilotor-omnibua  to  Locarno, 
see  p.  Ib2;  diligence  to  Pallanza^  see  p.  197  (carr.  with  one  horse  5,  with 
two  horses  10  fr.).  —  Road  to  (5  M.)  Baveno  (p.  198)  via  Feriolo  (carr.  to 
Baveno  4,  with    two  horses  8  fr.). 

The  railway  runs  to  the  S.  through  the  fertile  valley  of  the  Strona. 
Beyond  (21  M.)  Crusinallo  it  crosses  the  riv^r  and  immediately 
afterwards  the  Nigulia  Canal,  which  drains  the  Lake  of  Orta. 

23  M.  Omegna  (995  ft. ;  Albergo  della  Posta),  with  a  large  paper- 
mill,  lies  at  the  N.  end  of  the  charming  Lake  of  Orta  (950  ft.  above 
the  sea;  71/2  M.  long),  now  known  also  as  the  Logo  Cusio  from  its 
(somewhat  doubtful)  ancient  name.  —  The  line  runs  high  above  the 
lake,  commanding  beautiful  views  of  it.  Beyond  (27  M.)  Pettenasco 
we  cross  the  Pescone,  and  then  the  imposing  Sassina  Viaduct. 

28'/2  M.  Orta  Novarese. 

The  railvyay-station  lies  about  1  M.  above  Orta.  On  leaving  it  we 
turn  to  the  left,  pass  below  the  railway,  and  proceed  iu  a  str;iight  direction. 
About  halfway  to  the  town  we  pass  the  Villa  Crespi,  in  a  Moorish  style, 
beyond  which  a  guide-post  points  to  the  right  to  the  Monte  d'Orla  and 
the  OJi  hr.)  Alb.  Belvedere. 

Hotels.  'Alb.  liELVEDEBK,  on  the  W.  slope  of  the  Monte  d'Orta,  with 
fine  view,  R.  3,  D.  4  fr.  (Engl.  Ch.  Serv.  in  summer).  —  Alb.  San 
61DL10,  very  fair,  Alb.  Okta,  both  in  the  Piazza,  by  the  lake,  IV4  M.  from 
the  railway-station;  Hot. -Pens.  Garibaldi,  at  the  rail,  station.  —  Boats 
for  hire  at  the  Piazza. 

The  little  town  of  Orta  (800  inhab.)  consists  mainly  of  a  Piazza, 
open  on  the  side  next  the  lake,  one  long  narrow  street,  and  a 
number  of  villas  lining  the  road  to  the  station.  It  lies  opposite 
the  small  hola  San  Oiulio,  at  the  S.W.  base  of  the  Monte  d'Orta 
(1315  ft.),   or  Sacro  Monte,   a  beautifully  wooded  hill,   stretching 

70     Route  17.  ORTA.  From  Domodoss^oln 

out  into  the  lake.  The  ascent  of  the  Sacro  Monte  may  be  made 
either  from  a  point  halfway  between  the  town  and  the  station  (see 
p.  69)  or  from  the  Piazza,  through  the  grounds  of  the  Villa  of 
Marchese  Natta  (50  c).  In  the  16th  cent.  20  chapels  were  erected 
here  in  honour  of  St.  Francis  of  Assisi,  each  containing  a  scene  from 
his  history  in  painted  lifesize  figures  of  terracotta,  with  a  back- 
ground 'al  fresco'.  The  best  groups  are  in  the  13th,  16th,  and 
20th  chapels;  in  the  last  is  represented  the  canonisation  of  (he 
saint  (fee  for  adm.  to  each  chapel,  20-30  c).  Various  points  on  the 
hill  command  charming  surveys  of  the  lake,  while  the  panorama  from 
the  Campanile  at  the  top  (50  c.)  includes  the  snowy  Monte  Rosa, 
rising  above  the  lower  hills  to  the  W. 

A  boat  to  the  Isola  San  QiuUo  and  back  costs  li/'2  fr.  The  ancient  church 
here  was  founded,  according  to  the  legend,  by  St.  Julius,  who  came  from 
(jreece  in  379  to  convert  the  natives,  and  has  been  frequently  restored. 
It  contains  reliefs,  old  frescoes,  and  a  Romanesque  pulpit.  In  the  sacristy 
are  a  Madonna  by  Gaudenzio  Ferrari  and  some  old  vestments,  while  the 
crypt,  below  the  high-altar,  contains  a  shrine  of  silver  and  crystiil,  with 
the  body  of  St.  Julius. 

Picturesque  Exouksions  may  be  made  from  Orta  to  the  (1  hr.)  Madonna 
delta  Bocciola  (1565  ft.) ,  situated  on  the  hill  above  the  station,  to  the 
W.,  and  to  the  (i'/i  hr  )  Castello  di  Bucdone  (see  below;  boat  to  Buccione 
11/2  fr.),  to  the  S.,  both  points  commanding  good  views.  By  Bella  (see  below) 
to  (i/2hr.)  AUo,  with  extensive  granite-quarries  (branch-railway  fromGoz- 
zano,  see  below),  and  to  (1  hr.)  the  J/adoraH(i  del  Sasso  {'iO'iQit.),  the  pretty 
church  of  the  hamlet  of  Boletto,  on  a  lofty  cliff,  commanding  a  tine  view. 

—  The  MoNTK  MoTTARONE  may  be  ascended  from  Orta  in  4-5  hrs.  via  Car- 
ceyna,  Armeno  (carr.  practicable  to  this  point;  beyond  it  ox-carts),  and 
Cheggino{sce  p.  201 ;  arrows  on  the  houses,  'al  Mottarone'  or  'al  Mergozzolo'); 
guide  6,  donkey  10  fr. ;  over  the  Mottarone  to  Baveno  or  Stresa,  10  and  15  fr. 

Beautiful  views  of  the  lake  as  we  proceed.  In  the  centre  lies  the 
island  of  San  Giulio  (p.  70),  and  on  the  steep  cliffs  of  the  W.  bank  is 
the  church  of  Madonna  del  Sasso  (see  above).  Beyond  (301/2  M.)  Cor- 
cojiio  the  train  traverses  a  cutting  on  the  W.  side  of  the  Castello  di 
Buccione,  a  conspicuous  old  watch-tower  at  the  S.  end  of  the  lake. 

—  331/0  M.  Oozzano,  a  considerable  village  (branch-line  to  Alzo, 
see  above).  We  now  traverse  the  fertile  Val  d'Ayogna.  36'/2  M. 
Boryomanero  (p.  65),  junction  for  the  line  from  Turin  to  Arena.  — 
46V2  M.  Momo  (1205  ft.). 

56  M.  Novara,  see  p.  66.  From  Novara  to  Milan,  railway  in 
I-I1/2  lir.,  see  p.  68;  to  Laveno  in  1V4-2  hrs.,  see  pp.  190,  189. 

Feom  Oeta  oveu  the  Colma  to  Varallo,  41/2  hrs.  (donkey  6, 
to  the  Colma  3  fr. ;  guide,  5  fr.,  unnecessary).  On  the  W.  bank  of 
the  lake,  opposite  Orta,  the  white  houses  of  Pella  (1000  ft.  ;  Pesce 
d'Oro,  unpretending)  peep  from  amidst  chestnuts  and  walnuts 
(reached  by  boat  from  Orta  in  20  min. ;  fare  1  fr.).  We  now  follow 
the  road  leading  along  the  slopes  above  the  W.  bank,  and  then  a 
footpath  leading  to  the  left  to  (1  hr.)  Arola  (2015ft.).  At  Arola  we 
obtain  a  tine  retrospect  of  the  lake  of  Orta.   We  turn  to  the  left  5  min. 

to  Novrira.  VARALLO.  77.  Uoute.    71 

beyond  the  village,  descend  a  little,  and  then  keep  on  for  '/o  hr.  on 
the  same  level,  skirting  the  gorge  of  the  Pellino,  which  here  forms  a 
pretty  waterfall.  We  next  ascend  through  wood,  between  weatlier- 
beaten  blocks  of  granite,  to  the  (8/4  hr.)  wooded  Colle  della  Colma 
(3090  ft.).  An  emineni-e  to  the  left  commands  a  splendid  view, 
embracing  Monte  Rosa,  the  lakes  of  Otta  and  Vavese,  and  tlie  plain 
(more  extensive  from  the  Monte  Brianco,  3980  ft.,  3,4  hr.  to  the  S.). 
In  descending  (to  the  right),  we  overlook  the  fertile  ValSesia,  with 
its  villages.  The  path  leads  through  groves  of  chestnuts  and  walnuts 
to  (3/4  hr.)  Civiasco  (24'20  ft.  ;  several  Cantine),  whence  a  fine  new 
road  (short-cut  by  the  old  path  to  the  left),  affording  a  magnificent 
view  of  Mte.  Rosa,  winds  down  to  (2/4  hr.)  — 

Varallo.  —  Hotels.  "Albkrgo  d^Italia,  with  garden,  R.  S'/z-S,  dcj.  3, 
D.  4,  pen.s.  7-S  tr.,  inc).  wine,  omn.  50c.  (closed  Dec. -March);  "Posta, 
R.  21/2-5,  B.  IV2,  dc=j.  2V-J.  D.  4,  pens.  6-8,  omn.  1/2  fr. ;  Pakigi;  Ckoce 
BiANOA.  —  Hydropathic:  ''Splendid  Pakk  Hotel  (open  1st  JIay-loih  Oct.; 
pens.  9-11  fr.),  beyond  the  Mastalkpne  bridge,  with  swimming-baih. 

Post  Office  in  the  Palazzo  di  Citta.  —  Cltih  Alpino  (section  of  the 
Italian  Alpine  Club),  Piazza  Nuova,  with  reading-room  (strangers  admitted). 

English  Cfizirch  iSeri-ice.  —  Resident  English  Fliysician. 

Varallo  (1480  ft.),  with  2400  inhab.,  the  terminus  of  the  rail- 
way from  Novara  (p.  68)  and  the  capital  of  the  Val  Grande,  is  finely 
situated  at  the  junction  of  the  Mastallone  with  the  Sesia,  which 
descends  through  the  Val  Grande  from  Monte  Rosa. 

In  the  Piazza  Vitt.  Emanuele,  at  the  entrance  to  the  town  from 
tlie  station,  is  the  high-lying  collegiate  church  o{  San  Gaudenzio. 
Hehind  the  high-altar  of  the  church  is  a  picture  in  six  sections 
(Marriage  of  St.  Catharine,  Pieta,  and  Saints)  by  Gaud.  Ferrari 
(p.  68).  The  church  of  Santa  Maria  delle  Grazie,  at  tlie  approach 
to  the  Sacro  Monte,  contains  a  series  of  *Scenes  from  the  life  of 
Christ  (1507-13;  rood-screen)  and  Other  frescoes  (left  aisle)  by  this 
master,  while  there  is  also  an  Adoration  of  the  Child  by  him  over 
the  portal  of  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  di  Loreto,  about  -^4  M.  from 
the  village. 

The  building  of  the  SocielH  per  C Incoraggiarnenlo  alle  Belle  Arii^ 
in  the  Via  del  Santuario,  contains  a  small  picture-gallery  and  some 
natural  history  collections. 

The  -Sacro  Monte  (Sanliiario  di  Varallo;  1995  ft.),  a  frequented  pilgrim- 
resort,  rising  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  town,  is  ascended  from  Santa 
Maria  delle  Grazie  (see  above)  in  20  niin.  by  a  paved  path  shaded  by 
beautiful  chestnuts,  and  commands  a  delightful  view.  This  '■Nuova  Geriim- 
lemnte  nel  Sacro  Monte  di  Varallo^  was  founded  in  1486  by  Bernardino 
Caimi,  a  Milanese  nobleman  and  Franciscan  monk,  with  the  sanction  of 
Pope  Innocent  VIII.;  but  as  a  resort  of  pilgrims  it  did  not  become  im- 
portant until  after  the  visits  of  Cardinal  Borromeo  (p.  202).  —  On  the  lop 
of  tlie  hill  and  on  its  slopes  are  a  church  and  46  Cuavkls,  or  oratories, 
containing  scenes  from  sacred  history  in  painted  lifesize  figures  of  terra- 
cotta, with  supplementary  frescoes,  beginning  with  the  Fall  in  the  1st 
chapel,  and  ending  with  the  Entombment  of  the  Virgin  in  the  45th.  These 
are  the  work  of  Oauden:io  Ferrari  (No.  5.  The  Magi,  '38.  Crucifi.xion), 
his  pupil  Bern.  Lanini,  Tabaec/ietii  (d.  1615),  Morazzone,  Oiov.  d'Knrico 
dWlaijna  (•!.   164)),   and   otLier  more    modern  and  less  gilted  ;u-tists.     The 

72     Route  17.  ALAGNA. 

handsome  Chdkch,  built  by  Pellegrino  Tibaldi  after  1578  at  Card.  Borro- 
meo's  expense,  has  a  modern  facade.  Iq  the  dome  is  a  plastic  represen- 
tation of  the  Assumption,  with  about  150  figures,  by  Bossola  and  Volpini 
of  Milan.  On  the  top,  adjoining  the  church,  are  the  Albergo-Pension  Alpina 
and  a  Cafd. 

Feom  Vaballo  thkough  the  Val  SiisiA  TO  Alagsa  (23  M. ;  omnibus 
twice  daily  in  5  lirs.,  fare  4  fr. ;  carriage  14,  with  two  hordes  20,  landau 
25  fr.)  a  road  ascends  via  (7  M.)  Balmuccia  (1900  ft.),  at  the  inQux  of  tbe 
Sermenta,  and  (16  M.)  Moliia  to  (21  M.)  Riva-Valdobbia  (302S  ft.;  'Udtel 
des  Atpes),  beautifully  situated,  where  ttie  peaks  of  Mte.  Rosa  become  vis- 
ible to  the  N.W.  An  easy  bridle  path  lead-i  hence  through  Val  Vo(/na,  via 
(3/4  hr.)  Casa  Jaiizo  (5560  ft.;  *Alb.  and  Peng.  Favro)  and  tbe  Col  di  Val- 
dobhia  (8133  ft.)  to  (6-7  bra.)  Gressoneiz-StJean  (p.  55).  —  23  M.  Magna 
(3905  It.;  'Grand  HOtel  Alagna,  K.  2V2-4,  pens.  6-11  fr. ;  'BStel  MoiUe  Rosa, 
R.  8,  pen?.  71/2-9  fr. ;  'Grand  HOtcl  des  Alpes,  pens.  7-10  fr.),  a  large  village, 
finely  situated,  is  much  frequented  as  a  summer-resort.  Excursion';,  and 
passes  to  Macugnaga  and  Zermatt,  see  Baedekers  Switzerland.  To  Qressoney- 
lU'TrMti  over  the  Voile  dOlen  (9420ft.;  Guglielmina's  Inn),  6-7hrs.,  at- 
tractive and  easy  (see  p.  55). 

III.  Liguria. 

18.    Genoa 75 

a.  The  harbour  and  adjoiuing  afreets,  80.  —  b.  From  the 
harbour  through  the  Via  San  Lorenzo  to  the  Piaz'/a  Um- 
berto  Primo  and  the  Piazza  Deferrari ,  83.  —  c.  From 
the  Piazza  Deferrari  to  the  west  railway-station  and  the 
lighthouse,  85.  —  d.  From  the  Piazza  Deferrari  to  the 
Via  di  Circonvallaziiine  a  Mare  via  the  Piazza  Corvctto, 
Acquaeola,  and  Corso  Andrea  Podesta,  91.  —  e.  From 
the  Piazza  Corvette  to  the  Piazza  Manin;-  Via  di  Circon- 
vallazlone  a  Monte;  Castellaccio ;  Campo  Santo,  f.3. 

1'.).    Flora  Genoa  to  Ventimiglia.    Riviera  di  Ponente     .    .     'Ji 
Pegli  and  Arenzauo,  9.5.  —  Savona,  96.  —  Alas.sio,  98.  — 
San  Remo,  99.  —  Ospedaletti,  103.  —  Bordighera,  104. 

'20.    From  Genoa  to  Pisa.      Riviera  di  Levante 107 

Nervi,  107.  —  Road  from  Recce  to  Rapalle.  Mente  di 
Portolino,  109.  —  Santa  Margherita,  110.  —  From  Santa 
Margherita  to  Porteftuo,  111.  —  Rapalle,  112.  —  Road  from 
Rapallo  to  Chiavari,  113.  —  Sestri  Levante,  lU.  —  Road 
from  Sestri  Levante  to  Spezia ;  to  Borgotaro,  115.  — 
Levanto.  Spezia,  116.  —  From  Avenza  to  Carrara,  120.  — 
Viaregsio,  121. 

•^i.  The  Apuaii  Alps 123 

The  Maritime  and  Ligwi'in  Alpt  and  the  contiguous  .4^e«»mes  (the  bound- 
ary between  which  is  some  2^151.  to  the  W.  of  Genoa)  slope  gently  north- 
wards to  the  Po  in  the  form  of  an  extensive  rolling  country,  and  descend 
abruptly  towards  the  sea  to  the  S.  Occasional  earthquakes  betoken  that 
the  process  of  settlement  is  not  quile  at  an  end.  On  the  W.  portion  of 
the  Qulf  of  Genoa  the  mountains  are  intersected  by  short  and  deep  cross- 
valleys,  the  line  of  which  may  be  traced  even  below  the  sea;  in  the  E. 
portion  the  rivers  flow  in  longitudinal  valleys,  breaking  through  to  the 
sea  only  a  short  distance  above  their  mouths.  The  narrow  Riviera,  or 
coast-district,  is  sheltered  from  the  N.  wind  by  the  mountains,  and  enjoys 
a  fine  sunny  aspect.  While  the  mean  temperature  at  Turin  is  52°  Fahr., 
it  is  no  less  than  61°  at  Genoa;  and  again,  while  the  temperature  of  January 
averages  31°  at  the  former,  and  occasionally  falls  below  zero,  it  averages 
'iG°  at  the  latter,  and  is  rarely  lower  than  23°.  The  climate  of  the  Riviera 
is  therefore  milder  than  that  of  Rome,  and  ever  since  the  middle  of  the 
19th  cent,  has  attracted  crowds  of  visitors,  fleeing  fr.'m  the  northtrn  winters. 

The  Riviera,  divided  by  Genoa  into  an  eastern  (Riviera  di  Levante ;  p.  107) 
and  a  larger  western  half  (Riviera  di  Ponente).^  which  belongs  to  France  from 
\entimiglia  westwards,  is  one  of  the  most  picturesque  regions  of  Italy.  It 
affords  a  delightful  variety  of  landscapes,  bold  and  lofty  promontories  alter- 
nating with  wooded  hills,  and  richly  cultivated  plains  near  the  coast.  At 
places  the  road  passes  precipitous  and  frowning  cliffs,  wa=hcd  by  the  surf 
of  the  Mediterranean,  while  the  summits  are  crowned  with  the  venerable 
ruins  of  towers  erected  in  bygone  ages  for  protection  against  pirates.  At 
other  places  extensive  plantations  of  olives,  with  their  grote.sque  and  gnarled 
stems,  bright  green  pine-forests,  and  luxuriant  growths  of  figs,  vines, 
citrons,  oranges,  oleanders,  myrtles,  and  aloes  meet  the  view,  and  even 
palms  are  occasionally  seen.  Many  of  the  towns  are  charmingly  situated 
in  fertile  spots  or  on  picturesque  hills ;  others,  commanded  by  ancient 
strongholds,  are  perched  like  nests  among  the  rocks.  little  cliurche,"  and 
chapels    peering   from    the   sombre  foliage  of  cypresses,  and  gigantic  grey 



pinnacles  of  rock  frowning  upon  the  smiling  plain,',  frequently  enbauce 
the  cbarms  of  the  scenery,  while  the  vast  expanse  of  the  Mediterranean, 
with  its  ever- varying  hues,  forms  one  of  the  chief  attractions.  At  one 
time  the  sea  is  bathed  in  a  flood  of  sunshine,  at  another  Us  beautiful  blue 
colour  arrests  the  eye;  or  while  the  shore  immediately  below  the  spectator 
is  lashed  with  wild  breakers,  the  snowy  crests  of  the  waves  are  gradually 
softened  to  view  in  the  purple  distance. 

As  the  country  differs  in  many  respects  from  Piedmont,  so  also  do  its 
Inhabitants,  while  their  Genoese  dialect,  which  is  difficult  for  foreigners 
to  understand,  occupies  a  middle  place  between  the  Gallic  patois  of  Upper 
Italy  and  that  of  Sardinia.  The  historical  development  of  the  two  countries 
has  also  been  widely  different.  The  natural  resource  of  the  Ligurians^  or 
the  inhabitants  of  the  Eiviera,  was  the  sea,  and  they  were  accordingly  known 
to  the  Greeks  at  a  very  early  period  as  pirates  and  freebooters.  As  the  Greek 
Massalia  formed  the  centre  of  trade  in  S.  France,  with  Nikaa  (Nice)  as  its 
extreme  outpost  towards  the  E.,  so  Genoa  constituted  the  natural  outlet  for 
the  traffic  of  the  Riviera.  During  the  3rd  cent.  B.C.  Genoa  became  subject 
to  the  Romans,  who  in  subsequent  centuries  had  to  wage  long  and  obstinate 
wars  with  the  Ligurians,  in  order  to  secure  the  possession  of  tlie  military 
coast-road  to  Spain.  As  late  as  the  reign  of  Augustus  the  Roman  culture 
had  made  little  progress  here.  At  that  period  the  inhabitants  exported 
timber,  cattle,  hides,  wool,  and  honey,  receiving  wine  and  oil  in  exchange. 
In  the  7th  cent,  the  Lombards  gained  a  footing  here,  and  thenceforth  the 
political  state  of  the  country  was  gradually  altered.  The  W.  part  witli 
Nice  belonged  to  Provence,  but  in  1388  came  into  the  possession  of  the 
Counts  of  Savoy,  forming  their  only  access  to  the  sea  down  to  the  period 
when  they  acquired  Genoa  (1815).  After  the  Austrian  war  of  1859  Nice 
(1512  sq.  M.)  and  Savoy  (3889  sq.  M.)  were  ceded  by  Italy  to  France  in 
1860  as  a  compensation  for  the  services  rendered  by  Napoleon  III. 

The  district  of  Liguria,  consisting  of  the  provinces  of  Porto  MauriHo 
and  Oenoa,  with  an  area  of  2040  sq.M.  and  1,075,8(XJ  inhab.,  once  formed  the 
Rbpdblic  of  Genoa,  which  in  the  13th  cent,  became  mistress  of  the  W. 
part  of  the  Mediterranean ,  and  afterwards  fought  against  Venice  for  the 
supremacy  of  the  Levant.  Genoa's  greatness  was  founded  on  the  ruin  of 
Pisa.  The  Tuscan  hatred  of  the  Genoese  was  embodied  in  the  saying  — 
'Mare  senza  pesce,  montagne  senza  alberi,  uomini  senza  fede,  e  donne  senza 
vergogna',  and  Dante  (Inf.  xxxiii.  151-53)  addresses  them  with  the  words  — 
'Ahi,  Genovesi,  uomini  diversi 
D'ogni  costume,  e  pien  d'ogni  magagna; 
Perche  non  siete  vol  del  mondo  spersiV 
Modern  historians  describe  the  character  of  the  Genoese  in  the  middle 
ages  in  a  similar  strain.  The  whole  energy  of  the  Genoese  seems  indeed 
to  have  been  concentrated  on  commerce  and  the  pursuit  of  gain.  Notwith- 
standing their  proud  naval  supremacy ,  they  participated  little  in  the 
intellectual  development  of  Italy,  and  neither  possessed  a  school  of  art, 
nor  produced  any  scholars  of  eminence.  When  at  length  the  effete  re- 
public was  incorporated  with  Piedmont,  it  became  the  representative  of 
radical  principles  as  contrasted  with  the  conservatism  of  the  royalist  terri- 
tory. Giuseppe  Mazzini  was  born  at  Genoa  in  1808,  and  Garibaldi,  though 
born  at  Nice  (1807),  was  the  son  of  a  Genoese  of  Chiavari.  The  rivalry 
of  the  once  fai--famed  republic  with  the  upstart  Turin,  and  of  the  restless 
harbour  population  with  the  stolid  Piedmontese,  have  of  recent  years 
been  productive  of  very  notable  results.  Modern  Genoa  has,  moreover, 
regained  its  ancient  mercantile  importance,  though  its  naval  arsenal  has 
been  transferred  to  Spezia. 


G    E    N    0   V  A 


18.  Genoa.+ 

Railway  Stations.  1.  Ulazioiie  Piatza  Principe  (PI.  B,  2;  restaurant, 
dej.  2-3,  P.  3-1  fr.),  tlic  West  Station,  in  the  Piazza  Acquaverde,  is  the 
principal  station  tor  all  trains.  The  hotel-omnibuses  and  cabs  (tariff,  see 
p.  76)  wait  here  only.  —  2.  Stazione  di  Brigiiole  ov  Slazione  Orimlale  (PI.  I,  6; 
restaurant),  the  East  Station,  in  the  Piaz/.a  Guiseppe  Verdi,  in  the  Blsagno 
valley,  connected  with  the  W.  Station  by  mean.s  of  a  tunnel  below  the  higher 
parts  of  the  town,  is  the  first  place  where  tbe  Spezia  and  Pisa  trains  stop 
and  the  starting- point  for  the  local  trains  to  Chiavari.  —  The  Stazione 
Carieamento  (PI.  D,  4)  and  the  Stazione  Maritlimci  (PI.  A,  2)  are  the  goods- 
stations  for  the  harbour  traffic,  while  the  internal  trade  is  carried  on  through 
the  goods-station  in  the  Piazza  Principe  (PI.  B,  2),  adjoining  the  W.  .■:-tation. 
—  Railway-tickets  of  all  kinds  may  also  be  obtained  of  the  Fratelli  Oomlyand, 
Galleria  Jlozzini  41  (p.  91;  also  sleeping-car  agents),  and  of  Thos.  Cook  tt  Son, 
Piazza  della  Meridiana  17  (PI.  E,  4). 

Arrival  by  Sea.  Passenger-steamers  land  at  the  Ponie  Federico  Guglielmo 
(PI.  A,  B,  3)  or  at  the  Ponte  Andrea  Doria  (PI.  A,  3),  or  anchor  in  the  vicinity 
(embarking  or  disembarking  by  boat  30  c,  at  night  60  c. ;  luggage  50  c. 
per  110  lbs.).  On  the  wharf  are  the  custom-house,  post  and  telegraph  office, 
and  railway  booking-office.  —  Travellers  wishing  to  go  on  by  rail  without 
delay,  may,  immediately  after  the  custom-house  examination  on  the  quay, 
book  their  luggage  there  for  their  destination  (fee  to  the  facchino  of  the 
dogana,  20-30  c). 

Hotels  (comp.  p.  xix  ;  most  of  them  are  in  noisy  situations,  and  many 
are  variously  judi;ed;  nearly  all  the  larger  hotels  have  lifts  and  steam- 
heating).  Gkand  Hotel  de  GfiNES  fPl.  f ;  E,  5),  by  the  Teatro  Carlo  Felice, 
R.  5-10,  L.  3/4,  steam -heating  2/4,  B.  IV2,  dej.  4,  D.  6-7,  pens,  from  12, 
omn.  1  fr. ;  Grand  Hotel  Savoie  (PI.  s;  C,  2) ;  Grand  Hotel  Isotta 
fPl.  a;  F,  5),  Via  Roma  5,  R.  from  5,  B.  I'/z,  dej.  3V2,  D.  5,  pens,  from  12, 
omn.  li/j  fr. ;  'Eden  Palace  Hotel  (PI.  b;  G,  0),  Via  Serra  6-8,  below 
Acquasola  (p.  91)  and  not  far  from  the  E.  Station,  quiet,  with  pleasant 
garden,  H.  from  6,  steam-heating  1,  B.  IVz,  dej.  3'/-2-4';2,  D.  5-7  fr.;  -Hot.- 
Pexs  BKjsxaL  (PI.  p;  F,  8),  Via  Venti  Settembre  35,  K.  from  5,  B.  IV2, 
clej.  3V2i  !*•  o,  pens,  from  12,  omn.  I1/2  fr.  —  Modern  Hotel  (PI.  F,  6), 
Via  Venti  Settembre  40,  R.  4-5,  B.  I1/2,  dej.  3V2,  D.  41/2-5,  pens.  11-14  fr., 
new;    HOTEL   de   la  Ville   (PI.  d;  1),  4),   Vi.i   Carlo  Alberto.    R.   from  4, 

B.  11/2,  dej.  3'/2,  D.  5,  pens,  from  12,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Hot.  de  Londres  (PI.  h; 

C.  2);  "Hotel  Continental  (PI.  1;  E,  4),  Via  Cairoli  1,  E.  from  4,  B.  IV2, 
dej.  3'/2,  D.  5,  pens.  9-14,  omn.  I-IV4  fr.  —  The  following  arc  less  pretend- 
ing; "Hotel  Smith  (PI.  e,  D  5;  English  landlord),  Piazza  Carieamento,  with 
lift,  R.  21  2-4,  B.  11/4,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  7V2-IO  fr.,  incl.  wine,  omn.  1  fr., 
frequented  by  English  and  Americans;  Hotel  de  France  (PI.  g;  D,  5), 
R.  3-4,  oiiin.  1  fr.;  Hot.  Central  (PI.  c;  F,  5),  Via  San  Seba.stiano  8, 
R.  21/2-41/2,  B.  11/4,  dej.  21/2,  D.  4,  pens.  8-11  fr.,  incl.  wine,  omn.  ^U-i  fr. ; 
MitTHoroLE  (PI.  o;  F,  5),  Piazza  F^ntane  Marose,  R.  3,  H.  1,  dej.  3,  U.  5, 
pens.  8-10  fr.,  incl.  wine,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Roial  Aquila  (P!.  k;  C,  2),  Piazza 
Acquaverde,  near  the  W.  Station,  for  passing  tuuri.^ts,  well  spoken  of, 
R.  31/4-43/4,  B.  11/2,  d^j .  31/2,  D.  472,  omn.  1/2  fr.  —  Hot.  de  Milan  (PI.  i ;  C,  2), 
Via  Balbi  5-1;  Hot.  Helvetia  (PI.  r;  D,  3),  Piazza  Annunziata,  R.  from  21/2, 

D.  31/2,  pens,  from  71/2  fr.,  gond;  Victoria  (PI.  t;  D,  3),  Piazza  Annunziata; 
CosFiDENZA  (PI.  m;  F,  5),  Via  San  Sebaatiano  11,  with  lift,  R.  21/2,  omn. 
V4  fr.,  commercial,  well  spoken  of;  Eegina  Hotel  (PI.  q;  F,  6),  Vico  di 
San  Defendente,   above  the  Via  Venti  Settembre,   with   lift  and   steam- 

t  Genoa  is  divided  into  the  Sestieri  of  Pri,  Molo,  Portoria,  San  Vicenzo, 
San  Teodoro,  and  Maddalena.  —  The  focus  of  traffic  is  the  Piazza  Deferrari 
(PI.  E,  5,  6).  —  Via,  street;  vico,  lane;  vico  chiuso,  blind  alley;  salila,  as- 
cending street;  mura,  rampart.  —  The  houses  are  numbered  in  black;  red 
numbers  are  used  only  for  shops  (bottegUe)  and  for  the  street-entrances  to 
a  sories  of  fiats. 

76     Route  Id. 



heatiug;  Concukuia  (PI.  n  ;  F,  5),  Via  San  Giuseppe,  R.  3-3V2,  oojii.  1  fr. ; 
Alb.  (fe  RiSTOE.  Fikenze,  Via  Carlo  Alberto  31 ;  Unione,  Piazza  Campetto  9, 
R.  3,  omn.  y-ifr.;  Alb.  Nazionale  (PI.  u;  D,4),  Via  LomeUini  14,  R. 'J'/a-Sfr., 
omn.  60  c.,  patronized  by  the  Roman  Catholic  clergy;  Lloyd-Hotel  Gek- 
MANIA.  Via  Carlo  Alberto  39.  near  the  W.  station,  unpretending,  R.  from 
I'/c,  B.  1,  D.  2V2  fr-  —  Hot.-Restadrant  Righi,  see  p.  93. 

Hotels  Garnis.  Hot.  Splendide  (PI.  x;  F,  G),  Via  Elt.  Vernazza,  with 
lift  and  steam- heating,  R.  from  8,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Excelsiob  (PI.  w ;  E,  ,5), 
Via  Carlo  Felice  4,  K.  from  3,  omn.  3/4-I  fr.  —  Christian  Hospices.  Riviera 
Hosi'iz  (Prot.),  in  the  Doria  garden  (p.  90),  above  the  Piazza  Principe, 
R.  3-5,  B.  11/4,  dej.  2'/z,  !'■  3,  pens,  from  8  fr. ;  Dedtch-Katuolisches  Hospiz, 
Via  Palestro  11,  int.  4;  Sohwesteunheim  (Prot.),  Spianata  di  Ciistelletto  20a, 
int.  2,  for  ladies.  —  Pensions.  Miss  In'immo,  Via  Curtatune  1;  Fens.  Jiiniini, 
Via  Asarotti  25;  Pens.  Schloss,  Via  Almeria  15,  new;  Fens.  Senrici,  Via 
Palestro  19,  from  4'/-jfr.;  Pens.  Weber,  Via  Palestro  6-9. 

Cafes  (comp.  p.  xxiii).  Caffe  Roma,  Via  Roma,  elegant,  MUano,  Galleria 
Mazzini,  both  restaurants  aJso;  Andrea  Doria,  Via  Roma,  on  the  groundfloor 
of  the  Prefecture;  Posta,  Via  Carlo  Felice. 

Restaurants.  Teatro,  in  the  Teatro  Carlo  Felice  (PI.  E,  F,  5;  p.  77), 
very  fair;  Labd .  Via  Carlo  Felice  7;  Ristorante  Sau  Ooitarclo,  Via  Carlo 
Felice  6;  Cairo,  Via  Venti  Settembre  36,  very  fair;  Posta,  Galleria  Mazzini, 
not  expensive,  nften  overcrowded  ;  Aquila  <tOro,  Via  San  Pietro  21,  near  the 
Exchange  (p.  82).  —  Birrerie:  'Glardino  d'liulia.  Piazza  Corvetto  (PI.  F,  G,5), 
near  the  Acquasola,  with  garden,  ^Bavaria,  corner  of  Via  Venti  Settembre 
and  Piazza  JDeferrari,  both  restaurants  as  well,  with  Munich  and  Pilsener 
beer;  'Gainbriiitis  (also  dej.;  cold  viands  in  the  evening!,  Monsch,  both  in 
the  Via  San  Sebastiano  (PI.  F,  5) ;  Augustiner  Brciu,  Piazza  Corvetto  (PI.  G,  5) ; 
Birre7-ia  Pilseii,  Piazza  della  Zecca  (PI.  D,  E,  3);  Erhart,  Via  Carlo  Felice  6 
(also  dej.);  Munich  beer  at  all  these. 

Cabs  (a  tariH'  in  each). 

Per  drive  (between  the  Bisagno 
on  the  E.  and  the  lighthouse 
on  the  W.) 

I  hour      

Each  addit.   V2  hr 

To  Nervi  or  Pegli 

To  Recco 

One-horse  cab 

Two-horse  cab 

By  day 

1  — 
1  — 
5  — 

At  night 


By  day 


At  night 

2  — 

3  — 


Night-fares  are  due  from  9p.m.  (Oct. -Mar.  7  p.m.)  until  the  street- 
lamps  are  extinguished.  For  drives  beyond  the  town,  incl.  a  halt  of  '/«  hr., 
a  half-fare  extra  must  be  fiaid  for  the  return.  —  Small  articles  of  luggage 
carried  inside  free;  trunk  20c. 

Omnibus  from  the  Piazza  Deferrari  (PI.  E,  6)  via  the  Via  Garibaldi 
and  Via  Kalbi  to  the  W.  station  and  the  Piazza  Principe  (PI.  B,  2;  fare  10  c. ; 
some  of  the  omnibuses  go  on  to  the  Piazza  Dinegro,  p.  91). 

Electric  Tramways  (from  6  or  7  a.m.  to  midnight).  The  suburban  lines 
are  generally  overcrowded  by  workmen  towards  evening  (comp.  p.  130). 
1.  (white  lamps,  etc.):  Piazza  Caricamento  (PI.  D,  4,  5) -Piazza  Deferrari 
(PI.  E,  F,  6) -Piazza  Corvetto  (PI.  F,  G,  5) -Piazza  Brignole  (PI.  H,  5,  Q)-Via 
Oalata  (PI.  H,  6,  7) ;  every  9  min.,  10  c.  —  2.  (red  and  white):  Piazza 
Deferrari  (PI.  E,  F,  6) -Piazza  Corvetto -Piazza  Jlanin  (PI.  I,  4) -Via  di 
Circonvallazione  a  Monte  (station  at  San  Kicolo,  p.  93) -Piazza  Acquaverde 
(PI.  B,  C,  1)- Piazza  Principe  (PI.  B,  2j;  every  71/2  min.,  25  c.  —  3.  (while 
and  yell(iw):  Piazza  Deferrari -Pia,z7.a,  Corvetto -Corso  Andrea  Podesta  (PI.  F, 
G,  6,  7) -Via  Gal.  Alessi-  Piazza  Carignano  (PI.  E,  8);  every  0  min.,  1(1  c.  — 
r.  (white  and  yellow) ;  Piazza  Caricamento-Piaiza  Deferrari  -  Piazza  Corvetto- 
4orso  Andrea  Podesta -Kin  Corsica  (PI.  E,  F,  8,  9);  every  9  min.  10  c.  — 
C  (red):  IHazza  Deferrari -Vi&zz'a  Corvetto -Piazza  Maniu  (PI.  I,  4)-ViaMon- 
5.1do  (PI.  I.  1)-  Gampo  Santo  (p.  94);  every  71/2  min.,  15  c.  —  6.  (blue):  Piazza 
ta«/<;rrari-Piazza  Portello  (PI.  F,  4)-Piazza  della  Zecca  (PI.  D,  E.  3)-Via  Batbi- 
/)iazza  Acq "averde- Piazza  Principe  (PI.  B,  2);  every  4  min.,  10  c.  Tl'is  line 
Puns  partly  through  tunnels  in  which  the  temperature  ij  low.  —  7.  (white 

Notes.  GENOA.  18.  Route.    77 

and  blue):  Piazza  De/f.rrari -Yia.  Venti  Settembre  (PI.  F,  G,  6,  T)-Via  Cane- 
vari  (PI.  I,  K,  6-4)- Caiiipo  Santo-Uoiia-  I'rato  (p.  361);  ev^ry  18  niin.,  Sf)  c. 

—  8.  (red):  JHazza  De/errari-Xia.'VeMi  Settembre -Ponte  Pila  (PJ.  11,1,7)- 
San  Francesco  d'Albaro- Slurla- tjuarto  -  Quinto  -  iV?n'j;  every  '/i  l"".,  in 
S'J  min.,  45  0.  (In  Stiirla  '20,  to  (Juinto  35c.).  —9.  (white  ;inil  red):  Piatza 
y>e/t'iTari-Via  Venti  Settembre-PonlePila-San  Marlino  d'Alliaro-/S7«?'/«.'  every 
Vi  hr.,   20  c.     Some  of  the  cars  (white)  do  not  go  t)ey()nd  San  M.irlino.  — 

10.  (white  and  green):  Piazza  Deferrari-Via  Venti  Settembre-Piazza  Savona- 
rola  (PI.  I,  K,  8)-Cantiere  della  Face  (PI.  H,  I,  10);   every  9  min..   10  c.  — 

11.  (white  and  refl):  Piazza  RaHetta  (PI.  D,  5)-Via  di  (Jircunvallazioiic  a 
Mare-P('nte    \'\\!i.-htazione   Orientale  (PI.  I,  6,  7);    every   8  min.,    10  c.    — 

12.  (bine):  /"jazra  He/Vrrarj-Via  Venti  Settembre-Ponte  Pila-Via  Canevari- 
Ponte  CasteJlidardo-1'iaz/.a  Manzoni  (PI.  K,  ())-/Srtin  Frvttvoso ;  every  7  min, 
10  c.  —  13.  Piazza  Caricamento  (PI.  D,  5)-Via  Carlo  Alberlo-Piazza  Principe 
(PI.  B,  1)- San  (V Arena  ('25  c),  and  thence  in  the  one  direction  to 
{'ovnigliano  fdO  c),  Sestri  Pone.nte.  (45  c.),  MuUedo,  Pegli  (55  c.),  and  VoUri, 
and  in  the  other  to  Rivarolo  (40  c),  Bolzanelo  (65  c),  and  Poniedecimo  (80  c). 

Cable  Tram-ways  ( Funicolari) .  1.  Piazza  della  Zecca  (PI.  D,  3)-Oorso 
Carbonara  (PI.  E,  2  ;  10  c.)  -  San  Nicolo  (p.  tl3;  15  c.)  -  Casiellaccio  (beyond 
PI.  E,  1:  p.  93);  every  10  min.,  50  c.  —  2.  Piazza  Portello  (PI.  F,  4)-Corio 
Magenta  (PI.  F,  O,  3;  p.  93);  10c.  —  3.  Slazione  Principe  (PI.  A,  B,  1,  2)- 
Oranarolo  (p.  91);  every  '/z  hr.  (in  winter  every  hr.  on  week-day.s),  30  c, 
down  20  c 

Baths.  At  the  Palazzo  Spinola,  Salita  Santa  Caterina  (PI.  F,  5);  others 
at  Via  delle  Grazie  11,  and  Piazza  Sarzano  51  (PI.  D,  7).  —  Sea  Baths 
(July  &  Aug.)  by  the  Via  di  Circonvallazione  a  Mare  (p.  92);  also  at  San 
Pier  d' Arena,  beyond  the  lighthonpe  (p.  91;  poorly  fitted  up).  Sea-bathing 
places  on  the  Riviera,  see  pp.  94,  107. 

Theatres.  'Teatro  Carlo  Felice  (PI.  E,  F,  5) ,  one  of  the  largest  in 
Italy,  open  in  winter  only,  for  operas  i  Poliieama  Oenovese  (PI.  F,  G,  4),  near 
the  Villetta  Dinegro,  for  operas  (smoking  allowed);  /"ajranim  (PI.  F,  3,  4). 
Via  Caffaro,  chiefly  drama  (in  winter  only);  Poliieama  Regina  Margherita 
(PI.  G,  7),  Via  Venti  Settembre,  for  dramas,  operas,  and  operettas;  Verdi. 
Via  Venti  Settembre,  for  comedies  or  variety  performances;  Arena  Alfteri 
(PI.  F,  8),  Via  Corsica,  in  summer  only.  —  Band  in  the  Acquasola  Parle 
(p.  91)  three  times  a  week,  7-9  p.m.   in    summer  and  2-4  p.m.   in  winter. 

Shops.  BooKSF.r,r-ERs:  A.  Donath.  Via  linccoli  33  (PI.  E,  5;  p.  82); 
/-.  Benf,  Via  Cairoli  2;  0.  Ricd  ,C-  Co.,  Galleria  Mazzini  43;  ikincini  &  Nicola, 
Via  Cairoli  53;  Sfonrlini  <£■  Siccardi,  Via  Cairoli  41.  —  Photographs:  Noack\i 
views  of  the  Riviera  and  N.  Italy  may  be  had  from  all  art-dealert*,  etc.; 
Sivelli,  Vi.i  Cairoli  7;  Lupi,  Via  degli  vlretioi  14S;  Scin'lo,  Piazza  Fontane 
Marose  18.  —  Fii.igkee  Work:  Barahino,  Codevilla  and  others  in  the  Via 
degli  Orefici ;  Sirelli,  Via  Roma  66.  —  Silk  and  Velvet  (Velluio  di  Qenova): 
Deferrari,  Piazza  Soziglia.  —  Candied  Fruit  ( Frutti  canditi) :  Romanengo, 
Via  degli  drelici;  Ferro  e  Castanello,  Klaingiiti,  both  in  the  Piazza  Deferrari. 

—  Antiqdities:  3.  Zerega,  Via  Luccoli  96. 

Ne-wspapers.  Jl  Caffaro ;  II  Secolo  Nuovodecimo ;  II  Cittadino ;  II  Qiornale 
del  Popolo. 

Post  Office,  Galleria  Mazzini  (PI.  F,  5),  open  8  a.m.  to  9  i).m.  (now 
building  in  the  Piazza  Deferrari  under  construction).  —  Telegraph  Office 
(PI.  E,  6),  Palazzo  Uncale  (p.  84),  Piazza  Deferrari.  —  Branch  Post  *  Tele- 
graph Oflices  in  the  Via  degli  Orefiti,  Via  Venti  Settembre,  Piazza  An- 
nunziata.  Via  Balbi,  at  the  Ponte  Feilerico  Guglielmo,  the  East  Station,  etc. 

Bankers,  Oranet,  Brown,  <(•  Co.,  Via  Garibaldi  7;  Banca  Commerciale 
Ilaliana,  Piazza  Banchi  (PI.  D,  6),  near  the  Exchange  (p.  82);  ffandoz,  Via 
Luccoli  30 :  Pji'ster,  Piazza  Deferrari  38  (1st  floor). ^  —  Money  Changers 
abundant  near  the  Exchange. 

Steamboats  (comp.  p.  xviii).  The  mof^t  important  for  touristi  are  those 
of  the  Navigazione  di-nerale  lialiann  (Florio-Bubattino  ;  office,  Piazza  Acqua- 
verde),  to  all  the  chief  ports  oflLalyand  to  the  Levant.  Comp.  the  Italian 
time-table  (larger   edition).    —   The   While  Star  Line   (office  Via   Roma   4, 

78     Route  18.  GENOA.  Practical  Koten. 

second  floor)  (iespritehes  a  steamer  once  or  twice  a  week  to  New  York  or 
Boston,  via  Palermo  and  'Naples.  —  Steamers  of  ih^  Hamhurg-Amerika  Line 
(same  office)  sail  3-4  times  a  montli  to  New  York.  For  the  'liiviera  Service' 
of  this  company  (S:m  l!emo,  Munte  Carlo,  Nice),  see  p.  94.  —  The  North 
German  Lloyd  (agents,  Lenpold  Fratelli,  Piazza  San  Siro  10)  maintains  a 
weekly  line  of  steamers  from  Genoa  to  Gibraltar  and  New  York,  wliile  the 
China  and  Anstralian  steamers  of  this  company  also  touch  at  Genoa  (3  times 
a  month).  —  Steamers  of  the  Stoomvart  Maatschappij  Nederlaiid  sail  once  a 
fortnight  from  Amsterdam  (or  Rotterdam)  via  Southampton  to  Genoa,  Port 
Said,  and  Batavia.  — Ln  Veloce  from  Genoa  to  Barcelona  and  South  America, 
thrice  a  month,  to  Central  America,  once  a  month.  —  Compagnie  Fraissinei 
weekly  to  Marseilles  direct  and  also  via  Nice  and  Cannes. 

Consuls.  British  Consul-Gencral,  William  Keene,  Via  Palestro  8;  vice- 
consul,  R.  Maclean.  —  American  Consul,  James  Jeffrey  Jtoche,  Corso  Andrea 
Podesta  6. 

Physicians:  Dr.  ^rejA»5'(speaks  English),  Corso  Solferino20;  Prof.  Oiov. 
L-Ftrrari  (speaks  English).  Via  Assarotti  12;  Dr.  Zcislein.,  Cor.-o  Solferino  17; 
Dr.  TfiW,  Via  A<;sirotti  23,  int.  4;  Dr.  ^ireiff  (oculist),  Corso  Silferino  18, 
int.  3.  —  Protestant  Hospital,  Salita  San  Rocchino,  supported  by  the  for- 
eigners in  Genoa  (physician,  Dr.  Breiting).  —  Dentists:  Bright, Via.  Santi 
Giacomo  e  Filippo  35;  Markus,  Via  Roma  5;  Mela^  Salita  Santa  Catarina  1. 

—  Chemists:  Zerega  (English  prescriptions).  Via  Carlo  Felice  2;  Farmacia 
Internazionale  MoscatelU,  Via  Carlo  Felice  33  ;  Farmacia  Inter nazionale  (Hahn), 
Via  Cairoli;   Unione  Farmaceutica  Cooperativa,  Via.  Venti  Settembre  33. 

(roods  Agents.  American  Express  Co.,  Piazza  Annunziata  17;  Weiss, 
Piazza  Serri'j;lio  4;  Semler  &  Qerhardt,  Vico  San  Pancrazio  2,  near  the 
Piazza  Fossatello  (PI.  D,  4);  Weidmann,  Via  Balbi,  Vico  Sant'  Antonio  5. 
English  Churches.  Church  of  the  Holy  Ohoit  (built  by  Street,  in  the 
Lombard  style).  Via  Goito  (PI.  G,  4);  services  at  8.15,  11,  and  6:  chap., 
Rev.  Edwin  n.  Burtt,  M.  A.  Church  Seamen's  Institute,  Via  Miiano  73 
(Mr.  Burtt);  serv.  Sun.  and  Thurs.  7.30  p.m.;  weekly  concert  on  Wed.; 
reading,  writing,  and  recreation  rooms  open  daily  for  seamen,  10-10.  — 
Presbyterian  Church,  Via  Peschiera  4  (Rev.  Donald  Miller,  D.  D.);  service 
at  11  a.m.  Genoa  Harbour  Mission,  in  connection  with  the  Brit.  &  For. 
Sailors'  Society  and  the  Amer.  Seaman's  Friend  Society:  serv.  Sun.  at  7.30 
and  Tues.  at  8  p.m.  in  the  Sailors"  Rest,  15  Via  Miiano  (Rev.  Dr.  Miller  and 
Mr.  Fr.  M.  Beattie).   Social  entertainments  Frid.  at  8  p.m.  (visitors  welcome). 

Collections  and  Galleries. 
Cathedral  Treasury  (p.  84),  Mon.  &  Thurs.  1-4;  V^  fr. 
Museo  Chiossone  (p.  85),  daily,  except  Mon.,  10-3;  1  fr. 
Palazzo  Bianco  (p.  87),  daily,  11-4  (April  to  Sept.  10-4),  50  c.  Sun.  &  Thurs. 

25  c,  the  last  Sunday  of  each  month  free. 
Palazzo  Durazzo-Pallavicini  (p.  88),  daily,  11-4  (fee  1/2-1  fr-)- 
Palazzo  Reale  (p.  89),  daily,  in  the  absence  of  the  court. 
Palazzo  Rosso  (p.  86),  on  Mon.,  Wed.,   Thurs.,   Frid.,   and  Sat.,  10-4,    free 

(no  gratuities),  clo.scd  on  Tues.,  Sun.,  and  holidays. 

Principal  Attractions  (two  days).  1st  Day.  Morning:  row  in  the  Har- 
bour (p.  81);  Cathedral  (p.  83) ;  Sanf  Amhrogio  (p.  84 1 ;  Museo  Chiossone  (p.  85). 
Afternoon:  Via  Garibaldi  (p.  85)  with  visits  to  the  Palazzi  Rosso  (p.  8(3)  and 
Bianco  (p.  87);    Via  Balbi  (p.  8S) ;    Palazzo  Doria  (p.  90);  Lighthouse  (p.  91). 

—  2nd  Day.  Morning:  Villelta  Dinegro  (p.  91);  Corso  Andrea  Podestit  (p.  91); 
Santa  Maria  di  Carignano  (p.  92);  Via  di  Circonvallazione  a  Mare' [v-  (^2). 
Afternoon:  Campo  Santo  (p.  94)  and  Castellaccio  (p.  93;  best  towards  evening). 

—  Excursion  to  Nervi  (p.  107). 

Genoa,  Italian  Oenova,  Frencli  Qmes,  with  155,900  iiihai).,  the 
seat  of  a  university  and  of  an  archbishop  and  the  headquarters  of 
the  4th  Italian  army  corps,  is  a  strong  fortress  and  the  chief  com- 
mercial town  in  Italy.  Its  situation,  rising  above  the  sea  in  a  wide 
semicircle,  and  its  numerous  palaces  justly  entitle  it  to  the  epithet 
of  '■La  Superla\     The  old  town  is  a  net-work  of  narrow  and  steep 

Ilhlory.  GENOA.  75.  Route.    79 

streets,  liueil  with  many-storied  buildings,  but  the  newer  quarters 
liave  broad  aud  straight  thoroughfares.  Since  the  17th  cent.  Genoa 
has  been  protected  on  the  landward  side  by  a  rampart,  over  9  M. 
long,  which  extends  from  the  large  lighthouse  on  the  W.  side  (p.  91), 
whore  the  barracks  of  San  Benigno  afford  quarters  for  10,000  men, 
past  the  Forte  Begato  (1620  ft.),  to  the  Forte  dello  Sperone  (1690  ft.) ; 
then  descends  past  Forte  Castellaccio  (l'2r)0  ft.;  p.  93)  into  the  valley 
of  the  Bisagno,  on  the  E.  The  heights  around  the  town  are  crowned 
with  ten  detached  forts. 

The  beauty  of  its  situation  and  the  reminiscences  of  its  ancient 
glory  render  a  visit  to  Genoa  very  attractive.  Invalids ,  however, 
must  be  on  their  guard  in  winter  against  the  raw  winds  and  the 
abrupt  changes  of  temperature. 

From  the  earliest  times  Genoa  has  been  famous  as  a  seaport.  The 
Roman  form  of  its  municipal  government  was  maintained  throughout  the 
period  of  the  barbarian  invasions,  when  a  Frankish  feudal  nobility  sprang 
up  alongside  of  the  native  noblesse.  The  smaller  towns  on  the  Ligurian 
coast  looked  up  to  Genoa  as  their  champion  against  the  Saracens,  who 
ravaged  the  country  from  Frassineto  (Fraxinet),  and  in  936  even  plundered 
Genoa  itself.  In  1119-33  the  Genoese  waged  war  with  varying  success 
against  Pisa,  which  threatened  its  maritime  commerce  from  the  settle- 
ments on  Corsica  and  Sardinia.  In  the  following  century  the  rival  cities 
were  almost  permanently  at  war  down  to  1284,  when  the  power  of  Pisa 
was  shattered  for  ever  in  the  terrible  naval  battle  at  Meloria  (p.  427).  At 
a  still  earlier  period  Genoa  had  participated  in  the  Crusades,  and  secured 
to  herself  a  busy  trade  with  the  Levant.  She  also  possessed  settlements 
at  Constantinople,  in  Syria  and  Cyprus,  at  Tunis  and  Majorca.  The  con- 
sequent rivalry  of  the  Genoese  and  Venetians  was  a  fruitful  source  of  wars 
and  feuds,  which  were  not  ended  until  the  defeat  of  Genoa  at  the  battle 
of  Chioggia  in  1380. 

The  internal  history  of  the  city  was  no  less  chequered  than  the  ex- 
ternal. The  party-conflicts  between  the  great  families  of  the  Doria, 
SpinoJa,  Adorni,  and  Fregosi  (Ghibellinea)  on  one  side,  and  the  Orimaldi, 
Fiesc/ii,  OuarcM,  and  Montaldi  (Guelphs)  on  the  other,  led  to  some  extra- 
ordinary results.  The  defeated  party  used,  at  the  expense  of  their  own 
independence,  to  invoke  the  aid  of  some  foreign  prince,  and  accordingly 
v/e  find  that  after  the  14th  cent,  the  kings  of  Naples  and  France,  the 
marquises  of  Montferrat,  and  the  dukes  of  Milan  were  alternately  masters 
of  Genoa.  Nor  was  this  state  of  atfairs  materially  altered  by  the  revolution 
of  1339,  by  which  the  exclusive  sway  of  the  nobility  was  overthrown, 
and  a  Doge,  elected  for  life,  invested  with  the  supreme  power.  In  the 
midst  of  all  this  confusion  the  only  stable  element  was  the  mercantile 
Banco  di  San  Giorgio,  which  had  acquired  extensive  possessions,  chietiy 
in  Corsica,  and  would,  perhaps,  have  eventually  absorbed  the  whole  of  the 
republic  and  converted  it  into  a  commercial  aristocracy,  had  not  Genoa 
lost  its  power  of  independent  development  by  becoming  involved  in  the 
wars  of  the  great  powers.  Andrea  Doria  (1468-1560;  p.  901,  the  admiral 
of  Emperor  Charles  V.,  at  length  restored  peace  by  the  establishment  of  a 
new  oligarchic  constitution  (16.28),  and  the  unsuccessful  conspiracy  of  Fiesco 
in  1547  was  one  of  the  last  instances  of  an  attempt  to  make  the  supreme 
power  dependent  on  unbridled  personal  ambition.  But  the  power  of  Genoa 
was  already  on  the  wane.  The  Turks  conquered  its  Oriental  possessions 
one  after  another,  and  the  city  was  subjected  to  severe  humiliations  by 
Louis  XIV.  of  France,  whose  fleet  under  Duqtiesne  bombarded  Genoa  in 
1684,  and  by  the  Imperial  troops  by  whom  the  city  was  occupied  for 
some  months  in  1746.  These  last  were  expelled  by  a  popular  rising, 
begun  by  a  stone  thrown  by  Balilla,  a  lad  of  15  years.  A  revolt  in  Corsica, 
which  began  in  1729,  was  suppressed  only  with  the  aid  of  the  Frencli,  who 

80    Route  18.  GKNOA.  a.  Harbour  and 

afterwards  (1768)  took  possession  of  the  island  on  their  own  behalf.  In 
1797  the  ariit  icratic  government  of  Genoa  was  superseded  by  (he  democratic 
'Ligurian  Republic'',  estaWishid  by  Napoleon.  In  1805  Uguria  was  formally 
annexed  to  the  Empire  of  France,  and  in  1815  to  the  Kingdom  of  Sardinia. 
To  the  student  of  art  Genoa  ofl'ers  much  of  interest.  Some  of  the 
.■Jmaller  churches  are  of  very  ancient  origin,  though  u^u.illy  altered  in  the 
(Jothic  |ieriod.  The  KeuHisaance  palaces  of  the  Gen  )ese  nublesse  are,  on 
the  other  hand,  of  (he  greatest  importance,  surpassing  in  number  and 
maguifuence  those  of  any  o'her  city  in  Italy.  Many  of  thtse  palaces  were 
erected  by  Caleazzo  Alessi  (1012-'(2;  a  pupil  of  Blichael  Angelo ,  born  at 
}'erugi<i),  whose  style  was  followed  by  subsequent  architects.  In  spite  of 
occasional  defects,  Alessi's  architecture  is  of  an  imposing  and  uniform 
character,  and  displays  great  ingenuity  in  making  the  best  of  unfavour- 
able and  limited  sites  The  palaces,  moreover,  contain  a  considerable 
number  of  works  of  art,  while  Rubens,  who  resided  at  Genoa  in  1606  S, 
and  Van  Dyck  at  a  later  period,  have  pre.'^erved  the  memory  of  many 
members  of  the  noblesse.  The  native  school  of  art,  however,  never  rose 
to  importance,  and  was  far  from  being  benefited  by  the  zeal  of  its  artists 
in  painting  facades.  The  chief  painters  were  Luca  Camhiato  (1527-85),  lier- 
nardo  Slrozzi,  surnamcd  II  Cappuccino  or  I'rete  Oenovese  (1581-1644),  Oiov. 
Salt.  Paggi  (1551-1627),  Benedetto  CmtigUone  (1616  70),  and  Bartolomeo  Bis- 
caino  (1632  57). 

a.  The  Harbour  and  the  Adjoining  Streets. 

Until  recently  the  harbour  consisted  solely  of  the  Porto  or  inner 
liarbour,  which  was  closed  on  the  S.  by  the  Molo  Vecddo  (492  yds. 
long),  said  to  have  been  constructed  in  1134,  and  by  the  Molo 
Nuovo  (722  yds.  long),  dating  from  the  18th  century.  In  1877-95, 
however,  very  extensive  additions  were  made,  largely  at  the  cost  of 
the  Duke  of  Galliera  (d.  1876).  The  Molo  Nuovo  was  prolonged 
to  the  S.E.  by  the  Alolo  Duca  di  Galliera  (about  1  M.  long),  and 
on  the  E.  side  a  new  breakwater,  the  Molo  Oiano  or  Orkntale 
(650  yds.  long),  was  added,  creating  a  new  harbour  (Porto  Nuovo) 
and  an  outer  basin  (Avamporlo  Viilorlo  Eman.  Secondo)  for  war- 
vessels  (comp.  thi  Map,  p.  94).  The  aggregate  wat^r-area  of  these 
different  basins  is  555  acres;  the  length  of  the  quays  (calate)  is  6  M. 
To  cope  with  the  rapidly  increasing  trade,  to  which  the  new  Sim- 
plon  Railway  (p.  3)  is  expected  to  contribute,  a  large  new  coal- 
harbour  (Bachto  Vitt.  Eman.  TerzoJ,  53  acres  in  area,  is  being 
constructed  between  the  Molo  Duoa  di  Galliera  and  the  Capo  del 
Faro  (p.  91).  —  In  1904  the  harbour  was  entered  and  cleared  by 
12,270  vessels,  with  an  aggregate  burden  of  over  12,000,000  tons. 
The  value  of  the  imports  (3,075,789  tons;  chiefly  cotton,  coal, 
and  grain)  was  639,000,000  fr.,  that  of  the  exports  (252,300  tons) 
was  411,000,000  fr. 

To  reach  the  harbour  from  the  railway-station,  we  traverse  the 
Piazza  Acquaverde  (PI.  C,  2;  p.  90)  and  descend  the  narrow  Via 
San  Giovanni  (PI.  B,  C,  2)  towards  the  S.  To  the  right,  at  the  comer 
of  the  Piazza  della  Commenda,  is  the  small  early-Gothic  church  of 
San  Giovanni  Battista  or  di  Pre  (13th  cent.),  which  originally  be- 
longed to  a  lodge  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John.  Since  a  reconstruction 
in  the  17th  cent,  tlie  entrance  has  been  at  the  E.  end. 

Adjoining  Streets.  GENOA.  18.  Route.     81 

The  busy  Via  Cahlo  Alkbkto  {VI.  C,  D,  2-4),  skirting  the 
Piazza  della  Commenda,  leads  to  the  W.  to  the  Dogana  (Pi.  B,  2),  or 
custom-house,  and  to  the  Ponte  Federico  Ouylielmo,  the  landing-place 
of  the  oceanic  steamers.  Farther  on  are  the  Palazzo  Doria  (p.  90) 
and  the  large  lighthouse  (p.  91).  To  the  E.  the  street  leads  past  tlie 
Magazzini  della  Ddrsena,  the  former  marine  arsenal,  the  old  Dar- 
sena  (PI.  C,  3),  or  war-harbour,  in  which  Fiesco  (p.  79)  was  drowned 
in  1547,  and  the  I'ortlcato  di  Sottorijxr  (V\.  I),  4),  with  arcades 
restored  In  the  Gothic  style  in  1900,  to  the  Piazza  Caeicambnto 
(PI.  D,  4,  5),  in  which  a  bronze  statue,  by  Rivalta,  was  erected  in 
1893  to  liaffaele  Rubatlino  (1809-72),  the  Genoese  steamship- 
owner.  On  the  S.  side  of  the  square  is  the  Gothic  Palazzo  di  San 
Giorgio,  erected  about  12G0,  enlarged  in  the  14th  cent,  and  in 
1571,  and  from  1408  to  1797  occupied  by  the  Banca  di  San  Giorgio 
(p.  79).  Partially  restored  by  lyAndrade,  it  is  now  the  seat  of  the 
Harbour  Commission  (Consorzio  dell'  Autonomia  del  Porto).  The 
large  hall  is  embellished  with  21  marble  statues  of  men  who  have 
deserved  well  of  the  city,  partly  of  the  15-16th  century.  —  Beside 
the  Piazza  llaibetta  (PL  D,  5),  farther  on,  is  the  Porto  or  Deposito 
Franco,  the  free  harbour,  with  extensive  bonded  warehouses  (visi- 
tors admitted ;   no  smoking). 

The  broad  Via  Vittoeio  Emanuelb  (PL  D,  6),  skirting  the  E. 
side  of  the  free  harbour,  leads  to  the  S.W.  to  the  Piazza  Cavour 
(PL  D,  6),  to  the  S.  of  which  begins  the  Via  di  Circonvallazione  a 
Mare  (p.  9'2).  To  the  W.  is  the  Molo  Vecchio,  with  the  Porta  del 
MolotV\.  C,  5),  a  gateway  built  in  1550  by  Gal.  Alessi,  and  the 
new  Magazzini  Generali.  —  The  Via  San  Lorenzo  ascends  from  the 
Via  Vittorio  Einanuele  to  the  cathedral,  see  p.  83. 

A  Row  IN  THE  Harbour  (2  fr.  per  hour  for  1-4  pers. ;  bargain  before- 
hand) is  very  attractive  wlien  the  sky  is  clear  and  the  sea  calm.  We  first 
proceed  to  the  end  of  the  Molo  Vecchio,  on  which  stands  a  small  Female 
or  li'2hthouse  (PI.  A,  5;  no  admission).  Thence  we  cross  to  the  Bacini 
di  Carenaggio  (PI.  C,  D,  7,  8),  large  dry  docks  constructed  in  1893-95. 
After  seeing  these,  we  row  past  the  end  of  the  Molo  Giano  (lighthouse; 
PI.  C,  8)  to  the  Molo  Duca  di  Galliera,  which  commands  a  fine  view  of  the  city 
and  mountains.  Hence  we  return  on  foot,  passing  the  Quarantine  Station, 
and  traverse  the  Molo  Nuovo  to  the  large  lighthouse  (p.  91),  which  may  now 
l)e  visited.    Then  by  electric  tramway  (No.  13)  to  the  Darsena  (see  above). 

The  following  route  avoids  the  noisy  and  crowded  streets  near 
the  harbour.  From  the  S.E.  end  of  the  Darsena  (PL  C,  3),  whence 
the  Via  delle  Fontane  leads  to  the  left  to  the  Piazza  dell' Annunziata 
(p.  88),  we  pass  through  the  Gothic  Porta  dei  Vacca,  erected  on  the 
site  of  the  N.W.  town-gate  of  1159  and  adorned  with  mediaeval 
sculptures  and  towers,  to  the  Via  del  Campo  (PL  D,  4)  and  the 
Piazza  Fossateli-o  (PL  D,  4).  From  this  piazza  the  Via  Lomellini, 
with  the  Palazzo  Centurione  (No.  1),  by  Alessi (?),  and  the  house 
in  which  Mazzini  (p.  74)  was  born  (No.  33),  leads  to  the  left  to  the 
Piazza  dell'  Annunziata. 

In  the  small  Piazza  San  Siro,  a  few  paces  to  the  E.  from  the 
Bakukkku.    Italy  I.    13tli  Edit.  G 

82     Route  18.  GENOA.  a.  Harbour  and 

Piazza  Fossatello,  is  tlie  old  cathedral  of  San  Siro  (PI.  D,  E,  4), 
rebuilt  about  1576,  with  a  facade  of  1830,  containing  frescoes  by 
Oiov.  Batt.  Carlone. 

Then  through  the  Via  di  San  Luca  to  the  Piazza  Banchi,  with 
the  Exchange  [Loggia  dc'  Banchi,  Borsa ;  PI.  D,  5  ;  business-hours, 
11-3).  —  From  the  S.  corner  of  the  Exchange,  the  narrow  Via 
Okefici  (PL  D,  E,  5),  with  numerous  goldsmiths'  shops  (a  door 
on  the  right  is  adorjicd  with  an  Adoration  of  the  Magi  in  relief, 
15th  cent.),  and  then  the  Piazza  Soziglia  (PI.  E,  5)  and  the  Via 
TmccoU,  lead  to  the  Piazza  delle  Fontane  Marose  (p.  85). 

To  the  N.  of  the  Piazza  Soziglia  is  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  (Telle 
Vigne  (PI.  E,  5),  with  three  Gothic  figures  above  the  side-portal  on  the 
right,  and  a  tower  of  the  13th  century.  The  fine  interior  was  restored  in 
the  late-Renaissance  style  in  1586;  in  the  chapel  to  the  left  of  the  choir  is  a 
wooden  crucifix  with  painted  statues  of  the  Virgin  and  St.  John,  hy 
Maragliano.  The  church  is  adjoined  by  a  ruined  cloister  of  the  11th  century. 
—  On  the  S.  side  of  the  Piazza  Soziglia  (Piazza  Campetfo,  No.  8)  is  the 
handsome  Palazzo  Imperiali,  by  G.  B.  Castello  (1560). 

From  the  Exchange  the  Via  San  Pietro  della  Porta,  passing  the 
former  church  of  San  Pietro  de'  Banchi  (1583),  with  its  high  flight 
of  steps,  leads  to  the  S.  to  the  Via  San  Lorenzo  (see  p.  83). 

The  steep  streets  to  tlie  S.  of  the  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele  (p.  81)  and 
the  Via  San  Lorenzo,  iii  the  oldest  and  most  unsavoury  part  of  Ge- 
noa, contain  several  churches  of  considerable  artistic  interest.  The 
Via  San  Giorgio,  a  side-street  of  the  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele,  and  the 
continuation  of  the  above-mentioned  Via  San  Pietro  della  Porta, 
both  lead  to  the  Piazza  San  Giorgio  (PL  D,  6),  on  the  S.E.  side  of 
which  stands  the  church  of  San  Giorgio,  a  baroque  structure  with  a 
dome,  containing  a  Pieta  by  the  Spanish  master,  Sanchez  Goello 
(1st  chapel  to  the  left  of  the  choir),  and  three  paintings  by  Luca 
Cambiaso.  Adjoining  it  on  the  left  is  the  charming  little  church 
of  San  Torpete,  by  Ant.  Rocca  (1631). 

A  few  yards  to  the  S.W.  of  the  latter  is  the  Piazza  GmiiLO  Gat- 
TANEo,  named  after  the  Palazzo  Cattaneo,  which  has  a  tasteful  Re- 
naissance portal  (1504)  by  Tamagnino  and  others.  At  the  adjacent 
shop.  Via  San  Bernardo  8,  is  another  elegant  Renaissance  portal. 

From  the  Piazza  Grillo  Cattaneo  we  proceed  to  the  S.W.  by  the 
Vico  dietro  il  coro  di  San  Cosimo  and  then  by  an  archway  on  the 
light,  and  reach  the  Romanesque  church  of  Santi  Cosma  e  Damiano 
(12th  cent.?),  which  contains  a  Madonna  of  the  14th  cent,  (left  of 
the  high-altar).  —  From  the  end  of  the  last-named  Vico  the  Salita 
di  Santa  Maria  di  Castello  ascends  to  the  left  to  the  church  of  Santa 
Maria  di  Castello  (PL  D,  6),  a  Romanesque  building  (perhaps  of 
the  11th  cent.),  on  the  site  of  the  Roman  castle.  Above  the  portal 
is  an  ancient  architrave ;  ten  of  the  shafts  of  the  columns  in  the 
freely  modernized  interior  are  also  ancient.  In  the  first  chapel  on 
the  left  is  a  Roman  sarcophagus,  used  as  an  altar;  in  the  second 
chapel  on  the  right  is  a  Coronation  of  the  Virgin  by  Lod.  Brea;  and 
the  third  has  tasteful  Renaissance  decorations  (tiles)  and  an  altar- 

Adjoining  Streets.  GENOA.  IS.  Route.     83 

piece  by  Sacchi  (15'26).  The  choir  was  added  in  the  16th  century. 
In  the  cloisters  are  ceiling-frescoes  of  Sibyls  and  Prophets  and  a 
Madonna  by  Jusius  de  Allamagna  (1451 ;  under  glass). 

To  the  N.E.  is  the  little  Piazza  Embriaci  (PL  D,  6),  with  the 
ruined  Torre  Ernhriaci,  the  solitary  relic  of  a  patrician  castle  of  the 
r2th  cent.,  whence  the  Vico  dei  Giustiniani  returns  to  the  Via  San 
Bernardo  (p.  82).  From  the  S.E.  end  of  this  street  the  Via  San 
Donate  leads  to  the  right  to  the  piazza  and  church  of  San  Donate 
(PI.  E,  6),  the  latter  a  Romanesque  structure  of  the  12th  cent,  (re- 
stored in  1000).  The  architrave  and  columns  of  the  entrance  show 
an  arohaistic  tendency  like  those  of  the  cathedral.  In  the  interior 
are  some  antique  columns  and  (1st  altar  on  the  left)  a  fine  Adoration 
of  the  Magi,  by  the  Master  of  the  Death  of  the  Virgin  (covered). 

We  may  proceed  hence  either  via  the  Salita  Pollaiuoli  to  the  N.Pj. 
to  the  Piazza  Umberto  Primo  (p.  84)  or  via  the  Vico  di  San  Donate 
and  the  Vico  del  Ficn  to  the  E.  to  the  Piano  di  Sant'  Andrea,  and 
thence  pass  under  the  Gothic  Porta  Soprana  and  descend  the  Vico 
Dritto  di  Ponticello  to  the  Piazza  Ponticello  and  the  Via  Venti  Set- 
tembre  (p.  85).  No.  37,  on  the  left  side  of  the  Vico  Dritto  di  Ponti- 
cello, is  the  small  Ancestral  House  of  Columbus  (PI.  E,  6;  p.  90). 

b.  From  the  Harbour  through  the  Via  San  Lorenzo  to  the  Piazza 
Umberto  Primo  and  the  Piazza  Deferrari. 

Near  the  beginning  of  the  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele  (p.  81)  is  the 
busy  Via  San  Lorenzo,  running  towards  the  S.E.  It  contains  the 
cathedral  of  — 

^  *San  Lorenzo  (PI.  E,  6, 6),  founded  in  986,  re-erected  about  1100 
in  the  Romanesque  style,  restored  in  the  Gothic  style  iu  1307,  and 
provided  with  a  Renaissance  dome  hy  Oaleazzo  Alessi  in  1567.  The 
choir  was  modernized  in  1617,  and  a  harmonious  restoration  of  the 
interior  was  carried  out  since  1896.  The  lower  part  of  the  facade, 
which  consists  of  alternate  courses  of  black  and  white  marble,  was  con- 
structed in  imitation  of  the  French  Gothic  churches ;  the  two  lower 
of  the  recumbent  lions  which  adorn  it  on  the  right  and  left  of  the 
steps  are  modern.  Only  one  of  the  towers  is  completed.  The  sculp- 
tures of  the  principal  portal  date  from  the  end  of  the  13th  century. 
The  Romanesque  entrances  to  the  aisles  are  richly  decorated  with 
sculptures  of  the  12-14th  cent,  (on  the  N.  portal,  a  carver's  inscrip- 
tion of  1342)  and  with  archaistic  ornamentation  on  the  entablature 
and  capitals.  A  small  Gothic  oriel  of  1402,  formerly  belonging  to 
the  Hospital  of  St.  John,  has  been  built  into  the  right  aisle. 

The  Intekior,  to  which  the  massive  substructure  of  the  towers  forms 
a  kind  of  atrium,  still  retains  16  Corinthian  columns  from  the  original 
Romanesqae  buildinii.  The  upper  series  of  columns  alternating  with  piers, 
and  also  the  whole  of  the  vaulting,  belong  to  the  building  of  1307.  On 
the  right,  over  the  second  side-portal,  is  the  monument  (restored  in  1905) 
of  Cardinal  Luca  Ficschi  (d.  1336).   —  In  the   chapel   to   the  right  of  the 


84     Route,  18.  GENOA.  h.  From  the  Harbour 

choir,  a  *Crucifixion  with  sainta  and  angels  (covered),  the  masterpiece  of 
Fed.  Baroccio.  In  the  choir,  handsome  stalls  with  inlaid  work  hy  t'rdnc. 
de'  ZaiahelU  and  others  (1514-46).  In  the  chapel  to  the  left  of  the  choir, 
.<!ix  pictures  and  a  statue  of  Fides  by  Luca  Cambiaso.  —  In  the  first  chapel 
in  the  left  aisle  are  seven  statues  by  Qugl.  delta  Porta.  The  second  chapel 
(women  not  admitted),  that  of 'San  Giovanni  Battista,  erected  in  1448-96, 
contains  a  stone  area  of  the  loth  cent,  (below  the  altar)  with  relics  of  John 
the  Baptist.  The  six  statues  at  the  sides  art^  by  Malteo  Civitali  (p.  443); 
the  Madonna  and  John  the  Baptist  by  Andrea  Sansovino  (1503);  the  canopy 
and  the  other  sculptures  by  Giacomo  and  Guglielmo  delta  Porta  (1532).  The 
external  decoration  of  the  chapel,  with  admirable  reliefs  above  (best  light 
in  the  afternoon),  was  executed  by  t)ie  T;nmbardic  masters,  Dam.  and  Elia 
Oagini  and  Giov.  da  Dissone  (1448-50). 

In  the  sacristy  is  the  Cathedkal  Treasury  (adm.,  p.  78;  entrance, 
Via  deir  Arcivcscovado  21).  Among  the  relics  here  are  a  silver  .shrine 
for  the  Procession  of  Corpus  Domini,  executi-d  in  1563-1611  by  Franc. 
Rocchi  of  Milan  and  other  artists:  and  (to  tlie  left)  a  13th  cent,  cross  from 
Kphesus,  captured  at  Phocaeain  1308.  To  the  right  is  the  Sacro  Catino,  the 
vessel  out  of  which  the  Saviour  and  his  disciples  are  said  to  have  partaken 
of  the  paschal  lamb,  or  that  in  which  Joseph  of  Arimathea  caught  some 
drops  of  the  blood  of  the  Crucified  (an  ancient  Oriental  glass  vessel,  cap- 
tured by  the  Genoese  at  Cesarea  in  1101  and  supposed  to  be  made  of  a 
large  emerald,  until  it  was  broken  at  Paris,  whither  it  had  been  carried 
by  Napoleon  I.).  The  setting  dates  from  1827.  Beneath  is  a  silver  altar- 
front  by  the  German  goldsmith  Melchior  Siiss  (1599);  opposite  is  a  silver 
shrine  for  the  procession  on  Ash  Wednesday,  by  Teramo  di  Daniele  (1437). 
On  the  third  wall  are  two  choir  vestments  (15th  and  16th  cent.)  and  costly 

To  the  left  of  the  cathedral  are  Romanesque  cloisters  (I'ith 
cent.).  —  Opposite,  Via  dell'  Arcivescovado  14,  are  the  Stale  Archives. 

Farther  on  the  Via  San  Lorenzo  leads  to  the  Piazza  Umbebto 
Primo  and  to  Sant'  Ambrogio  (PI.  E,  6),  a  church  of  the  Jesuits, 
profusely  decorated  (1589). 

Interior.  3rd  Altar  on  the  right :  Assumption  by  Guide  Reni  (restored 
in  1898;  covered).  High-altarpiece ,  Presentation  in  the  Temple,  by  Rubens 
(an  early  work  of  about  1605).  The  four  black  monolithic  columns  are 
from  Porto  Venere  (p.  118).  Third  Altar  on  the  left:  "Rubens,  St.  Ignatius 
healing  the  sick  (ca.  1620,  restored  in  1896;  covered). 

The  house  Vico  dei  Notari  No.  1,  to  the  right  of  the  church,  has 
a  fine  Renaissance  portal. 
]  ^  On  the  N,  side  of  the  Piazza  Umberto  Primo  rises  the  Palazzo 
'^  Ducale  (PI.  E,  6),  the  grand  old  residence  of  the  doges,  originally  a 
building  of  the  l3th  cent.,  to  which  the  tower  on  the  left  (Torre  del 
Popolo)  belonged,  but  completely  remodelled  by  Rocco  Pennone  in 
the  i6th  cent,  (fine  *  Staircase),  and  modernised  after  a  fire  in  1777. 
Facade  by  Sirnone  Cantoni.  It  now  contains  the  telegraph-office  and 
other  government-offices. 

From  the  Piazza  Umberto  Primo  the  short  Via  Sellai  leads  to  the 
left  to  the  busy  and  recently  enlarged  but  still  unfinished  Piazza 
Deferbari  (PI.  E,  F,  5,  6;  78ft.  above  the  sea;  starting-point  of 
most  of  the  electric  tramways,  p.  76),  which  is  embellished  veith  a 
large  Equestrian  Statue  of  Oaribaldi,  by  Aug.  Rivalta,  unveiled  in 
1893.  —  On  the  N.W.  side  of  the  piazza  stands  the  Palazzo  Deferrari 
(18th  cent.).  Opposite  are  the  Teatro  Carlo  Felice  (PI.  E,  F,  5;  see 
p.  77)  and  the  Accademia  di  Belle  Arti  (PI.  E,  F,  6),  on  the  first  floor 

to  the  Piazza  Deferrari.       GENOA.  18.  Route.     85 

of  which  is  the  Biblioteca  Civicn ;  on  the  second  floor  is  the  *Museo 
Chiossone  fadm.  see  p.  78),  opened  in  1905,  with  a  valuable  col- 
loctioii  of  Japanese  and  Chinese  antiquities  (ll-19th  cent.).  On 
the  ]•].  side  of  the  piazza  the  new  buildings  of  the  Exchange  and 
tl^c  Post  OfQoe  nre  under  constru'tion. 

The  Via  Vknti  Skttemhre  (PI.  F-H,  6,  7),  a  handsome  street 
laid  out  in  1887-1905,  flanked  with  arcades  containing  shops,  leads 
from  the  Academy  to  the  S.E.  to  the  new  Ponte  Monurnentale  fp.  92) 
and  thence,  passing  the  Mercato  Orientate  (market),  to  the  Ponte 
Pila  (PI.  H,  1,  7;  p.  92),  the  central  one  of  the  three  bridges  over 
the  Bisagno.  Before  reaching  the  viaduct  we  may  ascend  to  the 
right  across  the  Piazza  Ponticello  (p.  83)  and  tlirough  the  Via  Fie.'chi 
to  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  di  Carignano  (p.  92). 

The  Salita  San  Mattco  leads  to  the  left  from  the  Piazza  Deferrari  to 
the  small  Gothic  church  of  San  Matteo  (PI.  E,  5;  1278),  containing  many 
memorials  of  the  Doria  family,  the  facade  being  covered  with  inscriptions 
in  their  honour.  To  the  right,  below  an  ancient  sarcophagus-relief,  is  an 
inscription  in  honour  of  Lamba  Doria .  who  defeated  the  Venetians  at 
Curzola  in  1297.  The  interior  was  altered  in  1530,  with  the  assistance  of 
Giov.  Butt.  Castello,  by  the  Florentine  Moiitorsoli,  who  was  invited  to  Genoa 
by  Andrea  Doria,  and  executed  the  whole  of  the  sculptures  which  adorn 
the  church.  The  balustrade  of  the  organ-loft  is  particularly  fine.  Above 
the  high-altar  is  Andrea  Doria's  sword,  and  his  tomb  is  in  the  chapel  below. 
To  the  left  of  the  church  are  handsome  cloisters  with  double  columns  in 
the  early-Gothic  style  (1308-10),  with  ancient  inscriptions  relating  to  the 
Dorias,  and  remains  of  Montorsoli's  statue  of  Andrea  Doria,  which  was 
mutilated  during  the  Revolution  in  1797.  —  The  little  piazza  in  front  of 
the  church  is  surrounded  with  Palaces  of  the  Doria  Family,  some  with  their 
lower  halves  covered  with  black  and  yellow  marble.  The  palazzo  (No.  17) 
at  the  corner  of  the  Salita  alio  Arcivescovado  bears,  above  its  elegant 
early -Renaissance  portal,  the  inscription,  ^Senai.  Cons.  Andreae  de  Oria, 
patriae  liberatori  miintis  publicum'' . 

c.  From  the  Piazza  Deferrari  to  the  West  Sailway  Station  and 
the  Lighthouse. 

From  the  Piazza  Deferrari  two  broad  streets  lead  to  the  N.E.: 
to  the  right  the  Via  Koma  (p.  91),  to  the  left  the  short  Via  Carlo 
Felice  ( PL  E,  F,  5).  The  latter  leads  past  the  Palazzo  Pallavicini 
(No.  12;  now  the  Pal.  Duraz^o^  to  the  Piazza  delle  Fontanb 
Mahosb  (pi.  F,  4,  5).  No.  17  in  this  piazza  is  the  Pal.  della  Cam 
(15th  cent.,  but  restored  in  the  17th),  adorned  with  five  ancient 
honorary  statues  in  niches;  No.  27  is  the  Pal.  Lod.  Stefano  Palla- 
vicini, with  a  painted  faijade,  sumptuously  fitted  up  in  modern  taste. 

At  the  Piazza  delle  Fontane  Marose  begins  a  handsome  line  of 
streets  laid  out  since  the  i6th  cent.,  extending  to  the  Piazza  Acqua- 
verde  (p.  90),  under  the  names  of  Via  Oaribaldi  (formerly  Nuova\  Via 
Cair6li  (formerly  Nuovissima'),  and  Via  Balhi.  In  these  streets,  which 
form  one  of  the  chief  arteries  of  traffic,  are  the  most  important 
palaces  and  several  churches.  Some  of  the  former  should  be  visited 
for  the  sake  of  their  noble  staircases,  one  of  the  sights  of  Genoa. 

The  first  of  these  main  streets,    the   narrow  *Via  Gakibaldi 

86     Route  18.  GENOA,     c.  From  the  Piazta  Deferrari 

(PI.  E,  4),  is  flanked  with  a  succession  of  palaces.  On  the  right, 
No.  1,  Palazzo  Vambiaso,  by  Gal.  Alessi.  On  the  left,  No.  2,  I'aL. 
Oambaro,  formerly  Cambiaso.  Right,  No.  3,  Pal.  Parodi,  erected  in 
1567-81  by  Gal.  Alessi.  Left,  No.  4,  Pal.  Cataldi,  formerly  Carega, 
erected  about  1560  by  Giov.  Batt.  Castello.  Right,  No.  5,  Pal. 
Spinola,  by  Gal.  Alessi,  now  a  commercial  school  (the  courts  of  the 
two  last-named  are  adorned  witli  frescoes).  Left,  No.  6,  Pal.  Giorgio 
Doria  (not  always  open),  by  Alessi,  adorned  with  frescoes  by  Luca 
Cambiaso  and  other  pictures  (Castiglione,  Shepherd  and  shepherdess; 
Van  Dyck,  Portrait  of  a  lady ;  P.  Veronese,  Susanna). 

Left,  No.  10,  Pal.  Auorno  (accessible  by  introduction  only),  also 
by  Oal.  Alessi.  contains  several  good  pictures :  Rubens,  Hercules 
and  Dejanira  (both  much  restored);  three  small  pictures  attributed 
to  Mantegna,  though  more  in  the  style  of  S.  Botticelli  (Triumph  of 
Amor,  of  Jugurtha,  of  Judith;  comp.  p.  34,  No.  106);  Cambiaso, 
Madonna  and  saints ;  Corneille  de  Lyon  (not  J.  Clouet),  Portraits  of 
four  children;  PeUegro  Piola,  Frieze  with  children;  Perin  del  Vagn, 
Nativity  of  Mary. 

Left,  No.  12,  Pal.  Serra  (no  admission),  by  G.  Alessi;  interior 
rebuilt  by  Charles  de  Wailly  (d.  1798)  and  Tagliafico,  with  a 
magnificent  rococo  hall. 

Right,  No.  9,  Palazzo  Municipale  (PI.  E,  4),  formerly  Doria 
Tursi,  by  Rocco  Lurago  (d.  ca.  1590),  with  a  handsome  staircase  and 
court,  skilfully  adapted  to  its  sloping  site. 

The  Vestibule  i.t  adorned  with  frescoes  from  the  life  of  the  Doge 
Grimaldi  and  the  Staikoase  in  the  court  with  a  statue  of  Cattaneo  Pinelli. 
—  In  the  large  Council  Chamber  on  the  upper  floor  are  mosaic  portraits 
(by  Salviati;  1867)  of  Columbus  and  Marco  Polo.  In  the  adjacent  room 
are  facsimiles  of  letters  of  Columbus  (the  originals  are  in  the  pedestal  of 
his  bust  in  the  Sala  della  Giunta) ;  large  bronze  tablet  of  B.  C.  117,  record- 
ing the  judgment  of  Roman  arbiters  in  a  dispute  between  Genoa  and  a 
castle  in  the  Val  Polcevera.  A  recess  in  the  wall  to  the  left  contains 
Paganini's  violin  (a  'Guarneri'). 

Left,  No.  18,  Palazzo  Bosso  (PI.  E,  4),  by  Alessi  (?),  so  named 
from  its  red  colour,  formerly  the  property  of  the  Brignole-Sale 
family,  was  presented  to  the  city  of  Genoa  in  1874,  along  with  its 
valuable  contents,  library,  and  ^Picture  Gallery  (^Oalleria  Brignole- 
Sale  Deferrari;  adm.,  see  p.  78;  lists  of  pictures  in  each  room),  by 
the  Marchesa  Maria  Brignole-Sale,  Duchess  of  Galliera  (d.  1889). 

Ascending  the  staircase  to  the  third  story,  we  pass  to  the  right  into 
the  Stanza  delle  Aeti  Liberali  (R.  I),  named,  like  the  following  rooms, 
after  the  ceiling-paintings  (by  Carlone,  Parodi,  Deferrari,  Piola,  and  others), 
and  containing  three  portraits  of  Doges  of  the  Brignole  family  (17-18th 
cent.).  The  ceiling-paintings  are  sometimes  continued  by  the  relief-work 
of  the  cornices.  —  To  the  right,  the  Alcova  (R.  II):  Rigaud,  Lady  and 
gentleman  of  the  Brignole  family;  Picasso,  Portrait  of  the  Duchess  of 
Galliera.  —  III.  Stanza  hella  Gioventu.  On  the  exit- wall:  Guercino, 
Cleopatra;  B.  Strozzi,  Hi  C'appuccino\  Caritas  or  maternal  love  (after  Cam- 
biaso); B.  Strozzi^  Cook  with  poultry.  —  IV.  Sala  Grande,  with  ceiling 
decorated  with  the  armorial  bearings  of  the  family.  Exit-wall:  Ouidobono 
da  Savona,  Lot  and  his  daughters.  Entrance-vfall :  D.  Piola,  Sun-chariot  of 
Apollo. — V.  Stanza  della  Pkimavera  :  Paris  Bordone,  Venetian  woman; 

to  the  West  Station.  GENOA.  75.  Route.    87 

Moretto,  Physician  (1533);  Van  Dt/ck,  'Marchese  Antonio  Giulio  Brlgnole- 
Sale  on  horseback  (restored  in  1903);  A.  DUrtr,  Portrait  (1506;  mined); 
Titian  (school-piece),  Philip  II.  of  Spain.  On  the  exit- wall:  Van  Dyck,  Por- 
trait of  father  and  son.  Entrance-wall :  Van  Dyck,  Marchesa  Paola  Brignole- 
Sale  (ruined),  Bearing  of  the  Cross  (early  work);  Jac.  Bassano,  Portrait  of 
father  and  son ;  Paris  Bordone,  'Portrait.  —  VI.  Stanza  dell'  Estate  : 
Ouermio,  Suicide  of  Cato ;  Lvca  Oiordano,  Clorinda  liberating  Olintho  and 
Sophronia  (from  Tasso) ;  Guercino,  Christ  driving  out  the  money-changers  ; 
B.  Strotzi,  Incredulity  of  Thomas;  Cai'avaggio,  Raising  of  Lazarus.  On 
the  window-wall  is  a  large  mirror,  with  a  majtnificent  baroque  frame  by 
Fit.  Parodi.  —  VII.  Stanza  DELL'AnTUNNo :  Guercino,  Holy  Family  with 
SS.  John  the  Evangelist  and  Bartholomew.  —  VIII.  Stanza  dell' Inverno. 
To  the  left,  Paolo  Veronese,  Judith  and  Holofernes.  Entrance-wall :  Pel- 
legrino  Piola,  Holy  Family;  Mnrillo,  Holy  Family  (early  work);  Abraham 
Tenters,  Two  genre-pictures ;  Paris  liordone.  Holy  Family  with  SS.  Jerome 
and  Catharine  (one  of  the  master's  chief  works,  but  much  injured).  — 
IX.  Stanza  della  Vita  dell'  Uomo  ;  Van  Dyck,  Portrait.  Entrance-wall : 
Van  Dyck,  Marchesa  Geronima  Brignole-Sale,  with  her  daughter  (retouched 

No.  13,  nearly  opposite  Pal.  Rosso,  and  named  'wLite'  by  way  of 
contrast,  is  the  Palazzo  Bianco  (PI.  E,  4),  erected  in  1565-69,  also 
for  a  long  period  tlie  property  of  the  Brignole-Sale  family,  hnt  be- 
queathed in  1889  with  numerous  works  of  art  to  the  city  by  the 
Duchess  of  Galliera  (see  p.  86),  and  since  1893  converted  into  a 
museum  known  like  the  other  as  the  *Oalleria  Brignole-Sale  Defer- 
rnri  (adm.,  see  p.  78;  lists  in  each  room). 

Vestibule.  On  the  walls  are  numerous  inscriptions  and  sculptures, 
including  the  remains  of  Genoese  sepulchral  monuments. 

Entresol.  —  Room  I  (left);  137.  Genoa  with  the  walls  of  1159,  a  large 
painting;  139.  View  of  Genoa  harbour  in  1319;  110.  View  of  Genoa  in  1410 
(a  copy,  dating  from  1597);  105.  Large  relief-plan  of  Genoa  (1898) ;  126,138. 
Scenes  in  the  Genoese  rising  against  Austria  in  1746;  154.  Part  of  the 
harbour  chain  of  Pisa,  captured  in  1290;  church-bell  of  1292;  old  cannon 
found  in  the  harbour  in  1890;  national  relics.  —  Room  II:  1.  View  of 
Corsica,  Genoa,  and  the  Riviera  di  Levante  in  164S;  4.  Plan  of  Genoa  in 
1656;  3.  Banner  of  the  'Thousand  of  Marsala'.  The  glass-cases  contain 
Genoese  coins  and  medals;  two  letters  of  Andrea  Doria;  letters  of  Gari- 
baldi ;  a  crystal  urn  enclosing  a  small  part  of  the  ashes  of  Columbus,  dis- 
covered in  1877  in  the  Cathedral  of  Santo  Domingo ;  facsimiles  of  two 
letters  of  Columbus.  —  We  return  to  the  staircase,  with  the  continuation 
of  the  collection  of  sculpture.  On  the  second  landing  is  (No.  ''479)  a  frag- 
ment of  the  tomb  of  the  consort  of  Emp.  Henry  VII.,  by  GioiK  Pisano. 

Seoond  Floor.  —  The  Ante-Room  contains  sculptures:  1.  Head  of  Janus 
from  San  Lorenzo  (10th  cent.);  6.  Giov.  della  Robbia,  Terracotta  altar,  with 
the  Coronation  of  the  Virgin  (from  Spezia) ;  7.  Bacchic  procession,  a  Roman 
sarcophagus-relief  from  the  tomb  of  Franc.  Spi'nola  in  Gaeta. 

Room  I.  Models  of  the  caravels  of  Columbus  (1892) ;  two  globes,  by 
Padre  Coronelli  (lb88);  large  Chinese  vases. 

R.  II.  7.  Byzantine  pallium,  with  legends  of  the  saints  (13th  cent.); 
Flemish  tapestry ;  Japanese  vases. 

R.  III.  Paintings  of  the  Flemish  school.  To  the  left,  '7.  Rubens,  Lovers 
(1618);  *13.  Gerard  David  {not  Flor is).  Madonna,  with  SS.  Jerome  and  Nich- 
olas of  Tolentino;  20.  Adr.  Itenbraiil  (nni  Jfemliny),  Madonna;  21.  G.  Damd, 
Crucili.xion  (school-piece);  28.  J.  van  Rut/sdael,  Landscape;  *32.  Jan  Sieen, 
Rustic  wedding;  no  number.  Van  Dyck,  Christ  and  the  Pharisees;  ''34.  Teniers 
the  Younger,  Guard -room.  On  the  entrance-wall:  Franc,  di  San  Giorgio, 
Bronze  bust  of  Giov.  Gioviano  Pontano.  In  the  middle:  Penitent  Magdalen, 
by  Canova  (1796). 

R.  IV.  Spanish  and  French  paintings.  To  the  left,  5.  Murillo,  St.  Francis 
in  ecstasy;  10,  12.  Zurbaran,  SS.  Ursula  and  Euphemia;  17.  L.  David,  Por- 

OO     Route  7.S.  GENOA.  c.  Via  Oaribaldi, 

trait;  19.  Murillo,  Flight  into  Egypt  (school-piece);  4.  Velazquez,  Philip  IV. 
{school-piece).  —  In  the  middle:  Jenuer  vaccinating  a  child,  marble  group 
by  O.  Monteverde  (187-i). 

R.  V.  Italian  paintings.  To  the  left,  10.  i'aoZo  F'«'o?ieje(V),  Boy  praying; 
7.  Guercino,  God  the  Father;  22.  Foiitormo^  Portrait;  2G.  Filippino  Lippi, 
Madonna  and  angels,  with  SS.  Francis,  Sebastian,  and  .lohn  the  Baptist 
(1503) ;  32.  Palma  Vecchio,  Madonna,  with  the  Magdalen  and  the  Baptist 
(original  in  Bergamo);   37.   Correggio,  Madonna  adoring  the  child  (copy). 

R.  VI  and  Gallery  1.  Paintings  of  the  Genoese  school  and  drawings. 
In  the  gallery,  6.  L.  Cambiaso,  Diana  and  Callisto.  —  R.  VII.  Genoese  fres- 
coes.    The  cases  cnntain  antii|ue  vases. 

R.  VIII.  Italian  paintings  of  various  schools.  In  the  middle,  a  bridal 
bed  (if  the  Brignole  family  (ISth  cent.).  —  Gallery  II.  Venetian  lace,  ec- 
clesiastical vestments  (17th  cent.),  small  sculptures,  etc. 

R.  IX.  Modern  paintings.  In  the  cases  are  antique  lamps,  vases,  glass, 
and  coins.  —  R.  X.  Majolica  from  Savona  and  elsewhere.  Collection  of 

Crossing  the  small  Piazza  della  Meridiana  to  the  N.W.,  we  enter 
the  Via  Caikoli  (PI.  E,  D,  4).  At  the  end  of  this  street,  No.  18,  on 
the  left,  is  the  Palazzo  Balbi  [by  Gregorio  Petondi,  18th  century), 
through  which  a  fine  view  is  obtained  of  the  lower-lying  Via  Lo- 
mellini  (p.  81).  —  We  then  cross  the  Piazza  della  Zecca  (PI.  D,  3), 
with  the  station  of  the  Cable  Tramivay  to  the  Via  di  Circonvallazione 
a  Monte  (p.  92)  and  Castellaccio  (p.  93),  and  reach  the  Via  alia 
Nunziata.  No.  15  in  this  street  (on  the  right)  is  the  Palazzo  Cat- 
taneo  della  Volta  (not  always  open),  containing  on  the  flrst  floor 
eleven  partly  injured  portraits  by  Van  Dyck,  the  best  of  which  is 
that  of  a  lady  with  a  negro  holding  up  a  red  parasol. 

In  the  neighbouring  Piazza  dell' Annunzi.\ta  (PI.  D,  3 )  rises  the 
former  Capuchin  church  of  *Saiitissima  Annunziata  del  Vastato, 
erected  by  Oiac.  della  Porta  in  1587.  The  portal  is  borne  by  marble 
columns ;  brick  facade  otherwise  unfinished.  This  sumptuous  church 
is  a  well-proportioned  basilica  with  a  dome;  the  interior  was  adorned 
in  the  17th  cent,  with  gilding  and  with  frescoes  by  the  Carlone  and 
other  artists. 

In  the  left  transept  the  altar-piece  is  a  coloured  wooden  group  of  the 
Communion  of  St.  Pasquale,  by  Maragliano  (1723).  The  sacristy  contains 
a  Descent  from  the  Cross,  by  Maragliano  (1726);  the  colouring  is  modern. 

In  the  handsome  Via  Balbi  (PL  D,  C,  3,  2),  on  the  right,  No.  1, 
is  the  Palazzo  Durazzo-Pallavicini,  formerly  della  Scala,  built  by 
Bart.  Bianco  (?),  with  a  handsome  facade,  a  fine  vestibule,  and  a 
superb  staircase  (left)  added  by  Andrea  Tagliafico  at  the  end  of  the 
18th  century.  On  the  flrst  floor  (bell  to  the  right,  at  the  back)  is 
the  *Galleria  Durazzo-Pallavicini  (adm.,  see  p.  78). 

The  Antisala   contains   busts   of    the    Durazzo-Pallavicini    family.   — 

II.  Room    (to  the  left,   beyond   R.  III.).     Left:    Ouercino,   Mucins    Scsevola  ' 
before   Porsenna;   Van  Dyck('i)^  Portrait  of  a  man;    Rubens,  "Silenus  with 
Bacchantes  (ca.  1608);   An.  Carracci,  Repentant  Magdalen;  Imitator  of  Van 
Dyck,   Large   family  group   (not  James  I.  of  England  with  his  family).  — 

III.  Room.  Bei-n.  Sirozzi,  Portrait  of  a  bishop;  Ouercino,  The  tribute- 
money;  Titian,  Magdalen  (retouched).  —  IV.  Room.  Guido  Eeni,  Carita 
Romana ;  Paolo  Veronese,  Marriage  of  St.  Catharine  (school -piece);  Guido 
Reni,  Cleopatra;  Rubens  {")),  Portrait,  a  round  picture;  Ribera,  St.  James; 
Tintoretto,  'Portrait  of  Marchese  Agostino  Durazzo;  Quido  Reni,  Porcia  Ro- 

Via  Catroli,  Via  Balhi.        GENOA.  75.  Route.     89 

mana;  H.  Rigaud,  Marcbese  Ippolilo  Diirazzo.  Aduiiriiliie  porcelain  vases 
in  the  centre  of  llie  room.  —  V.  Koom.  Beautiful  Chinese  porcelain.  — 
VI.  Room.  Entrance- wall :  Domenichiiio .,  Risen  Christ  appearing  to  his 
mother,  Death  of  Adonis;  Van  Dyck,  -Boy  in  white  sa'in ;  Van  Dyck{'!) 
Young  Tobias;  Van  Dyck,  'Three  children  with  a  dog  (spoiled);  -Jiubens, 
•Philip  IV.  of  Spain,  tuil-length;  Ribcra,  Hcraclitus  (weepiug  philosopher), 
Democritus  (laughing  philosopher);  Van  Dyck,  "Marchesa  Cateriua  Durazzo 
with  two  children  (spoiled);  Titian  ('!),  Ceres  with  Bucchus,  nymph,  and 
Cupid.  —  VII.  Room.  Unimportant.  —  VIII.  Room.  Window-wall:  Un- 
known Dutch  Mailer  (ca.  1500),  Pieta;  Qerard  David  {"!),  Flight  into  Egypt; 
Fr.  Pourbus ,  C-arden  of  Flora;  Flemish  Master  (17lh  cent.),  Fete  chaui- 
petre.  —  IX.  Room.  To  the  right,  Rubens,  Ambrogio  Spinola;  German 
School  (attribnted  to  Lombard  Sch.),  Crucifixion,  with  saints.  —  The 
Library  contains  7000  vols.,   including  many  specimens  of  early  printing. 

On  tlie  left  side,  No.  4,  istlie*PaIa2zoBalbi-Sen4rega(Pl.  D,  3), 
begun  early  in  the  17th  cent,  by  Bart.  Bianco,  and  enlarged  in  the 
18th  by  Pier  Ant.  Corradi.  It  still  belongs  to  the  family  who  bnilt 
it,  and  after  whom  the  street  is  named.  The  superb  court,  with  its 
Doric  colonnades,  affords  a  glimpse  of  the  orangery.  The  interesting 
Picture  Gallery  on  the  second  floor  is  shown  on  introduction  only. 

Sai.a,  or  Large  Room,  adorned  like  the  others  with  ceiling-paintings 
by  Genoese  artists.  To  the  left:  Van  Dyck,  Francesco  Maria  Balbi  on 
horseback  (injured),  the  prototype  of  the  equestrian  portrait  of  Count 
Olivares  by  Velazquez,  now  in  the  Prado  Museum  at  Madrid.  To  the 
right:  Bern.  Strozzi,  Joseph  interpreting  the  dream;  portraits  by  Aug. 
Bromino,  etc.  —  Primo  Salotto  (to  the  right):  Rubens,  "Infant  Christ  and 
John  the  Baptist;  Ouido  Reni,  Lucretia,  Cleopatra.  Titian,  "Madonna  with 
SS.  Catharine,  Dominic,  and  donors:  'charming  picture  (about  1520),  thrown 
out  of  focus  by  abrasion,  washing,  and  repainting;  but  still  pleasing  on 
account  of  the  grace  of  the  attitudes  and  the  beauty  of  the  landscape' 
(  Crowe  <t  Cavalcaselle).  Qatid.  Ferrari,  Holy  Family ;  Van  Dyck,  Madonna 
with  the  pomegranate  (della  Melagrana).  —  Secondo  Salotto:  Van  Dyck, 
Equestrian  portrait.  Portraits  of  a  gentleman  and  of  a  'Lady  of  the  Balbi 
family.  —  Tf.ezo  Salotto:  Caravaggio,  'Conversion  of  St.  Paul,  trivial  in 
conception,  but  masterly  in  execution;  Master  of  the  Death  of  the  Virgin, 
Holy  Family  and  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds;  Guido  Reni,  St.  Jerome.  — 
Qdarto  Salotto:  Gvercino,  Rescue  of  Andromeda;  Pcrin  del  Vaga,  Four 
figures  of  children ;  Jae.  Bassano,  Market.  —  Gallf.ria  :  Sandro  P.otticdli 
(not  Filippino  Lippi).  Communion  of  St.  Jerome  (perhaps  a  copy);  Titian 
(or  more  probably  i/an^  con  Calcar),  Portrait;  Coireggio  (;;),  Jiarriagc  of  St. 
Catharine  ;   Van  Dyck,  Holy  Family. 

On  the  right  side  of  the  street,  No.  5,  is  the  Palazzo  dell' 
University  (PI.  D,  3),  begun  as  a  Jesuit  college  by  Bart.  Bianco  in 
1623,  and  created  a  university  in  1812.  The  *Court  and  stair- 
case are  probably  the  finest  at  Genoa.  The  second  floor  contains  a 
library,  a  natural  history  museum,  and  an  aula  with  six  allegorical 
bronze  statues  and  reliefs  by  Giovanni  da  Bologna.  A  staircase 
leads  hence  to  the  high-lying  Botanical  Garden  of  the  University 
(PI.  D,  2;  ring  at  the  iron  gate).  Adjoining  the  upper  entrance,  in 
tlie  Corso  Dogali  (p.  941,  is  the  Botanic  Institute,  founded  in  1897 
by  Sir  Thomas  Ilanbury  (p.  107). 

On  the  right  is  San  Carlo,  with  sculptures  by  Algardi  (1650). 

Left,  No.  10,  Palazzo  Eeale  (PI.  C,  3),  erected  about  IGoO 
by  the  Lombard  architects  Fra7ic.  Cantone  and  Giov.  Ang.  Falcone 
for  the  Durazzo  family,   and  extended  in   1705  by  Carlo  Fontana 

90    lioule  7,9.  GENOA.         c.  Piazza  del  Prindpe. 

of  Rome.  It  was  purchased  by  the  royal  family  in  1817,  ami  restored 
in  1842.  The  palace  contains  handsome  staircases  and  balconies  (fine 
views),  and  is  sumptuously  furnished  (adm.,  see  p.  78).  The  pictures 
and  arvtiquities  are  of  no  great  value. 

We  pass  through  an  antc-chamliLr  to  the  handsome  gallery  with  rococo 
painting  and  a  few  ancient  and  modern  statues:  on  the  right,  Apollo  and 
Apollino,  on  the  left,  Mercury;  at  the  end,  Rape  of  Proserpine  by  Hchiuffino. 
In  the  throne-roon),  two  large  pictures  by  Luca  Giordano.  In  the  royal 
apartments:  An.  Carracci,  Sibyl;  Perin  del  Vaga,  Holy  Family;  Ouercitio, 
Sibyl;  Va«  Dyck,  Portrait  of  Marchesa  Durazzo  (spoiled).  —  Fine  view  of 
the  harbour  from  the  balcony. 

The  Via  Balbi  ends  at  the  Piazza  Acuuaverde  (PI.  C,  2),  the 
large  square  in  front  of  the  W.  railway-station,  the  terminus  of  the 
electric  tramway  along  the  Via  di  Circonvallazione  a  Monte,  and  a 
station  on  the  electric  line  to  the  Piazza  Deferrari  (comp.  p.  76; 
ISos.  2  &  6).  On  the  N.  side  of  the  Piazza,  embosomed  in  palm- 
trees,  rises  the  marble  Statue  of  Columbus  (erected  in  1862),  who 
was  born  at  Genoa,  probably  in  1451  (d.  in  1506  at  Valladolid).  At 
the  feet  of  the  statue,  which  leans  on  an  anchor,  kneels  the  figure 
of  America. 

To  the  W.  of  the  station  is  the  Piazza  dbl  Pb,incipb  (PI.  B,  2), 
which  commands  a  good  view  of  part  of  the  old  fortifications.  A 
large  Bronze  Mcnument,  40  ft.  high,  by  Giulio  Monteverde,  was 
erected  here  in  1896  in  honour  of  the  Duke  of  QalUera  (p.  80). 
It  represents  Liberality,  led  by  a  winged  genius  and  handing  to 
Mercury  treasures  from  her  cup.  On  the  pedestal  is  a  medallion  of 
the  duke.  —  No.  4  in  the  piazza  (W.  side)  is  the  long  — 

Palazzo  Doria  (PI.  A,  B,  2),  presented  in  1522  to  Andrea 
Doria,  'padre  della  patria'  (d.  1560,  at  the  age  of  92).  It  was  remod- 
elled in  1529  from  designs  by  Fra  Giov.  Ang.  Montorsoli,  and 
adorned  with  frescoes  and  grotesques  by  Perin  del  Vaga.  The  elder 
branch  of  the  Doria  family,  to  which  the  palace  belongs,  has  allied 
itself  with  the  Pamphili  family,  and  generally  resides  at  Rome. 

The  long  Latin  inscription  on  the  side  next  the  street  records  that 
Andrea  d''Oria,  admiral  of  the  Papal,  Imperial,  French,  and  native  fleets, 
in  order  to  close  his  eventful  career  in  honourable  repose ,  caused  the 
palace  to  be  rebuilt  for  himself  and  his  successors.  His  praises  were 
thus  sung  by  Ariosto:  'questo  e  quel  Uoria,  che  fa  dai  pirati  sicuro  il 
vostro  mar  per  tutti  i  lati'. 

To  the  right  in  the  court  is  a  large  arcaded  loggia,  to  the  left  a  taste- 
ful garden  and  a  fountain  by  the  Carlone  (1599-1601),  with  a  statue  of 
Andrea  Doria  as  Neptune.  —  The  last  door  on  the  right  admits  us  to  the 
apartments  with  Perin  del  Vagas  Frescoes  (restored  in  1845).  On  the  ceiling, 
vaulting,  and  lunettes  of  the  great  entrance-hall  are  scenes  from  Roman 
history,  below  which  are  reliefs  by  MoniorsoK;  on  the  staircase  are  taste- 
ful grotesques.  A  corridor  on  the  lirst  floor,  with  portraits  of  the  Doria 
family,  is  charmingly  decorated  with  stucco  and  painted  ornaments  in  the 
style  of  Raphael's  loggie  in  the  Vatican;  a  saloon  with  a  large  ceiling-paint- 
ing, Jupiter  overthrowing  the  Titans  (superb  chimney-piece);  and  a  side- 
room   with    a    ceiling- fresco    of  the  Carita  Romana. 

The  garden  on  the  hill  opposite,  beyond  the  railway- line,  with 
a  colossal  statue  of  Hercules  f'/i  Qigante.)  in  a  niche,  also  belongs 
to  the  estate. 

c.   Ltghlhouse.  GENOA.  IS.  Route.     91 

A  Cable  Tramway  (No.  3,  p.  76;  lower  statiiiu  near  the  upper  Doria 
garden,  2  niiii.  to  the  X.  of  tlie  Piazza  Principe,  eulr.  IVdm  tlie  Salita  San 
Kocco)  ascends  to  Granarolo  (775  ft.;  Ristorante  Concordia,  witb  garden), 
which  commands  a  tine  view  of  the  town  and  the  Rivifra  di  Levantu. 
From  Granarolo  to  Castelhiccio,  sec  p.  93. 

The  Via  Saii  Benedetto  and  the  Via  Milauo,  farther  on,  kad 
from  the  Palazzo  Doria  past  the  Sailors'  Rest  (p.  78j  and  the  large 
new  quays  (comp.  p.  80)  to  the  lighthouse.  About  halfway  we  reach 
the  Piazza  Dinegro  (omnibus,  p.  76),  No.  41  in  which  is  the  Palazzo 
RosAzzA  (adm.  1  fr.).  The  charming  gardens,  with  their  rare  plants 
and  pretty  fountains,  deserve  a  visit;  in  the  upper  part  is  a  Belvedere, 
commanding  a  *View  similar  to  that  from  the  lighthouse. 

On  the  Capo  del  Faro,  the  rocky  headland  separating  Genoa  from 
San  Pier  d'Arena  (p.  94),  near  which  the  new  coal-harbour  (p.  80) 
is  being  constructed,  rises  the  large  Lighthouse  (Lanterna;  230  ft.), 
with  its  dazzling  reflectors  showing  a  light  visible  for  nearly  30  miles. 
Visitors  may  go  by  the  pS.  Pier  d'Arena  tramway  (No.  13,  p.  77)  to 
the  tunnel.  The  tower  (353  steps)  may  be  ascended  and  the  ap- 
paratus inspected  (fee  1  fr,);  but  the  platform  at  its  foot  commands 
as  good  a  view.    Best  light  in  the  evening. 

The  "ViKw  embraces  the  town  and  extensive  harbour  of  Genoa,  with 
tlie  amphitheatre  of  mountains  behind;  to  the  E.  the  Riviera  di  Levante 
is  visible  as  far  as  the  picturesque  promontory  of  Portoflno;  to  the  W. 
arc  seen  the  coast-villages  on  the  Riviera  di  Pouente  from  San  Pier  d'Arena 
to  Savona,  the  headland  of  Noli,  and  the  Capo  delle  Mele,  while  in  the 
distance  are  the  usually  snow-capped  peaks  of  the  Lignriun  and  Mari- 
time Alps. 

d.    From  the  Piazza  Deferrari  to  the  Via  di  Circonvallazione  a 

Mare  vik  the  Piazza  Corvette,  Acquasola,  and  the  Corso  Andrea 


The  Via  Roma  (Pl.F,  5  ;  electric  tramways  Nos.  3  and  4,  p.  76), 
already  mentioned  at  p.  85,  is  another  important  focus  of  traffic. 
It  ascends  to  the  N.E.,  passing  (right)  the  Qalleria  Maazini  and 
cutting  off  a  corner  of  the  interesting  old  Palmzo  Spinoln  (now  the 
Prefettura),  to  the  Piazza  Corvetto  (PI.  F,  G,  5),  where  a  large 
bronze  equestrian  Statue  of  Victor  Emmanuel  II.  was  erected  in 
1886,  from  Barzaghi's  designs.  From  this  point  we  may  proceed  to 
the  left,  passing  a  marble  Statue  of  Mazzini  (p.  74),  to  the  — ■ 

*Villetta  Dinegro  (PI.  F,  4;  '240  ft.),  a  beautiful  public  park, 
with  pretty  cascades  and  an  unimportant  Zoological  Garden.  Wind- 
ing promenades  ascend  from  the  entrance  to  a  high  bastion  which 
affords  a  noble  survey  of  city,  harbour,  and  environs. 

The  direct  continuation  of  the  Via  Roma  is  the  Via  Assa- 
rotti,  leading  to  the  high-lying  Piazza  Manin  (p.  93).  —  From  the 
Piazza  Corvetto  we  ascend  to  the  right  to  the  park  of  Acquasola 
(PI.  G,  5,  6;  138  ft.),  laid  out  in  1837  on  part  of  the  old  ramparts 
(concerts,"see  p.  77).  —  From  the  S.  end  of  the  park  we  next  follow 
the  tramway  along  the  Coksq  Anijhba  Podksta  to  the  church  of  — 

92     nmit/:  18.  GENOA,     d.  .<?.  Maria  di  Carignano. 

Santo  Stefano  (Pi.  F,  G,  6),  situated  on  a  terrarve  near  the  Ponte 
Monumentaie  (see  below).  This  building  preserves  a  Romanesque 
tower  dating  from  the  original  church  on  this  site,  while  the  facade 
and  the  outer  columns  of  the  choir  date  from  a  Gothic  restoration  of 
the  14th  century.  The  cantoria  (choir-gallery)  on  the  entrance- 
wall  dates  from  1499.  Above  the  high- altar,  the  *  Stoning  of 
Stephen  by  Giulio  Romano,  one  of  his  best  works  (1523;  covered). 

We  now  cross  the  viaduct  (Ponte  Monumentaie)  above  the  Via 
Venti  Settembre  (p.  85)  and  enter  the  S.  part  of  the  Corso  Andrea 
Podesta  (PI.  F,  7;  fine  views).  From  the  Piazza  Galcazzo  Alessi 
(Pi.  F,  8)  we  follow  the  Via  Galeazzo  Alessi  to  the  W.  to  the 
(iliurch  of  — 

*Santa  Maria  di  Carignano  (PI.  E,  8;  174  ft.  above  the  sea), 
begun  by  Galeazzo  Ale&si  in  1552,  but  not  completed  till  1603.  It  is 
a  smaller  edition  of  the  plan  adopted  by  Michael  Angelo  and  Bra- 
maiite  for  St.  Peter's  at  Rome.  Here,  however,  a  square  ground- 
plan  takes  the  place  of  the  Greek  cross  of  St,  Peter's,  and  small 
lanterns  represent  the  minor  domes.  Principal  portal,  18th  century. 

Interior.  Second  altar  to  the  right,  Maraita,  SS.  Blasius  and  Sebastian; 
4th  altar,  Franc.  Vanni,  Communion  of  Mary  Magdalen;  1st  altar  to  the 
left,  Guercino,  St.  Francis ;  3rd  altar,  Lnca  Cambiaso,  'Entombment. 
Baroque  statues  below  the  dome  by  Pierre  Pugel  (St.  Sebastian  and  the 
beatified  Alessandro  Sauli),  Parodi  (John  the  Baptist),  and  David  (St,  Bar- 

The  "View  from  the  highest  gallery  of  the  dome  (370  ft.  above  the  sea; 
119  steps  to  the  first  gallery,  thence  tf>  the  top  130;  easy  and  well  lighted 
staircase)  embraces  the  city,  harbour,  and  fortifications,  the  well-peopled 
coast  (coaip.  p.  91),  and  on  the  S.  the  vast,  ever-varying  expanse  of  the 
Mediterranean.  (Sacristan  25  c.;  his  attendance  for  the  ascent  unnecessary; 
best  light  in  the  morning.) 

The  Via  Fieschi  leads  from  the  N.E.  side  of  the  church  to  the 
Via  Venti  Settembre  (p.  85);  from  the  N.W.  side  the  Ponte  Carig- 
nano (1718),  spanning  a  street  100  ft.  below,  leads  to  the  Piazza 
Sarzano  (PI.  D,  7)  and  the  harbour  (p.  80).  —  In  the  opposite 
direction  the  Via  Nino  Bixio  leads  to  the  Piazza  Bixio  (PI.  F,  8), 
among  the  gardens  of  which  rises  a  large  bronze  statue  of  General 
Nino  Bixio  (1821-73),  by  Pazzi  (1890). 

The  broad  Via  Corsica  (PI.  F,  E,  8,  9),  the  prolongation  of  the 
Corso  Andrea  Podesta,  descends  from  the  Piazza  Bixio  towards  the 
S.W.  to  the  — 

*Via  di  Circouvallazione  a  Mare,  a  fine  street,  laid  out  in  1893- 
95  on  the  site  of  the  outer  ramparts,  traversed  by  a  tramway  (No.  11, 
p.  77),  and  commanding  beautiful  views.  It  begins,  as  the  Via 
Odone,  at  the  Piazza  Cavour  (PL  D,  6;  p.  81)  and  passes  the  docks 
mentioned  at  p.  81 ;  then,  under  the  name  of  Corso  Aurelio  Saffi 
(PI.  E-H,  9,  10),  it  ascends  gradually,  skirts  the  sea  beneath  the 
hill  crowned  by  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  di  Carignano  (see  above), 
and  finally  ascends  the  right  bank  of  the  Bisagno  to  the  Ponte  Pila 
(PI.  H,  I,  7;  p.  85),  whence  it  is  continued  by  the  Via  Canevari, 
leading  to  the  Campo  Santo  (p.  94). 

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e.  Circonvallnzione  a  Monte.     GENOA.  18.  Route.     93 

The  EoAD  TO  Nkkvi  (Irauiway  Xo.  8,  p.  77;  tarriage-tariff,  see  p.  76), 
the  E.  continuation  of  the  Via  Venti  Settembre  (p.  85),  runs  due  E.  beyond 
the  Piazza  Tommaseo  (PI.  K,  8)  via  the  CoUina  (fAlharo.  In  San  Francesco 
(VAlbaro,  at  the  top  of  the  ridge,  are  the  house  occupied  by  Lord  Byron 
in  1822-23  (Via  Albaro  10),  the  Palazzo  del  Paradiso  (16th  cent.),  the  Villa 
Oambiaso  (1557),  and  other  fine  country-houses.  We  then  descend  to  Sim-la 
(23  ft.  ;  p.  107),  where  the  route  approaches  the  sea,  and  skirt  the  coast, 
with  continuous  line  views  of  both  Rivicras  (p.  73),  to  the  station  of  Quarto 
(p.  107).  A  small  monument  near  the  station  marks  the  point  of  embark- 
atioti  of  1000  Gariiialdians  for  Marsala  in  1860.  Thence  via  Quinto  to 
Xerri  (p.  107). 

e.  From  the  Piazza  Corvetto  to  the  Piazza  Manin.  Via  di  Cir- 
convallazione  a  Monte.    Castellaccio.    Campo  Santo. 

The  Via  Assarotti  (p.  91)  ascends  from  the.  Piazza  Corvetto  to  the 
N.E.,  passing  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  Immacolata  (^Pl.  G,  4;  1856- 
73),  to  the  Piazza Makin  (PI.  I,  4;  330  ft.  above  the  sea).  On  the  W. 
side  of  this  piazza  begins  the  Via  di  Circonvallazione  a  Monte,  a 
magnificent  route  laid  out  since  18T6  on  the  hills  at  the  back  of 
the  town  (tramway  No.  2,  see  p.  76).  It  skirts  the  hillside  to  the 
W.  in  long  windings,  under  various  names  (Corso  Principe  Amedeo, 
Corso  Solferino,  Corto  Magenta,  Corso  Paganini),  and  leads  to  the 
Spiunata  Castelletto  (PI.  E,  3),  commanding  one  of  the  finest  views 
of  Genoa.  Here  it  takes  the  name  of  Corso  Firenze  and  runs  to  the 
N.  to  the  church  and  cable-car  station  (No.  1 ;  p.  77)  of  San  Nicolb 
(PI.  E,  1).  It  then  sweeps  round  above  the  poor-house  (see  below) 
and  the  charmingly  situated  Castello  de  Albertis  (PI.  C,  1),  1),  a  villa 
in  the  style  of  a  medieval  castle,  to  the  Corso  JJgo  Bassi,  whence  it 
winds  down  under  various  names  to  the  Piazza  Acquaverde  (p.  90). 
The  tramway  avoids  some  of  the  curves  by  a  tunnel. 

From  the  Piazza  della  Zecca  (PI.  D,  3 ;  p.  88)  the  cable-tram- 
way mentioned  at  p.  77  ascends  through  a  tunnel  in  7  min.  to 
S.  Nicolh  (see  above;  change  of  carriage)  and  thence  in  7  min.  more 
through  orchards  to  the  loftily-situatt  d  *Castellaccio.  The  site  of 
the  upper  terminus  of  the  line  (ca.  1020  ft. ;  Caffe-Eisiorante  Bere- 
gardo,  d4j.  21/2)  I^- 4  fr.,  well  spoken  of)  commands  a  beautiful 
view  of  the  valley  of  the  Bisagno  and  the  Campo  Santo.  A  little 
higher  up  is  the  '^Hotel-Restaurant  Righi  (1070  ft.;  dej.  S^/o)  ^■ 
5  fr.),  with  a  magnificent  view  of  Genoa  and  the  coast  from  Savona 
to  the  promontory  of  Portoflno.  A  more  extensive  view  is  obtained 
immediately  above  the  old  Forle  Castellaccio  (1252  ft.) ,  10  min. 
farther  up.  —  In  winter  the  N.  wind  is  often  very  cold  on  this  ex- 

Pedestrians  may  eitLer  take  the  steep  paved  path,  beginning  at  the 
Trattoria  dei  Cacciatori ,  a  little  to  the  W.  of  the  Hotel  Eighi ,  which 
descends  in  20  min.  to  the  church  of  San  Nicolb  (see  above),  or  follow  the 
stony  ridge  to  the  W.  of  the  fort  to  (ca.  IV2  hr.)  Oranarolo  (p.  91). 

The  older  line  of  roads,  diverging  to  the  left  at  the  Spianata  Castel- 
letto (see  above),  is  known  as  the  Via  di  Circonvallazione  a  Monte  Inferiore. 
The  first  part  of  it,  named  the  Corso  Carbonara,  leads  to  the  Albergo  dei 
Poveri   or  poor-house   (PI.  D,  E,  1,  2;  318  ft.    above   the  sea),   which  hai 

94     Route  /6\  GENOA.  e.  f'ampo  Santo. 

room  lor  1300  persons.  It  then  takes  the  uame  of  Corso  Udgali  and  re- 
joins the  main  thoroughfare  at  the  Castello  do  Albertis,  adjoining  the  up- 
per entrance  to  the  Botanic  Garden  (p.  89). 

The  Campo  Santo  or  Cimilero  di  Staglieno  (open  daily  9-6,  in 
winter  10-5;  tramway  No.  6,  p.  76)  is  readied  from  the  Piazza  Mauin 
(p.  93)  by  the  Via  Montaldo,  which  leaves  the  city  by  the  Porta 
San  Bartolomeo  (PI.  I,  3,  4)  and  then  descends  (views)  to  the  N. 
into  the  Valley  of  the  Bisagno  and  to  Staglieno  (p.  361).  About 
1/2  M.  farther  on  (IV2  ^-  'i'"™  t^^  town)  is  the  entrance  to  the 
cemetery,  which  was  laid  out  by  Resasco  in  1844-51  and  stretches 
up  the  slope  on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Bisagno.  We  first  enter  a  large 
rectangular  space,  with  sumptuous  single  monuments  in  the  recesses 
of  the  arcades,  and  beyond  that  is  an  oval  space,  with  rows  of 
monuments  in  the  recesses.  Flights  of  steps  and  broad  inclined 
planes  lead  up  to  the  upper  galleries,  the  central  point  of  which  is  a 
rotunda,  with  a  dome  borne  by  monolithic  columns  of  black  marble. 
Above  the  rotunda,  to  the  N.E.,  close  to  the  steep  hillside,  is  the 
tomb  of  Giuseppe  Mazzini  (d.  1872).  —  In  returning,  we  may  use 
the  tramway  line  (No.  7)  along  the  Via  di  Circonrallazione  a  Mare 
(p.  92). 

By  road  from  Genoa  t"  Piacema,  comp.  p.  360. 

19.  From  Genoa  to  Ventimiglia.  Riviera  di  Ponente. 

94  M.  Railway  in  41/2-7  hrs.  (fares  17  fr.  55,  12  fr.  30,  7  fr.  90  c.  ;  ex- 
press  19  fr.  80,  13  fr.  50  c.).  The  'train  de  luxe'  from  Vienna  to  Cannes 
(p.  23)  performs  the  journey  in  about  41/4  hrs.  (1st  class  fare  26  fr.  10  c). 
In  winter  a  dining-car  (dej.  S'/z,  D-  4V2  fr.)  is  attached  to  the  first  ex- 
press from  Genoa  and  the  afternoon  express  from  Ventimiglia.  —  This  tour 
by  road  (103  JI.),  thougli  very  fatiguing,  is  recommended  to  Cyclists.  — 
Electric  Tramway  (No.  13)  to  Voltri,  see  p.  77. 

In  calm  weather  the  Steamboat  Jocknet  is  far  preferable  to  the  rail- 
way. Steamers  of  the  Hamburg-Amerika  Line  ply  every  Men.,  Wed.,  & 
Frid.,  from  Jan.  10th  to  May  12th  from  Genoa  to  San  Remo  (4^/4  hrs. ; 
fare  18  fr.  90,  return  30  fr.  80  c),  Monaco,  and  Nice;  returning  every  Tues., 
Thurs.,  <fe  .Sat.  (restaurant  on  board).  The  boats  start  from  the  Ponte 
Federico  Guglielmo  (p.  75). 

The  remarks  at  p.  73  on  the  luxuriant  flora  apply  especially  to 
the  Riviera  di  Ponente.  The  railway  penetrates  the  numerous  pro- 
montories by  tunnels. 

2  M.  San  Pier  d' Arena  or  Sampierdarena,  situated  on  the  coast 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Polcevera  (p.  53),  has  15,100  inhab.  and  num- 
erous palaces,  including  the  Pal.  Scassi,  formerly  Imperiali,  and  the 
Pal.  Spinola,  both  probably  by  Gal.  Alessi.  Large  sugar-refinery 
and  steel- works,  etc.  Fine  view  from  the  pilgrimage-church  near 
the  Forte  Belvedere  (420  ft.;  inn),  IV4  M.  to  the  N.E. 

21/2  M.  Cornigliano  Ligure  (Grand  Hotel  Villa  Rachel),  an  in- 
dustrial town  with  numerous  villas  (Villa  Raggio,  finely  situated  on 
the  coast). 

PEGLI.  in.  Route.     95 

4Va  M.  Sestri-Fonente  ( Albergo-Ristoronte  delta  Orotta),  with 
17,200  inhab.,  has  a  number  of  manufactories  and  ship-yards. 

6  M.  Fegli.  —  Hotels.  'Gkand  Uotkl  MauiTEKitANftE,  in  the  Palazzo 
Lomellini,  with  hydropathic  and  electro-therapeutic  arrangements,  lift, 
steam-heating,  and  large  and  tine  garden,  R.  3-7,  B.  I'/z,  dej.  31/2,  1>-  5, 
pens.  9-14  tr.,  sea-bath  (50c:  Gargini's  Gk.  Hotel  Pegli  (English  landlady), 
R.  from  4,  B.  I'/v,  d^j.  3'/2,  D-  472,  pens,  from  S  fr.,  these  two  on  the  coast. 
—  Hotel  de  la  Ville,  opposite  the  station,  R.  2-5,  B.  IV2,  d<5j.  3,  D.  4'/2, 
pens.,  incl.  wine,  from  7fr. ;  Pens.  Beahkegabd,  Passesgiata  dei  Villini; 
Hotel- Pension  Foubes,  Villini  Umbf-rto  Primo  18,  pens,  from  7  fr.  — 
Sanatorium.  Ktirhaiis  Pegli  (Ur.  Gmelin),  with  park.  —  Restaurants.  Euto- 
irinfe  dei  Bagni  (rooms);  Caff^  MHano,  liistorante  Andrea  Doria  (rooms), 
both  unpretending  but  good.  —  Physicians,  see  under  Genoa,  p.  78;  also 
Dr.  Heusser  and  Dr.  Gmelin.  —  English  Church  (St.  John),  with  services  from 
Xov.  to  April.  —  Electric  Tramway  to  Genoa  and  Voltri,  No.  13,  p.  77. 

Pegli  (20  ft.),  with  6100  inhab.,  ship-hnilding  yards,  and  an 
old  castle  (Castellazzo),  a  much  visited  summer  sea-bathing  place, 
is  cooler  and  molster  than  the  W.  wintering-places  on  the  Riviera 
and  is  itself  visited  as  a  winter-station  by  nervous  sufferers. 

Numerous  beautiful  walks  in  the  wooded  valleys  and  on  the 
hill-slopes  lend  a  peculiar  charm  to  Pegli,  as  compared  with  places 
on  the  Riviera  better  protected  by  the  mountains  but  more  hemmed 
in.  The  Passeyginta  dei  Villi7ii,  in  the  grounds  of  the  former  Yilla 
Elena,  may  be  specially  mentioned  (line  views).  Among  the  villas 
are  the  Villa  Rostan  (15th  cent.),  witli  grounds  in  the  English 
style,  the  Villa  Rapallo  (adm.  1-2  fr.),  and  the  Villa  Doria  (permesso 
in  the  Pal.  Doria  in  Genoa).    The  chief  attraction  is,  however,  the  — 

*ViUa  Pallavicini  (open  on  week-days  10-3.  on  Sun.  &  holidays 
9-2;  closed  on  Frid.,  Maundy  Thursday,  Easter  Sunday,  Whitsunday, 
All  Saints  Day,  and  Christmas  Day),  now  the  property  of  the  Marquis 
de  Campotejar  of  Granada.  The  entrance  is  immediately  to  the  left 
of  the  exit  from  the  station ;  permessi  are  obtained  at  the  stew- 
ards  office,  where  visitors  write  their  names  in  a  book  and  receive 
a  guide  (fee  1  fr.).    The  visit  takes  about  i^/^hr. 

The  grounds  extending  along  the  slopes  of  the  coast  display  a  profusion 
of  luxuriant  vegetation  and  afi'ord  delightful  prospect?  of  Genoa,  the  sea,  the 
coast,  and  the  mountains.  On  the  highest  point  (to  which  visitors  should 
insist  upon  proceeding)  stands  a  castle  in  the  mediajvai  style  with  a  tower 
(view).  Around  it  are  indications  of  a  simulated  siege.  Farther  on  is 
a  stalactite  grotto  with  a  subterranean  piece  ol'  water;  under  the  bridge 
a  striking  glimpse  of  the  lighthouse  of  Genoa  and  the  sea.  There  are 
also  summer-houses  in  the  Pompeian,  Turkish,  and  Chinese  styles,  an 
obelisk,  fountains,  surprize  water-works,  etc.  The  gardens  contain  line 
examples  of  the  vanilla,  cinnamon,  and  camphor  plants,  sugar-canes, 
palms,  cedars,  magnolias,  and  azaleas. 

7  M.  Pra,  a  ship  -  building  place;  81/2  M.  Voltri,  a  town  with 
13,000  inhab.,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cerusa,  with  paper-factories,  a 
marine  hospital,  and  the  Villa  Oalliera. 

13  M.  Arenzano  (Grand  Hotel,  closed  in  winter;  Hot.  Genova, 
R.  from  11/2,  pens,  from  7fr. ;  Albergo  Roma),  a  small  summer- 
resort  with  a  good  shore  for  bathing.,  an  old  castle,  and  the  flne  park 
of  the  Villa  Pallavicini;  beautiful  retrospect  towards  Genoa. 

96     Rante  19.  SAVONA.  From  Genoa 

151/2  M.  Cogoleto,  erroueovisly  described  as  the  birthplace  of 
Columbus  (p.  90).  —  191/2  M.  Varazze  (Hot.  Genova,  R.  2  fr.,  Hot. 
Torretti,  both  very  fair),  with  6700  iiihab.,  is  a  busy  ship-building 
place,  prettily  situated  among  orange  gardens,  and  is  visited  as  a 
■wintering-place  and  bathing-resort.  —  li^/^M.  Celle  Ligure,  the 
birthplace  of  Pope  Sixtus  IV.  (Francesco  della  Rovere).  —  24  M. 
Albissdla,  the  Roman  Alba  Bocilia,  situated  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Sansobbia,  includes  three  villages.  Pottery  is  largely  manufactured 
in  Albissola  Marina.  The  handsome  Palazzo  della  Rovere  (now  Pal. 
Gavotti ),  in  Albissola  Superiore,  was  the  birthplace  of  Popes  Julius  II. 
(Giuliano  della  Rovere). 

261/.2  M.  Savona.  —  Hotels.  Hotel  Moderne  du  Commbkce,  near 
the  station,  K.  S'/s-S  fr. ;  Albergo  Roma,  R.  2V2,  omn.  1/2  fr.,  Alb.-Ristor. 
SvizzERO,  R.  li/2fr.,  both  well  .'^poken  nf :  Alb.  Nlovo  Torino,  at  the  station. 
—  Hail.  Restmirant.  —  Cabs.  Per  drive  80  c,  per  hour  l'/2  fr  ,  special  tariff 
fur  longer  excursions.  —  Omnibuses,  To  Albissola  Superiore,  35  c. ;  to  Vadu, 
every  20  niin.,  30  c. ;  to  Spotorno,  twice  daily,  50  c. ;  etc.  —  Sea  Baths  at  the 
St'ihilimento  Wanda.  —  British  Vice-Consul,  Ottavio  Ponzone. —  Church  Secnnen"! 
Institute  for  British  sailcjrs  (services  on  Sun.  and  Tues.,  concert  on  Wed.). 

Savona  (33  ft.),  the  Savo  of  the  Romans,  on  the  Letimbro,  was 
occupied  in  the  second  Punic  War  by  Hannibal's  brother  Mago, 
and  during  the  middle  ages  waged  an  unsuccessful  rivalry  with 
Genoa.  It  is  now  the  seat  of  a  bishop  and  one  of  the  most  impor- 
tant sea-ports  and  industrial  towns  (24,900  inhab.)  of  Italy.  Soap 
(sapone)  is  said  to  have  been  invented  here  and  to  have  derived 
its  name  from  this  town. 

At  the  Harbour,  to  the  N.E.  of  the  station,  rises  the  ancient 
Torre  Pancaldo,  called  after  the  navigator  of  that  name ;  and  on 
the  adjoining  point  is  a  Genoese  fort  (now  a  prison),  incorporating 
some  remains  of  the  old  cathedral,  destroyed  in  1542.  The  new 
Cathedral  (of  1604)  contains  a  picture  by  Lod.  Brea,  a  marble  cross 
by  G.  A.  Molinari  (1499),  and  a  Renaissance  pulpit  by  Moliuari 
and  Ant.  Aprile  (1522).  Opposite  is  the  Ateneo  (unfinished),  built 
for  Julius  II.  by  Giul.  da  Sangallo.  The  handsome  theatre,  erected 
In  1853,  is  dedicated  to  the  poet  Chiabrera  (1552-1637),  a  native  of 
the  place.  The  oratory  of  Santa  Maria  di  Castello  has  a  large  altar- 
piece  by  Vine.  Foppa  and  Lod.  Brea,  with  a  portrait  of  the  donor, 
Giuliano  della  Rovere  (1490;  injured).  There  is  a  small  picture- 
gallery  in  the  Ospedale  Civico  (open  on  Sun.  &  Thurs.,  10-4). 

To  the  S.W.  of  the  station  extend  a  large  Industrial  Quarter, 
with  iron-works,  steel-works,  potteries,  etc.,  and  the  pretty  Qiar- 
dino  Pubblico. 

The  church  of  the  Madonna  degli  Angeli,  near  the  artillery-barracks, 
to  the  K.  above  the  harbour,  commands  a  "View  of  the  Gulf  of  Genoa  as 
far  as  Camogli.  —  Santuario,  see  p.  51. 

From  Savona  to  Turin,  see  pp.  51-49;  to  Alessandria,  see  p.  53. 

The  railway  now  traverses  large  lemon  and  orange  gardens.  — 
30  M.  Vado,  the  Vada  Sabatia  of  the  Romans  (fine  view  from  the 
lighthouse  1 Y4  M.  to  the  S.E.).  —  31 1/2  M.  Bergeggi.  From  the  road 

to  Vmlhniij  ia.  AI-I$ENGA.  I'J.  lioute.     97 

to  (12  M.)  Spotorno  we  obtain  a  fine  ^Retrospect  of  tlio  Riviera  as  far 
as  Genoa.  Opposite  lies  the  rocky  islet  of  Bergeggi  (210  ft.),  with  a 
ruined  Koman  tower ;  it  was  once  the  seat  of  a  celebrated  monastery. 
—  34  M.  Spotorno  (Alb.  della  Pace),  with  an  excellent  bathing  beach. 

36  M.  Noli  (^Ristorante  d' Italia,  R.  2fr.,  Ristor.  Almagen,  with 
bedrooms,  both  well  spoken  of),  a  little  fishing  town,  charmingly 
ensconced  in  a  sheltered  situation,  once  a  free  town  under  the  pro- 
tection of  Genoa,  has  several  ancient  towers,  the  remains  of  the 
town-walls,  and  a  good  beach.  The  small  Romanesque  basilica  of 
San  Paragonio,  near  the  station,  dates  from  the  loth  century.  — 
Beautiful  *Vicw  from  the  Capo  di  Noli,  3  M.  to  the  S.,  on  which 
are  a  signal-station  (Semaforo)  and  the  Romanesque  church  of  Santa 
Margherita,  finely  situated  on  the  edge  of  the  cliff. 

The  picturesque  road  from  Noli  via  Varigotti  (see  below)  to  (S'/s  M.) 
Finale  Marina  intersects  the  limestone  cliCTs  of  the  Capo  di  Noli  by  means 
of  a  tunnel,  130  yds.  in  Icnglh  (near  the  cave  of  Garbasso,  inhabited  in 
the  middle  ages,  and  some  quarries). 

381/.)  M.  Varigotti  (inn);  path  to  the  Semaforo  (I'^hr.),  see  above. 

41  M.  Finale  Marina  (Albergo  Oaribnldi,  R.  2  fr.,  very  fair;  Alb. 
del  Qi'irdino)  is  a  prettily  situated  little  town,  with  large  orange- 
gardens  aTid  two  sea-bathing  establishments.  The  elaborate  bar- 
oque Church  is  by  Bernini.  The  old  Castle,  above  the  Villa  De  Ray- 
mondi,  is  now  a  prison.  To  the  N.,  above  Finale  Pia,  lies  the  village 
of  Verzi,  with  a  Roman  bridge.  To  the  W.,  beyond  the  mouth  of 
the  Porra,  is  the  precipitous  promontory  of  Caprazoppa,  which  the 
road  pierces  by  a  tunnel;  and  farther  on  are  sand-dunes  and  large 
limestone  quarries. 

43  m.  Borijo  Verezzi  (Pons.  Villa  des  Caroubiers,  41/2-6  fr., 
well  spoken  of).  —  45^/2  M.  Pietra  Ligure  has  an  interesting  church 
and  a  ruined  castle  on  an  isolated  rock. 

47  M.  Loano  (Hot.  Bellevue).  To  the  right  of  the  line  is  the 
suppressed  monastery  of  Monte  Carmelo,  erected  by  the  Dorias  in 
1609.  —  48  M.  Borghetto  Santo  Spirito  is  the  station  for  the  village 
of  Toirano  (omn.  4  times  daily),  2  M.  to  the  W.,  with  the  pilgrim- 
age-chapel of  Santa  Lucia  (fine  stalactite  caverns  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood). —  Beyond  (49  M.)  Ceriale ,  with  its  market -gardens, 
the  mountaiT'.s  recede. 

52  M.  Albenga  {Rail.  Restaurant;  Albergo  Vittorio,  d' Italia, 
both  Italian,  and  others;  omn.  to  Alassio,  see  p.  98),  the  Albin- 
gaunum  of  the  Romans,  in  a  wide  plain  on  the  Cenia,  is  the  quaint- 
est old  town  in  the  Riviera  (4300  inhab.)  and  an  episcopal  see. 
The  old  harbour  has  disappeared  with  the  recession  of  the  coast- 
line. The  old  Tcicn  Walls  are  preserved,  besides  numerous  Brick 
Towers  of  chateaux  of  the  old  noblesse,  including  the  leaning  Torre 
dei  Griffi  and  the  tower  of  the  present  Sottoprefettur>i,  connected 
by  an  arch  with  the  campanile  (138  ft.  high)  of  the  Gothic  Cathe- 
dral. Behind  the  last  is  an  early-Christian  Buplistery  (5th  cent.). 
Other  interesting  structures  are  the  early  Romanesque  chapel  of 

Bakdkker.   Italy  I.   13iL  Kdit.  7 

98     Route  19.  ALASSIO.  Froin  Genoa 

Santa  Maria  in  FonUbus  (10th  cent.)  aiul  a  Uoman  bridge  (Ponte 
Lungo;  150  yds.  long),  beneath  with  the  Centa  formerly  flowed,  in 
the  avenue  1/4  M.  to  the  N.  of  the  town.  Near  the  present  mouth  of 
the  river,  I1/2  M.  from  the  station,  we  obtain  a  beautiful  view  of 
Albenga,  the  coast  as  far  as  the  Capo  di  Noli,  the  island  of  Gallinaria, 
and  the  Ligurian  Alps.  —  From  Albenga  to  Oaressio,  see  p.  50. 

To  the  left  lies  the  rocky  island  of  Gallinaria  (295  ft.),  with 
picturesque  cliffs,  two  caves  on  the  shore,  and  an  old  Benedictine 
abbey  (13th  cent. ;  now  a  private  house).  —  The  train  skirts  the 
promontory  of  Santa  Croce  (see  below). 

56'/2  M.  Alassio.  —  Hotels.  'Gband  Hotel  d'Alassio,  with  lift  and 
stcam-hi^atlng,  R.  3V2-5,  B.  i'^,  d^j.  3,  D.  41/2,  pens.  9-12  fr.  (L.  extra), 
omn.  1  fr.  ;  Salisbury  Hotel,  high  up,  patronized  by  the  English,  pens. 
9-12  fr.  (these  two  of  the  first  class,  with  liarden);  IIot.-Pkns.  Bellevue, 
in  an  open  situation,  B.  I'/ii  dej.  .31/2,  D.  41/2  fr.,  incl.  wine,  board  7fr.; 
Norfolk  Hotel,  B.  11/2,  doj.  3,  D.  41/2,  pens.  8-12  fr. ;  Terminus  Hotel 
Concordia,  very  fair;  Hot.  Suisse,  R.  '.^72-3)  B.  l^/t,  D.  3V2,  pens.  7-8  fr., 
well  spoken  of;  Hot.-Pbns.  Victoria,  on  the  sea,  an  Eiigli.^h  family  hotel, 
R.  from  21/2,  B.  IV4,  dcj.  2i/),  1).  3'/2,  incl.  wine,  pens,  from  7  fr.,  weJlspoken 
of;  Hotel  Milan,  on  the  .sea,  R.  from  2,  B.  1,  dej.  21/2,  D.  4,  pens,  from 
6  fr. ;  Hot.  de  la  Mediterkanee,  on  the  sea,  with  garden,  pens.  6-7  fr. ;  Hot. 
Savoia,  with  steam-heating  and  garden,  R.  from  2,  E.  i,  dej.  2,  1».  3,  pens. 
5-6  fr. ;  Alb.  del  Commercio;  Alb.  Nazionale,  unpretending.  —  Pension 
Villa  Ldigia,  5-71/2  fr.,  very  fair.  —  Banker,  House  Agent,  etc.,  Walter 
Congreve.  —  Bookseller,  Librairie  Internationale.  —  Carriage  with  one 
horse  to  the  Capo  Santa  Croce  3,  with  two  horses  5  fr. ;  to  Solva  or  Moglio 
4  and  6  fr. :  to  the  Capo  delle  Mele  6  and  7  fr.  —  Omnibus  twice  daily  to 
Albenga  (30  c).  —  Boat  to  Gallinaria  8  fr.  —  English  Clnirch  (St.  John's), 
services  at  10.30  &  3  or  5 ;   chaplain,   Uev.  F.  W.  Sutton,  Casa  San  Giorgio. 

Alassio  (16  ft.),  a  fishing  port  with  4200  inhab.,  situated  on  a 
semi-circular  bay  opening  to  the  S.E.,  has  a  fine  sandy  beach  ex- 
tending as  far  as  Laigueglia.  It  is  frequented  in  summer  as  a  bathing- 
place,  and  in  winter  as  a  health-resort,  especially  by  English  visi- 
tors. Beside  the  station  is  Hanhury  Hall,  with  concert  and  reading 
rooms;  below  are  tlie  public-park  and  a  short  esplanade,  with  an 
ancient  tower  and  a  view  of  Gallinaria  and  Laigueglia. 

ExoDiisioNs  (photographing  on  the  mountains  forbidden).  To  the  N.E. 
to  the  (3/4  hr.)  Capo  Santa  Croce,  with  tlie  remains  of  a  Roman  road  .ind 
the  picturesque  ruins  of  the  Arco  Santa  Croce  (evening  light  best).  —  To 
the  top  of  the  (2  hr.=i.)  '-Mont-;  Puciavino  (1960  ft.;  wide  view),  either  hy  the 
road  to  the  N.  via  Solva,  or  by  the  mule-path  to  the  N.W.,  leading  through 
groves  of  olives  and  carob-tree-',  to  Vegliasco  (1280  ft.).  The  descent  may 
be  made  via  the  Monte  Bignone  (1705  I't.)  to  Albenga  (p.  97).  —  Via  Vegliasco, 
<ir  to  the  W.  via  Moglio,  to  the  top  of  the  Monte  Timsso  (1920  ft.),  on 
which  is  the  pilgrimage-cliapel  of  AJadonna  delta  Guardia. 

58  M.  Laigueglia,  with  narrow  streets,  was  bombarded  by  the 
British  fleet  in  1812.  —  The  train  penetrates  the  CWpo  Mele  (240  ft.; 
lighthouse,  signal- station,  and  pilgrimage-chapel)  by  means  of  a 
long  tunnel,  while  the  road  describes  a  wide  curve.  —  60  M.  An- 
dora,  a  group  of  villages  in  the  fertile  vale  of  the  Merula  (sulphur- 
springs;  11/2  M-  inland  a  large  ruined  castle).  —  681/2  M.  Cervo 
(223  ft.),  picturesquely  situated  on  the  right.  —  65  M.  Diano  Marina 
(Hot.  Paradis,  with  sea-baths,  pens.  8-9  fr.),  in  a  fertile  plain,  was 

to  Ventimiylia.  SAN  UKMO.  /!'.  Route.     99 

tho  central  point  of  the  great  earthquake  of  February,  1887,  but  has 
since  then  been  largely  rebuilt  (2000  inhab.).  To  the  right,  inland, 
is  Diano  Castello.  —  The  train  passes  by  a  tunnel  under  the  Capo 
Berta  (880  ft.),  on  which  stands  a  ruined  tower.  In  clear  weather 
the  view  from  the  cape  (8/4  hr.'s  walk  from  Oneglia)  extends  east- 
wards to  the  Riviera  di  Levante. 

681/2  M.  Oneglia  (^Rail.  Restaurant ;  Orand-Hotel  Oneglia,  pens. 
6-8  fr.;  Hot.  Victoria;  Alb.  del  Vapore;  Hotel  Suisse;  omnibus  to 
Porto  Maurizio,  20  c),  with  8300  inhab.  and  a  shallow  harbour, 
carries  on  a  busy  trade  in  olive-oil.  Near  the  station  is  a  cellular 
prison.  Oneglia  was  the  birth-place  of  Andrea  Doria  (p.  79)  and 
of  Edmoiido  do  Amicis  (1846),  the  writer.  From  1298  to  1576  it 
was  in  the  possession  of  the  Genoese  family  of  the  Dorias;  after- 
wards in  that  of  the  dukes  of  Savoy.  To  the  N.  appear  the  snow- 
clad  peaks  of  the  Ligurian  Alps. 

From  Oneglia  to  Ormea,  via  the   Col  di  Nava,  see  p.  50. 

The  train  crosses  the  broad  and  stony  bed  of  the  Impero.  —  70  M. 
Porto  Maurizio  (Hotel  de  France,  at  the  station ;  Commercio,  in  the 
town),  ^vith  6800  inhab.  and  a  small  harbour,  is  most  picturesquely 
situated  on  a  promontory.  Olive-oil  is  the  staple  commodity.  Porto 
Maurizio  has  a  fine  domed  church  by  Simone  Cantoni  (1799)  and  a 
charming  Giardino  Pubblico. 

The  scenery  now  becomes  less  picturesque.  —  73  M.  San 
Lorenzo  al  Mare;  77'/2  M-  Santo  Stefano-Riva  Ligure. —  The  train 
crosses  the  Argentina  or  Fiumara  di  Taggia ,  beyond  which  is 
(791/2  M.)  Taggia,  which  is  the  station  also  for  the  fishing-village 
of  Arma.  A  road  leads  from  Arma  to  (3  M.)  Bussana  Vecchia, 
romantically  perched  on  a  hill  (670  ft.).  The  ruins  of  this  village, 
which  was  completely  destroyed  by  the  earthquake  of  1887,  are 
worth  visiting  (key  of  the  ruined  church  at  Bussana  Nuova,  l^/gM. 
lower  down). 

The  picturesque  little  town  of  Taggia  (Alb.  d' Italia;  omii.  from  San 
Remo,  p.  101)  lies  2  M.  up  the  valley  of  the  river.  Giov.  Dom.  Ruffini 
(1807-81),  poet  and  patriot,  lived  here  from  1875  till  his  death.  The  town 
contains  several  old  patrician  mansions,  and  in  the  church  of  the  Dominican 
convent  are  paintings  of  the  early  Genoese  school. 

Beyond  a  short  tunnel  we  obtain  a  view  (on  the  right)  of  Bussana 
Vecchia  and  Bussaria  Nuova  and  of  Poggio  (p.  103).  Then  a  tunnel 
under  the  Capo  Verde. 

84  M.  San  Bemo.  —  The  Railway  Station  (PI.  C,  4;  Bestauranf)  lies 
on  the  W.  hay,  a  few  hundred  yards  heyond  the  new  town. 

Hotels  &  Pensions.  The  better  houses  have  electric  light;  nearly  all 
have  gardens.  On  the  W.  Bay,  in  an  open  situation,  preferred  by  English 
visitors;  'West  End  Hotel  (PL  g;  A,  4),  Corso  Matuzia,  K.  from  31/2, 
B.  11/2,  de'j.  4-5,  D.  6-8,  bath  3.  pens.  IOV2-2OV2,  omn.  2  fr. ;  «Gk.  Hot. 
RorAL  (PI.  e;  E,  4),  Corso  dell' Imperatrice,  R.  from  iV'i)  B.  I'/z,  de'j.  4, 
I>.  6,  pens.  11-18  fr.  ;  Gband  Hotel  (PI.  b;  B,  4),  Cor.'^o  dell'  Imperatrice, 
R.  410,  B.  IV2,  dOj.  4-5,  D.  6  8,  pens.  10  !8  fr. ;  Continental  Palacb 
(PI.  cp;  A,  4),  Corso  Matuzia,  close  to  the  sea,  H.  3-7,  H.  I1/2,  d.'j.  3V2-l'/2, 
D.  5-7,  pens.  10-15,  omn.  I'/s  fr. ;  Hot.  Imi-Rkial  Kaiseruof  (PI.  h;  A,  4), 


100    Route  I!).  SAN  REMO.  From  Genoa 

Curso  Matuzia,  E.  31/2-8,  15.  I'/z,  ddj.  4-5,  D.  6-7,  pens.  8-16,  omn.  IV2  fr.; 
Hot.  de  Londues  (PI.  c;  A,  4),  Corso  JIatuzia,  R.  from  3,  B.  11/2,  dej. 
3-31/2,  D.  5-6,  pens.  81/2-I2V2  f r  ,  frequented  by  the  English;  all  these  of 
the  first  class,  with  lifts.  —  ''Hot. -Pens.  Pakauis  et  de  Edssie  (PI.  f; 
B,  4),  Corso  (ieir  Imperatrice,  E.  21/2-4,  B.  I1/2,  doj.  3-4,  D.  4-5,  pens. 
8-11  fr. ;  '^H6t.-Pen8.  Midi,  Corfo  dell'  Imperatrice,  pens.  9-12  fr. ;  "Hot.- 
Pens.  Beaus6jour  (PI.  d;  A,  4),  Corso  Matuzia,  E.  3-5,  B.  11/4,  D.  31/2,  S.  21/2, 
pens.  7-10  fr. ;  Hot.  Bristol  (PI.  i;  B,  4),  Strada  Reyina  Mavgherita,  R. 
from  3,   B.  11/,,   dej.  3,   D.  41/2,   pens,  from  8  fr. ;   Hot.  Pavillon  (PI.  k; 

A,  4),  Corso  Matuzia,  R.  4,  B.  I1/4,  d^-j.  3,  D.  31/2,  pens.  71/2-IO  fr.,  fre- 
quented by  the  English;  Pens.  Villa  Flora.  —  In  the  Strada  BerUio,  in 
an  elevated  situation:  *Gr    Hot.  Savoy  (I'l.  s;  B,  3),  with  lift,  R.  51/2-12, 

B.  V/2,  d(5.i.  4,  D.  6,  pens.  I'iVzlSVa,  oiun.  2  fr.,  first-cla^s ;  Hot.  Bel- 
vedere, Hot.  Bel  Sito  (PI.  y;  B,  3),  Pens.  Bellavista  (PI.  he;  B,  3), 
English  Pension  (PI.  m;  B,  3),  all  quite  English.  —  If^ear  (he  Station  and 
in  Die  New  Toicn:  -Hot.  de  Paris  (PI.  n;  C,  4),  Corso  dell'  Imperatrice, 
with  lift,  R.  4-5,  B.  I1/2,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  10-12  fr. ;  'Hot.  de  l'Eukopk 
ET  DE  la  Paix  (PI.  a;  C,  4),  with  lift,  R.  3-6,  B.  I1/2,  dei.  3,  D.  41/2,  pens. 
9-14  fr. ;  Hot.  Cosmopolitain  (PI.  z;  C,  4),  Via  Homa,  R.  3-5,  B.  H/4,  dej.  3, 
D.  4,  pens.  8-11  fr.,  well  spoken  of;  Excelsior  Hotel  Milan,  Via  Eoma, 
with  restaurant,  E.  3-4,  B.  11/4,  di'j.  21/2,  D.  31/2,  pens.  7-10  fr. ;  Hotel 
MfeTKOPOLE  &  Terminus  (PI.  o;  C,  4),  Via  Eoma,  with  rest.Turant,  R.  2-3, 
B.  I1/4-IV2,  d(5j.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  6-8  fr. ;  Hot.  Central  (PI.  ce;  C,  .3),  Via 
Andrea  Carli,  with  caf^-restaurant,  recommended  to  passing  tourists,  R. 
from  2'/2,  B.  I1/4,  dej.  3,  D.  3V.'  fr. ;  Hot.  de  la  Reine,  Corso  dell'  Im- 
peratrice, adjoining  the  Giardino  Pubblico;  Hotel  ^^ational,  Via  Vitt. 
Emanuele  1,  R.  21/2-41/2,  B.  li/»,  dt?j.  21/2,  D.  3,  pens.  6-9  fr.,  very  fair;  Hot. 
San  Remo  Molinari,  Via  Roma,  R.  21/2,  D.  8i/2fr. ;  Hot.  de  la  Grande 
Bretagne,  Hot. -Pens.  TJmberto  Primo,  Albergo  Internazionale,  all  three 
in  the  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele,  Italian.  —  On  the  E.  Bay^  in  a  sheltered  and 
quiet  situation:  '^Gkand  Hotel  Bellevde  (PI.  p;  F,  1,  2),  Corso  Felice 
Cavaloiti,  adjoining  the  Villa  Zirio,  with  lift,  R.  from  5,  B.  ii/2,  dej.  4, 
D.  6,  pens,  from  12,  omn.  I1/4  fr.  :,  'Gk.-IIot.  de  la  M6diierran*:e  (PI.  w; 
F,  2),  Corso  Felice  Cavaloiti,  with  lift  and  steam-heating,  R.  4-7,  B.  I1/2, 
dej.  31/2,  D.  5,  pens.  9-16,  omn.  I72  fr.,  well  managed;  "Gr. -Hotel  de 
Nice  (PI.  t;  E,  2),  Corso  Garibaldi,  with  lift,  R.  31/2-Gj  B.  I1/2,  dej.  31/2, 
D.  5,  pens.  9-14  fr.;  all  these  of  the  fir.'t  class.  —  *IIot.  Victoria  et  de 
Rome  (PI.  v;  F,  2),  Corso  Felice  Cavallotti,  with  lift,  R.  3-5,  B.  li/v, 
dej.  3,  D.  41/2-5,  pens,  from  8,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Hot.  Geemania  et  Pens.  Linden- 
HOF  (PI.  r ;  F,  2),  Via  del  Castillo,  near  the  sea,  pens.  8-12  fr. ;  Schweizerhof 
(PI.  u;  E,  2),  CorSd  Garibaldi,  pens.  8-10  fr. ;  Pens.  Villa  Nobel,  Corso 
Cavallotti;  Pens.  Paula  Roberta,  Via  di  Francia  (PI.  D,  E,  2),  quite 
German,  pens.  7-10  fr. ;  Pens,  des  Etrangers,  Corso  Garibaldi;  Jewish 
Pension,  (5or30  Garibaldi  28;   Nisselbacm,  Via  di  Francia,  also  Jewish. 

In  summer  only  the  H6i.  de  Paris,  Bdt.  Cosmopolitain,  Excelsior  Hdiel 
Milan,  H6t.  Mi'tropole,  H8t.  San  Remo  Molinari,  and  Hdi.  Orande  Bretagne 
are  open. 

Apartments  (corap.  pp.  xx,  xxx).  Suites  of  apartments  are  to  be  found 
in  the  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele,  Corso  dell'  Imperatrice,  Via  Feraldi,  Corso 
Garibaldi,  Via  TJmberto,  and  Via  Roma.  Those  in  other  parts  of  the  town 
are  less  desirable,  owing  to  the  coldness  of  the  streets.  Villas  abound; 
rent  for  the  winter  1500-12,000  fr.,  including  furniture  and  other  requisites 
(distinct  bargain  necessary).  Lists  of  apartments  and  villas  at  the  Anglo- 
American  Agency,  the  Agence  Ligurienne,  and  the  Agence  Benecke  et  Heywood, 
all  in  the  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele. 

Cafes  -  Restaurants.  Cafi  Glacier  du  Casino,  in  the  Kursaal  (p.  101); 
Restaurant  Mazar,  Via  Roma,  v/ith  Munich  and  Pilsner  beer,  dej.  21/2, 
D.  31/2  fr.,  incl.  wine  (band  and  varieties  in  the  evening);  '■' Cafi-Reslaurant 
du  Commerce,  in  the  Hot.  Central,  see  above,  'Cafi  Ei/ropt'en,  Via  Vitt. 
Emanuele,  Munich  beer  at  both ;  Vacherie,  Via  Ruffini,  with  garden ;  Maiton 
Dorie,  Via  Umberto,  plain  but  good;  Restaurant  Boinllon-Duval,  in  the  Alb. 
Internazionale  (see  above),  inexpensive.  —  Confectioners.     Thewes,  facing 

tJuuiejJltiS  I 

to  Venlimiglia.  SAN  REMO.  7.9.  Route.    101 

the  Giardino  Pubblico.:  (laspero,  Andry,  <t-  Co.,  Via  Vit.t.  Emanuclc  2i.  — 
Tea-Room.     Alexandra  Tea  Rooms,  Corjo  dell'  Imperatrice. 

Music  in  the  Via  RafOni  (PI.  E,  2)  on  Sun.,  Tues.,  &  Thurs.,  2.30-4  p.m. 

—  Places  of  Entertainment.  Casino  Munic'qjale  (PI.  C,  3),  a  'Kursaal'  iu 
the  former  Giardino  Pubblico,  with  ci  ncert-room,  theatre  (operas  and 
operetta,'!),  reading-room,  and  'Cercle  des  Etrangcrs''  (card  room,  lor  mem- 
bers onlvj;  tlclcet  for  the  day  2  fr.  (also  subscribers);  Teatro  Principe 
Amedeo  (PI.  D,  3). 

Carriages.  Drive  in  the  lower  town  1  fr.,  with  two  horses  l^/z  fr.  (at 
night  11/2  or  2'/2  fr.)  ;  per  hour  2  or  3  fr.  (at  night  3  or  31/2  fr.)  •,  drive 
in  the  upper  town,  IV2,  2,  2,  or  3  fr. ;  per  hour  2V2,  31/2,  3,  or  4  fr.  If 
luggage  over  4i  lbs.,  each  box  1/2  fr-  One-horse  carr.  to  the  Jladonna  della 
Co.sta  2,  landau  for  4  per^.  21/2,  two-horse  carr.  3  fr. ;  to  Madonna  della 
Guardia  7,  8,  or  10  fr. ;  to  Tattgia  or  B.irdighera  8,  10,  or  12  fr. ;  to  Bussaua 
Vecchia,  10,  12,  or  14  fr. ;  to  Ceriana  14,  16,  or  20  fr. ;  to  Dolceacqua 
(p.  106)  15,  17,  or  25  fr.  —  Donkey  to  Poggio  3  fr.,  to  Madonna  della 
Guardia,  Verez/o,  or  Coliirodi  4,  to  Bussaua  Vecchia  6,  tn  San  Romolo 
or  Monte  Bignone  8,  to  Baiardo  10  fr.  —  Boat  per  hour  for  1  person  1  fr., 
for  several  2  fr.  and  fee  (bargaining  advisable). 

Motor  Car  Company,  Sociita  Oenerale  Esercizi  con  AutomohiU  (p.  130), 
opposite  the  railway-station. 

Omnibus  through  the  town  every  ^jth-T.  (10  c.) ;  from  Piazza  Colombo 
to  Tag<jia  13  times  daily  (50  c),  to  Ceriana  twice  daily  (1  fr.),  to  Ospedaletti 
8  limes  daily  (30  c),  to  Burdighera  twice  daily  (60  c.). 

Post  and  Telegraph  Office  (PI.  D,  3),  Via  Roma,  in  the  Casa  Picconi; 
open  S  a.m.  to  8  p.m.  (telegraph-office  till  9  p.m.  and  till  midnight  from 
Dec.  Ist  til  April  30th);  branch-office  at  Corso  Garibaldi  8. 

Bankers.  Benecke  et  Heywood  (see  p.  100);  Frat.  Asquasciati;  Rubino; 
ifombello,  Dehraud,  ct  Co.;  Agence  Congreve,  all  in  the  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele; 
Garibaldi  &  Co.,  Cor.o  dell'  Imperatrice  5. 

Tourist  Agents.  T/iOs.  Cook  d:  Son,  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele  17;  Agence 
Benecke  et  Ueijwood  (see  p.  100),  for  the  International  Sleeping-Car  Co.  and 
the  North  German  I.lojd;  C.  Slefano,  Via  Roma,  for  the  Hamburg- America 
1  ine  (p.  9i). 

Shops.  Booksellers:  Diemer,  Corso  Garibaldi  30;  Bramke  <£•  Gandolfo, 
Corso  deir  Imperatrice  7;  P/yffer  (alfo  photogriipbs).  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele  28. 

—  Among  the  specialties  of  the  place  are  inlaid  wood  (Anfossi,  Di  Leva, 
Via  Vitt.  Emanuele)  and  the  perfumes  manufactured  by  Aicardi. 

Physicians.  English,  Dr.  Freeman,  Villa  delle  Palme;  Dr.  Foster,  Villa 
I.ambeiti ;  Dr.  Blackie- Smith,  Villa  Victoria;  Dr.  Hort,  Villa  Primavera; 
Dr.  Crichton- Miller,  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele  18;  Dr.  Lillie,  II  Bel  Soggiorno, 
Berigo.  German,  Drs.  Baur,  Burwinkel.  Dresdner,  Krebber,  Kuckein,  Laudien, 
Pohl,  Prager,  Stern,  and  Waterman;  Italian,  Drs.  Bobone,  Marlinucci,  Ameglio, 
and  Ansaldi.  —  Dentists:  Whiting,  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele  19;  Martini,  Via 
Francia;  Powers,  Via  Asquasciati  1;  Armaldi,  Via  Privata.  —  Chemists. 
Squire,  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele  17;  Peinemann  &  Wiedemann,  Via  Vitt. 
Emanuele  10  (PI.  Ap.;  C  3),  undertake  chemical  and  microscopical  analyses; 
Jordan.  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele  27.  —  Sanatorium  Columbia  (Dr.  Waterman), 
Villa  Ferrari.  —  German  Hospital,  Via  Wolfango  Goethe  (PI.  D  K;  F,  1).  — 
Baths  in  the  Via  Privata  and  in  the  Slabilimento  dei  Bayni  di  Mare  (Pl.B,  2), 
Passeggiata  Imperatnre  Federico. 

British  Vice-Consul,  Meysey  Turton,  Esq.  —  American  Consular  Agent, 
St.  Leger  A.  Touhaii,  Esq. 

English  Churches  (.services  at  11  &  3  from  Oct.  to  May).  St.  John  the 
Baptist's  (PI.  v.,  4),  Via  Roma;  chaplain,  Rev.  C.  H.  Ptlly,  Pens.  Bella  Vista. 

—  All  Saints''  (PI.  B,  4),  Corso  deir  Imperatrice;  chaplain,  Rev.  C.  Daniel, 
Villa  San  Giorgio.  —  Presbyterian  Church  (PI.  C,  4;  services  at  11  &  3), 
Corso  deir  Imperatrice  4;  minister,  Rev.  Dr.  Cunningham,  Hotel  de  la  Reine. 

Golf  links  (9  holes)  at.4rma  di  Taggia,  near  Taggia  (see  p.  99  and  above). 

Climate.    San   Kemn   is  sheltered   by  an   unbroken   semicircular   hill 

rising    from    the   Capo  Nero  to    the  Piano  Ccirparo  (2955  ft.),    culminating 

102     Route  19.  SAN  REMQ.  From  Genoa 

in  the  Monte  Caggio  (3575  ft.)  and  Monte  Bignone  (4260  ft.),  and  descend- 
ing thence  to  the  Capo  Verde.,  its  summit  being  nowhere  move  than  4  M, 
distant  in  a  straight  line.  The  N.  winds  are,  therefore,  entirely  excluded 
from  this  favoured  spot,  especially  as  a  double  range  of  Alps  rises  behind 
the  town  a  little  farther  back,  while  the  force  of  the  E.  and  W.  winds 
is  much  broken.  Violent  E.  winds,  however,  frequently  occur  at  the  end 
of  February  and  the  beginning  of  March,  and  the  'Mistral'  is  also  an  un- 
welcome visitor  at  this  season.  —  To  consumptive  and  bronchial  patients 
the  E.  bay  is  recommended  on  account  of  its  sheltered  situation  and  humid 
atmosphere,  while  suft'erers  from  nervous  and  liver  complaints  will  find 
the  dry  and  stimulating  air  of  the  W.  bay  more  beneficial.  —  The  mean 
tcjperature  of  the  three  winter  months  is  51°  Fahr. 

San  Remo,  a  town  of  20,000  inhal).,  lies  in  the  middle  of  a 
beautiful  bay,  5'/2  ^-  wide,  embosomed  in  olive-groves  that  cover 
the  valleys  ai\d  lower  slopes  and  give  place  higher  up  to  pines  and 
other  coniferaj.    It  has  been  a  health-resort  since  1861. 

The  crowded  houses  of  the  old  town  (La  Pigna),  with  the  church 
of  San  Siro  founded  in  the  12th  cent.,  occupy  a  steep  hill  between 
the  short  valleys  of  the  Torrenie  del  Convento  and  the  Torrente  di 
San  Romolo.  A  smaller  quarter  named  Castigliuoli  lies  to  the  W.  of 
the  latter  stream.  These  older  parts  of  the  town  consist  of  a  curious 
labyrinth  of  narrow  lanes,  flights  of  steps,  archways,  lofty  and 
sombre  houses,  and  mouldering  walls.  The  arches  which  connect 
the  houses  high  above  the  streets  are  intended  to  give  them  stability 
in  case  of  earthquakes.  Vines  are  frequently  seen  clambering  up 
the  houses  and  putting  forth  their  tendrils  and  leaves  on  the  top- 
most stories. 

The  new  town  occupies  the  alluvial  land  at  the  foot  of  the  hill. 
The  long  Via  Viltorio  Emanuele  (Pi.  C,  D,  3),  with  its  numerous 
shops,  is  the  chief  centre  of  traffic.  No.  24  in  this  street,  the  Palazzo 
Borea  d'Olnto  (15th  cent.),  possesses  a  flue  staircase.  —  To  the 
S.E.  is  the  fort  oi  Santa  Tecla  (PI.  D,  3,  4;  now  a  prison),  constructed 
by  the  Genoese  to  defend  the  small  harbour,  which  is  sheltered  by 
a  breakwater  1300  ft.  in  length.  A  survey  from  the  parapet  of  this 
Molo  will  convey  an  idea  of  the  sheltered  position  of  San  Remo. 

The  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele  leads  past  the  Casino  Municipale  (^Kur- 
saal;  PI.  C,  3;  p.  101),  erected  in  1904-5  by  Ferret,  to  the  *Corso 
dell'  Imperatricb  (PI.  B,  C,  4),  on  the  W.  bay,  which  is  planted 
with  palms  and  provided  with  benches.  This  magnificent  promen- 
ade, the  favourite  winter-resort  of  the  visitor,  skirts  the  railway  and 
the  sea,  terminating  towards  the  W,  in  the  beautiful  Giardino  delV 
Imperatrice  (PI.  A,  B,  4),  laid  out,  like  the  Corso  itself,  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  Empress  Maria  Alexandrowna  of  Russia  (d.  1880). 
Beyond  the  garden  the  promenade  is  continued  by  the  Corso  Matuzia 
and  the  Corso  Ponente  (PL  A,  4),  ending  at  the  cemetery. 

The  main  thoroughfare  of  the  quarters  on  the  E.  bay  is  formed 
by  the  Corso  Garibaldi  (PI.  D,  E,  2)  and  its  E.  prolongation,  the 
Corso  Felice  Cavallotti(F\.E,F, 2).  A  little  above  the  latter,  next  to 
the  Bellevue  Hotel,  is  the  Villa  Villeneuve  or  Zirio  (no  admission), 
where  the  dying  German  Crown  Prince  Frederick  William  resided 

to  Ventimiglia.  OSPEDALETTI.  19.  Route.     103 

from  Nov.,  1887,  to  March,  1888.  —  The  chief  promenades  in  this 
quarter  are  the  high-lying  Via  Wolfunyo  Goelhe  (PI.  E,  F,  2, 1)  and 
the  quiet  Passeggiata  lynperaiore  Federico  (PI.  E,  F,  2),  by  the  sea. 

A  deliglitful  drive  (tariff,  see  p.  101)  is  afforded  by  the  *Steai>a 
Bbbi'oo  or  CoRso  degli  Inglesi  (PI.  A,  B,  C,  4-2),  which  diverges 
to  the  N.W.  from  the  Corse  Matuzia  and  ascends  the  valley  of  the 
Torrente  dtlla  Face.  It  then  turns  to  the  E.  and,  flanked  by  beautiful 
gardens,  winds  along  the  hillside.  A  little  below  the  road  is  the  fine 
palm-garden  of  the  *  Villa  Parva  (PI.  B,  3 ;  Baroness  von  Hiittner), 
to  which  visitors  are  admitt?d  on  Wed.  &  Sat.,  10-12  and  2-4  (1  fr., 
for  charitable  purposes). 

The  Via  Borgo,  the  N.  prolongation  of  the  Strada  Berigo,  runs 
up  one  side  and  down  the  other  of  the  Komolo  valley,  passing  the 
Madonna  del  Borgo  (PI.  B,  1).  It  then  runs  to  the  S.E.  to  the  white 
dome-covered  church  of  Madonna  della  Costa  (PI.  C,  2 j,  which  is 
perched  on  the  top  of  the  MB  as  the  keystone  of  the  old  town.  The 
church  is  approached  by  alleys  of  cypresses  and,  like  the  Giardino 
Reyina  Elena,  beside  the  large  Hospital  (PI.  C,  2J,  commands  a  fine 
view  of  bay  and  mountain. 

From  the  Madonna  della  Costa  the  sheltered  Via  Barragallo 
(PI.  C,  D,  l,2)descendscircuitously  to  the  Viadi  Francia(P\.  D,E,2). 

Excursions.  A  beautiful  and  easily  reached  point  of  view  is  the  (1  hr.) 
'  Madonna  della  Guardia  (370  ft.-,  restaurant)  on  Capo  Verde  (hest  view  in 
the  morning;  carr.,  see  p.  101).  The  ascent  begins  at  the  Dazio  Comunale, 
about  IV*  M.  to  the  E.  of  San  Remo.  The  return  from  the  church  may 
be  made  by  Poggio  (Alb-rgo  Po;;2io,  etc.),  a  villai^e  noted  for  its  wine. 
The  view  is  obtained  from  near  the  old  tower  above  the  village.  — 
To  Bussana  VecchUi  or  to  Taggia,  see  p.  lul.  —  A  good  road  (omn.,  see 
p.  101)  leads  via  Poggio  to  the  (8V2  M  )  picturesiiue  hill-town  of  Ceriana 
(1210  ft. ;  inn).  —  A  road  leads  through  the  charming  valley  of  San  Martino 
to  the  (2'/-.i  hrs.)  prettily  situated  Verezzo,  with  the  churches  of  San  Donato 
and  Sant'  Antonio.  —  To  San  Romolo  ('25S0  ft.),  a  former  hermitage,  with 
line  chestnut  woods  aud  villas,  in  the  »ipper  valley  o!  San  Romolo,  a 
donkov-ride  of  'J^j-z  hrs.  f6  fr.).  This  excursion  may  be  continued  via  the 
Colle  dvi  Termini  (3105  ft.)  to  the  (I'/a  hr.)  'Monte  Bignone  (4260  ft. ;  pano- 
rama of  the  .lea  with  Corsica  to  the  S.  and  the  Maritime  Alps  to  the  N.). 
Kich  (lura  (rhuiiudendrons).  From  the  pass  a  bridle-patU  descends  to  the 
N.W.,  via  the  Piano  del  Be,  to  the  well-situated  village  ct(  Baiardo  (2950  ft.-, 
two  inns),  whence  we  may  return  to  San  Kenio  via  Ceriana  (see  above). 
Another  pleasant  extension  of  the  excursion  from  San  Romolo  is  that  via 
the  Monte  Caggio  (3575  ft.)  and  the  villages  of  Sehorga  and  Sasso  (p.  106) 
to  Bordiijhera  tp.  104).  —  To  Coldirodi  (p.  104)  by  Uspedaletti  2  hrs. ;  or 
direct,  by  a  very  ancient  road,  1  hr.  —  Via  Ospedaletti  to  (2'/2  hrs.) 
Bordig/iera  (omn.,  see  p.  101). 

The  train  passes  through  a  tunnel  UTider  Capo  Nero,  while  the 
road  winds  round  the  promontory  high  above  the  sea. 

87  M.  Ospedaletti.  —  Hotels.  *Gr.  Hotel  de  la  Reine,  with  lift, 
R.  from  4,  B.  IV2,  dci.  4,  I).  5,  pens,  from  8,  omn.  1  fr.  -,  Hot. -Pens.  Sdissk, 
R.  2^/i-i,  B.  I'A',  d^U-'3,  D.  4,  pens.  7-12,  omn.  1  fr. ;  'Hot.  Rotal,  R.  2'/2-3, 
B.  I'/j,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  8-10  fr.,  patronized  by  the  English  (not  adapted 
for  invalids);  Hot.-Pens.  M£tbopole,  very  fair,  R.  3,  B.  l^/i.  dej.  2V2,  E>.  31/2, 
pens.  6-9  fr. ;  Hot.-Pkss.  Riviera,  pens,  from  6  fr. ;  Alb.  d'Italia.  —  Also 
Private  Apartments.  —  English  Church  Service  in  winter  in  the  Hot.  Suisse.  — 
Physicians,  Dr.  Enderlin ;  hr.  Hmjueniu;  Dr.  Osier,  and  others.  —  Visitor's 

104    RoiUe  19.  BORDIGHERA.  From  Genoa 

Tax  I'/'j  fr.  per  week.  —  Concerts  in  the  Casino  (witb  restanrant  and  reading- 
room)  on  Won.  and  Frid.,  2.30-4.30  p.m.  —  Post  (fc  Telegraph  Office  next 
the  Hot.  Metropole.  —  Omnibus  to  San  Remo  and  Kordighera,  see  p.  101. 

Above  the  little  flshing- port  of  Ospedaletti  a  wLiiter- resort 
(100  ft.)  was  laid  out  in  188'2  at  great  expense,  in  a  sheltered  and 
most  favourable  situation,  with  walks  free  from  dust.  Ospedaletti 
is  one  of  the  chief  flower-markets  in  the  liiviera ;  visits  should  be 
paid  to  the  Pepinitre  in  the  Via  Garibaldi,  above  the  town,  and 
to  the  Giunchelto  (venerable  palms),  on  the  Bordighera  road. 

From  Ospedaletti  a  mule-track  (8/4  hr.)  and  a  road  diverging  at 
Capo  Nero  lead  to  the  little  town  of  Coldirodi  or  Colla  (830  ft. ;  Cafe- 
Restaurant  des  Etraugers;  Caffe-Ristorante  della  Biblioteca),  the 
town-hall  of  which  contains  a  library  and  an  inconsiderable  picture- 
gallery  (adm.  50  c).    Fine  view  near  the  cemetery. 

90 1/2  M.  Bordighera.  —  Hotels  and  Pensions  (largely  patronized  l)y 
the  English).  On  the  Strada  Romana  (p.  105),  in  a  sheltered  situation: 
"Grand  Hotel  du  Cap  Ami'Ei:lio  (PI.  fi)i  with  magnificent  view,  R.  from  5, 
B.  2,  dej.  4-5,  D.  5  6,  pens.  12-18  fr. ;  -Hut.  Angst  (PI.  a),  with  fine  garden, 
R.  from  4V2,  B.  IV2,  dej.  31/2-4,  D.  5  6,  pens.  10-18  fr. ;  "Hotel  Royal  (PI.  r), 
R.  4-8,  B.  IV-j,  dej.  31/2,  D.  5,  pens.  10-17  fr.;  Hot.  Hesperia  (PI.  0),  R. 
from  4,  B.  11/2,  dej.  31/2,  D.  5,  pen^.  from  10  Ir.,  new,  all  these  with  lift 
and  steam-heating;  •■Hotel  BELVfiDfiKE  (PI.  s),  R.  5-6,  E.  IV2,  dej.  3,  D.  5, 
pens.  9-15  fr. ;  Hotel  de  Londres  (PI.  c),  English  ;  Pens.  Villa  Constantia 
IPI.  d),  with  steam -heating,  pens.  71/2-101/2  fr.,  very  fair;  Hotel  Bella 
Vista  et  Bellevue  (PI.  e),  R,  31/2-6,  B.  IV4,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  811  fr.  — 
In  the  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele:  -Gr.  Hotel  des  Iles  Bbitanniqdes  (PI.  h), 
R.  3-6,  B.  IV2,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  8-12  fr. ;  "Hotel  d'Angletekee  (PI.  f), 
R.  21/2  5,  B.  11/2,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  7-12  fr.  ;  "^Park  Hotel  (PI.  g),  R.  from  3, 
B.  11/2,  dej.  31/2,  D.  4,  pens.  8-10  fr.,  all  three  with  gardens;  Hot.  Windsor 
ET  Beau  Rivage,  on  the  beach,  ^ji  M.  to  the  W.  of  the  station,  R  4-7, 
dej.  21/2,  D.  4,  pens.  7-10  fr.,  very  fair;  Hot.  Cosjiopolitain  (PI.  m),  at  the 
station,  with  restaurant;  Pens,  des  Oliviers  (PI.  i);  Hut. -Pens,  de  la 
Reine  (PI.  t),  from  7  fr.  —  In  the  Via  Imperatrice  Federico:  -Hot.  Victoria 
(PI.  n),  R.  3-6,  B.  11/2,  dej.  3,  D.  41/2,  peas.  7-10  fr. ;  Hot.-Pens.  .Savoy  (PI.  1), 
R.  from  4,  B.  I1/2,  dej.  21/2,  D.  4,  pens,  from  8  fr. ;  Hot.  Bordighera  et 
Terminus  (PI.  h),  R.  21/2-3,  B.  I1/2,  dej.  2V2-3,  D.  3V2-4,  pens.  7-8  fr. ;  Pens. 
Riviera- Hotel.  —  In  the  Via  Regina  Mar^jherita:  Pens.  Jolie  (PI.  k), 
pens.  6-8  fr.,  very  fair;  Pens.  Puilipp  (PI.  p).  —  In  the  Strada  dei  Colli, 
to  the  N.E. :  Hut.  Bristol,  pens.  71/2-91/2  fr.,  English. 

In  summer  only  the  H6iel  Windsor  and  the  Pensions  des  Oliviers  and 
Jolie  are  open. 

Kestaurants.  Faisan  Dore  (rooms),  Via  Imperatrice  Federico  (Munich 
beer);  Caffh-Ristorante  Ligure;  Caffi  delta  Stazione.  —  Cafe  &  Confectioner. 
'■'Serger,  Via  Vitt.  Emanuele.  —  Tea  Koom.  Bordighera  Tea  Rooms,  Via 

Physicians:  Dr.Hulibard,  Dr.  Boyle,  Dr.  Hamilton  (English);  Dr.  Ilerschel, 
Dr.  Lewinsohn,  Dr.  Piper,  Dr.  Hiinel  (German);  Dr.  Agnetti,  Dr.  Odelli, 
Dr.  Boggio,  Dr.  Ammirati  (Italian).  —  Dentists:  Saltarelli,  Viviani.  — 
Chemists :   Calvauna,  Tassarotii,  Molinari. 

English  Church:  All  Saints\  Via  Bischoffsheim,  services  from  Oct.  to 
May  at  S,  10.30,  and  3;  chaplain,  Rev.  Canon  Arthur  T.  Bamett,  M.A. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office,  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele,  open  8-12.30  and 

British  Vice-Consul,  E.  E.  Berry,  Esq.  —  Bankers:  Giribaldi;  The  Bank 
(also  money-changer's);  Berry,  Casa  Balestra  (Engl.  Banker);  the  last  two 
are  at.»o  agents  for  furnished  apartments. 

Palms  &  Flowers  at  L.    }Vinter''s,  Via  Viltorio  Emiinuele. 

•  ffi  -  SV    «.  O "  (g*.  f  '.  *  V  »S  «  i  ^      ,    '  V 


to  Ventimiglia.  BORDIGHERA.  19.  Route.    105 

Cabs  (for  1  or  2  pers.):  per  drive  1,  with  two  horses  IV2  fr. ;  per 
hour  2,  3  fr. ;  each  oddit.  pers.  2d  c.  more;  to  Ospedaletti  4  or  7  fr.,  to  Col- 
dirodi  12  or  18  fr. ;  to  Perinaklo  18  or  30  fr. 

Omnibus  via  Ospedaletti  to  San  Remo,  see  p.  101 ;  to  Vallebona  twice, 
and  to  Soldano  once  daily.  —  Electric  Tramway  from  the  Piazza  Mazzini 
by  the  Via  Vitt.  Eman.  to  Ventimiglia  (p.  106),  every  V-<"V2  ^^-  i"  winter 
(50  or  30  c). 

Climate.  The  strangers'  quarter  is  formed  by  the  Strada  Romana,  now 
converted  into  a  wide  and  dust-free  promenade  running  along  the  slope 
through  groves  of  pine  and  olive.  Only  its  E.  end  is  fairly  sheltered,  the 
rest  being  expo.sed  to  the  dry  coast-winds.  Serious  cases  of  illness  are 
therefore  not  usually  sent  to  Bordighera,  which,  in  contrast  to  the  other 
Riviera  stations,  is  frequented  mainly  by  convalescents  and  tourists.  — 
The  temperature  in  winter  is  lov/er  than  at  San  Uemo  and  Ospediletti. 

Bordighera  { 3900  iiihab.),  first  brought  into  general  notice  by 
Rufflni's  novel  'Dr.  Antonio',  consists  of  an  old  upper  quarter,  on 
the  higher  ground  of  the  Capo  Sunt'  Ampeglio,  and  a  new  lower 
quarter  between  the  coast-road  (here  named  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele) 
and  the  Strada  Romana.  The  Passegyiata  a  Mare,  a  picturesque 
coast-promenade  free  from  dust,  extends  westwards  from  the  foot 
of  the  rocky  cape. 

From  the  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele,  in  which  aretlie  station  and  the 
Chiesa  di  Terrasanta,  built  by  Gamier,  the  Via  Imperatrice  Federico 
and  othfir  cross-streets  ascend  to  the  Strada  Romana  (the  ancient 
Via  Aurelia^,  wliich  ends  on  the  W.  at  the  Borghetto  brook.  This 
fine  road  affords  charming  views  of  the  palm-gardens  of  the  Hotel 
Angst  and  the  Villa  Etelinda (hnilt  by  Gamier).  On  its  S.  side,  below 
the  Hotel  de  I.ondres,  is  the  Museum,  or  International  Free  Library, 
founded  by  Mr.  Bicknell  and  containing  a  reading-room,  a  concert- 
hall,  a  library,  a  unique  collection  of  the  flora  of  the  Riviera,  a 
collection  of  minerals,  and  an  archaeological  collection  (including 
fragments  and  casts  of  the  rock-inscriptions  mentioned  at  p.  48). 
—  A  magnificent  *View  is  obtained  from  the  Spianata  del  Capo.,  on 
the  top  of  the  promontory,  at  the  E.  end  of  the  road:  to  the  left,  the 
bay  of  Ospf'daletti;  to  the  right,  Ventimiglia,  Mentone,  Cap  Martin, 
Monaco,  the  Monts  Esterel,  and  the  snow-flecked  Alpes  Maritimes. 

Another  pleasant  walk  is  afl'orded  by  the  Strada  dei  Colli,  to  the 
N.  of  the  old  town.  At  the  end  of  the  road,  immediately  beyond 
the  Villa  Biancheri,  a  footpath  leads  to  the  left  to  the  Torre  dei 
Mostaccini  (676  it.),  a  good  view-point  (key  kept  by  Arvocato 
Cabagni,  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele). 

Bordighera  is  famous  for  its  floriculture  (roses,  carnations,  ane- 
mones, etc.),  which  partly  supplants  olive-growing,  and  for  its 
date-palms  (Phoenix  dactylifera),  of  which,  however,  the  fruit  seldom 
ripens  sufficiently  to  be  edible.  Like  Elche  (see  Baedeker's  Spain) 
Bordighera  does  a  large  business  in  supplying  palm-branches  to 
Roman  Catholic  churches  for  Palm  Sunday  and  to  Jewish  com- 
munities for  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles.  For  the  former  purpose  the 
leaves  are  bleached  on  the  trees  by  being  tightly  bound  up.  —  The 
linest  palms  are  seen  in  the  above-named  gardens,  in  that  of  the 

106    Route  19.  VENTIMIGLIA. 

Villa  Oarnier  (to  the  E.  of  the  town),  at  Winter's  Vallone  Garden, 
3/4  M.  to  the  E.,  near  the  Sasso  hridge,  and  in  the  *  Madonna  Garden 
at  Ruota,  ^/^  M.  beyond  the  bridge,  belonging  to  the  same  owner  and 
containing  the  celebrated  Scheffel  Palms  (open  at  all  hours). 

From  the  Vallone  Garden  we  may  ascend  the  Valley  of  the  l^asso  (in 
dry  weather)  to  the  (1  M.)  Aqueduct.,  follow  it  for  ^^'4  jM.  ;iuil  reliiru  thence 
t^)  (I1/4  M.)  Bordighera  along  the  conduit. 

Excursions:  from  Old  Bordighera  by  foot  and  bridle  paths  through 
beautiful  olive-groves  to  (»/4  hr.)  Sasto  (725  ft);  thence  via  Seborga  (1695  fl.), 
formerly  the  mint  of  the  abbots  of  Lerins,  to  the  Monte  Caggio  and  to  Sun 
Bomolo,  see  p.  103.  —  To  (21/4  M-;  omn.  see  p.  105)  Vallebonu  via  BorgheUo. 
—  Through  the  Yallecrosia  Valley.,  via  Vallecrotia,  San  Biayio  della  Cimu, 
and  Soldano  (omn.  see  p.  105),  to  (3'/2-4  hrs.)  Perinaldo  (1895  It  ;  inn;  omn. 
to  Ventiniiglia  see  below),  a  village  commanding  beautiful  views  and  the 
birthplace  of  the  astrfmonier  Giov.  Doui.  Cassini  (1625-1712).  —  The  ascent 
of  the  "Cima  di  Santa  Croce  (1160  ft.)  is  highly  attractive.  Krom  the  tram- 
way-station at  the  foot  of  the  valley  of  Vallecrosia  a  marked  footpath  as- 
cend.s  through  wood  to  the  (ca.  1  hr.)  chapel  on  the  summit  (magnificent 
view).  We  may  return  by  a  steep  path  to  the  N.  to  San  Biagio  or  to  Dol- 
ceacqua.  —  From  the  tramway-station  of  Ponte  Nervia  (see  below),  in  the 
Nervia  valley,  we  may  proceed  via  (I3/4  M.)  Cainporosso  to  (I'/'j  SI.)  Dol- 
ceacqua  (165  ft. ;  three  inns),  with  the  ruined  ancestral  castle  of  the  IJoria.s 
of  Gem  a  (p.  79).  Thence  we  go  on  via  (7M.)  Isolabona  to  (IIV2  M.)  Pigna 
(1015  ft. ;  Hot.  de  France ;  Hot.  Umberto  I. ;  omn.  to  Ventigmiglia,  see  below), 
the  parish  church  of  which  has  a  winged  altar  of  the  16th  century.  In 
the  miaous  chapel  of  San  Bernaj'do  are  some  interesting  frescoes.  —  To 
Coldirodi  via  (81/2  M.)  Ospedalelti,  see  p.  104. 

921/2  M.  Vallecrosia,  situated  at  the  mouth  of  the  valley  of  that 
name  on  the  Piani  di  Vallecrosia  (views),  is  the  station  for  the  above- 
mentioned  village  of  Vallecrosm.  To  the  right  of  the  line  we  pass 
the  Protestant  school  of  Vallecrosia  (shown  to  visitors  on  Mon.,  Wed., 
&  Thurs.).  Crossing  the  Nervia,  we  obtain  a  glimpse  of  the  Mari- 
time Alps ;  on  the  left,  at  Ponte  Nervia,  are  scanty  remains  of  a 
Koman  settlement  with  a  theatre. 

94  M.  Ventimiglia.  —  Hotels.  Hot.  Malson  Dokee,  with  restau- 
rant; Hot.  Suisse  et  Terminus,  R.  2V2,  dej.  2V2,  B.  3  fr  ,  incl.  wine, 
well  ,<poken  of;  Alberuo  IIistok.\nte  Toenaghi,  all  near  the  station.  — 
Cafi  de  Paris,  Via  Principe  Amedeo.  —  Money  Changers  at  the  rail, 
station.  —  Goods  Agents,  Fratelli  Oondrand.  —  Electric  Tramway  to 
Bordighera,  see  p.  105.  —  Omnibus  to  Perinaldo  once,  to  Pigna  twice  daily.  — 
One-hokse  Carriage  per  drive  1  fr.  (stand  at  the  rail,  station). 

Ventirniglia  (45  ft. ;  Fr.  Vintimille^,  the  Roman  Allium  Inte- 
melium,  the  Italian  frontier- town,  with  7300inhab.  and  the  seat  of 
a  bishop,  consists  of  the  industrial  new  town,  in  an  exposed  (N. 
wind)  situation  between  the  station  and  the  sea,  and  the  pictur- 
esque old  town  on  a  hill  to  the  W.  of  the  Roia.  In'  the  old  town  is 
the  Municipio,  containing  a  small  collection  of  Roman  antiquities 
from  Ponte  Nervia  (see  above).  The  Cathedral,  near  which  is  a 
Baptistery  (partly  of  very  ancient  date),  and  the  Romanesque  church 
oi  San  Michele  are  interesting;  the  columns  of  the  latter  bear  Roman 
inscriptions.  About  1/2  M.  to  the  W.  lies  the  picturesque  Porta 
Canarda.  Above  the  isolated  tower-like  rock  (8coglio  alto)  on  the 
beach  rises  the  former  Citadel  (now  barracks). 


NERVI.  20.  Route.    107 

Fine  views  arc  obtained  from  tlift  rained  Genoese  fort  of  San  Paolo 
(535  ft.)  20  rain,  above  the  old  town,  and  from  the  (1  hr.)  ruined  Castello 
(TAppio  (1130  ft.).  To  the  'N.W.  of  the  latter  ;ire  the  so-called  Calandre  or 
Calandrie,  a  depressiini  with  earth-pyramids.  —  To  the  Val  Nervia  see  p.  lOB. 

From  Ventiuiielia  to  Mentone,  Monte  Carlo,  and  Nice,  sec  Baedeker's 
Southern  France.  On  tlie  Mentone  road,  within  Italy,  is  (2V2  M.)  M6rtola, 
with  the  "(iarden  of  Sir  Thomas  Ilaubury,  the  most  luxuriant  on  the  Uiviera 
(adni.  on  Mon.  &  Frid.  afternoon,  fee  1  fr.,  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor;  visitor.-^ 
inscribe  their  names).  —  From  Ventimiglia  to  Tenda  (for  Cuneo  and  Turin), 
see  K.  y. 

20 .  From  Genoa  to  Pisa.    Riviera  di  Levante. 

10'2'/'j  M.  Railwat.  'Train  de  luxe'  (Paris  to  Rome,  p.  1)  in  ca.  4  hrs. 
(fare  28  fr.  50  c);  fast  express  in  3^/4  and  express  in  41/4-4Vj  hrs.  (21  fr.  10, 
14  fr.  75  c.t;  ordinary  train  in  6  7  hrs.  (.19  fr.  15,  13  fr.  40,  8  fr.  65  c).  The 
trains  Start  from  the  Staziona  Piazza  Principe  (local  trains  to  Chiavari  also 
from  the  Stazione  Orientate;  comp.  the  time-tables).  Tickets  to  AVrut,  Papallo, 
etc..  by  the  fast  express  are  issued  only  as  extensions  of  tickets  to  Genoa, 
on  application  bein;;  made  to  the  'ControUore'  or  to  the  station-master 
immediately  on  the  traveller's  arrival  in  Genoa.  Local  passengers  from 
Genoa  with  tickets  for  stations  short  of  Chiavari  (San  Pier  d'Arena  in  the 
opposite  direction)  are  not  allowed  to  travel  by  the  express  trains.  —  For 
the  sake  of  the  view,  seats  should  be  taken  on  the  right  side  of  the  carriage. 
Between  Nervi  and  Spezia  the  view  is  much  interrupted  by  the  numerous 
tunnels.  It  is  dangerous  to  lean  out  of  the  carriage-window.  — ■  Electric 
Tramway  (No.  8)  to  Nervi,  see  p.  77. 

Genoa,  p.  75.  On  leaving  the  Stazione  Piazza  Principe,  the  train 
passes  through  a  long  tunnel  (4-5  min.). 

2  M.  Stazione  di  Brignole  or  Stazione  Orientate.  To  the  left  we 
obtain  a  view  of  the  fortress-crowned  heights  around  Genoa. 

On  the  Uiviera  di  Levante,  or  coast  to  the  E.  of  Genoa,  the 
vegetation  is  less  luxuriant  than  on  the  Riviera  di  Ponente  (p.  94), 
but  the  scenery  is  almost  more  striking.  The  line  is  carried  through 
numerous  cuttings  ami  more  than  eighty  tunnels.  The  villages  have 
narrow  streets  and  lofty  houses,  closely  built  on  the  narrow  sea-board 
or  in  conlined  valleys,  and  mostly  painted  externally  as  at  Genoa. 

The  train  crosses  the  insignificant  Bisagno,  and  passes  under 
the  Collinn  d'Allx'iro  (p.  93 )  by  means  of  a  tunnel.  41/0  M.  Sturla 
(Gr.  Hot.  Sturla,  dej.  21/21  D.  8^/2,  pens,  from  7  fr.,  incl.  wine),  with 
good  sea-baths  (asient  of  Monte  Fasce,  see  p.  109).  To  the  right,  the 
Mediterranean;  to  the  left,  the  olive-clad  slopt^s  of  the  Apennines, 
sprinkh^d  with  country-houses.  —  5  M.  Quarto  at  Mare  (p.  93).  — 
0  M.  (Jainto  at  Mare  (Hot.  Quinto,  on  the  sea,  with  steam-heating, 
view-terrace,  and  sea-baths,  K.  from  3,  B.  1,  dej.  21/2,  !*■  •'^V-'  ps"s. 
7-9  fr.,  incl.  wine,  Italian,  very  fair;  Hot.-Pens.  Beau-Sejour,  dej.2, 
D.  3,  pens,  from  5  fr.,  incl.  wine),  with  numerous  factories,  a  pretty 
Giardino  Pubblico,  handsome  villas,  dense  lemon-groves,  and  line 
palm-trees.  In  the  foreground  rises  the  promontory  of 
(p.  109). 

71/2  M.  Nervi.  —  Hotels  (comp.  p.  xix;  with  steam -healing  and 
gardens).  Euen  Hotici.,  a  large  house  on  the  hill  above  the  town,  with 
lift  and  garden  stretching'  to  the  sea,  H.  3V2-12,  B.  1'/'-',  'i'^.i-  3'/-.!,  1>.  4>/2, 
pens.  9-18  (L.  extra),    hath  3,   omu.    i'/a  fr.;    'Gkanu   Hotkl,    in  the  main 

108    Route  20.  NERVI.  From  Genoa 

street,  adjoining  the  park  of  Marchese  Gropallo  (p.  109),  with  lift,  R.  3'/2-S, 
B.  l'/2)  dej.  3,  D.  5,  pens.  8-15  (L.  extra),  omn.  1  Ir. -,  *H6t.-Pen3.  Victoria, 
near  the  station  and  the  sea,  R.  33/4-5,  B.  IV-i,  dej.  2V2-3,  D.  4-5,  pens. 
9-14  fr. ;  Hot.  Sayoie,  Via  Carignano,  near  the  station,  R.  from  3'/2,  B.  li/s, 
D.  4,  S.  3,  pens.  8  12  fr. ;  ''Strand  Hotel,  in  an  open  situation  with  line 
views,  at  the  W.  end  of  the  coast  promenade,  with  lift,  K.  S'/z-B,  B.  IV2, 
dej.  3,  D.  4-4V2,  pens.  8-14  fr. ;  "Schickert's  Park  Hotel,  at  the  E.  end  of 
the  town,  with  line  grounds  stretching  to  the  sea  (a'lm.  free)  and  a  cafe- 
restaurant  on  the  terrace  over  the  sea,  15.  from  3,  B.  l'/4,  dej.  Qi/j,  U.  372-4, 
pens.  8'/2-12,  not  for  consumptives,  ijuite  German.  —  Hot. -Pens.  Nervi, 
R.  2V2-3V2fr.,  L.  30  c.,  B.  IV2,  dej.  21/2,  D.  4,  pens.  8-10  fr.,  well  .'■poken 
of;  SciiwEizERHoF,  R.  2-5,  B.  11/4,  D.  31/2,  S.  2'/2,  pens.  7-10  fr.,  these 
two  in  the  Piazza  Vittorio  Emanuele,  at  the  corner  of  tlie  Viale  Vittorio 
Emanuele,  leading  to  the  station;  Hot. -Pens.  Bellevue,  Via  Belvedere, 
on  the  road  to  Sanf  llario,  with  fine  view,  pens,  from  6V2  Ir. 

Pensions  (usu::lly  with  gardens).  P.  Biirgi,  next  the  Villa  Gropallo, 
7-10  fr.,  P.  Bonera.  to  the  W.  of  the  town,  7-9  fr.,  both  good;  P.  Villa 
Frisia,  6-8  fr.,  P.  Villa  Adelaide,  from  ^1/2  fr.,  P.  la  Riviera,  these  three  in 
the  street  leading  to  the  station;  P.  Splendide,  P.  de  la  Ville,  from  5  fr., 
P.  Centrale,  these  three  at  the  W.  end  of  the  town,  near  the  Giardino 
Pubblico ;  P.  Beau-Site  (Italian),  Via  Serra  18,  dej.  2,  D.  3,  pens,  from  7  fp. ; 
P.  Sacchetti,  near  the  Eden  Hotel,  pen=.  from  6  fr. ;  P.  Biswarck  (Villa  Nata- 
lina),  P.  Beau-Rivage  (iJerman;  6-9  fr.),  P.  Rnsse,  these  three  in  the  Via 
Capolungo,  at  the  E.  end  of  the  town;  P.  Printemps,  5-6  fi-. 

All  the  hotels  and  pensions,  except  ScMckerfs  Park  Hotel^  Hot.  Sclmeizer- 
kof.  P.  la  Riviera,  P.  de  la  Ville,  P.  Beau-Site,  and  P.  Russe,  are  closed  in 
sucniner.  —  Furnished  Apartments  (800-1500  fr.  for  the  season)  and  villas 
(2500 -  4000  fr.)  are  scarce.  Agents,  Ant.  Cerruti,  Crovetto,  Via  del  Pozzo  56 
and  72. 

Restaurants.  Ristoriinte  Cristoforo  Colombo,  Piazza  Vitt.  ^manuele.  — 
Cafes.  Cafi  del  Chiosco,  C.  Miramare,  both  on  the  Coast  Promenade;  G.Milano 
(also   confectioner's),   Piazza  Vitt.   Eman. ;    C.  des  Palmiers,  Via  del  Pozzo. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office,  Via  Corvetto  134. 

Cabs.  Per  drive  in  the  town  50  c.,  with  two  horses  1  fr. ;  at  night 
1  or  l'/2  fr. ;  per  hour,  3,  3V2,  3'/'2,  and  4  fr.  Special  tarilT  for  diives  beyond 
the  town  (to  Sanf  llario,  31/2  or  4  fr. ;  to  Genoa,  5  or  5V2  fr. ;  to  Rapallo, 
12  or  14  fr.  ;  to  Portofino,  18  or  20  fr.). 

Electric  Tramway  (from  the  Piazza  Vitt.  Eman.)  to  Genoa,  see  p.  77 (No.  8). 

Physicians.  Dr.  Alexander,  Dr.  Greger,  Dr.  Michaelsen,  Dr.  Neukomnt, 
Dr.  Ortenau,  Br.  Rhoden,  Dr.  Schmidt,  Dr.  Schneegans,  Dr.  Stifhr,  Dr.  Thomas, 
Dr.  Weissenherg.  —  Dentist.  Dr.  Ebner,  Via  del  Pozzo  65.  —  Chemists.  Gallo, 
Via  Corvetto  111,  near  the  post-office;  Outh,  Piazza  Belvedere.  —  English 
Church  Service  at  the  Eden  Hotel. 

Music,  daily  at  2.30  p.m.  on  the  Coast  Promenade.  —  Visitors'  Tax, 
I'/a  fr.  per  week.  —  Enquiry  Office  (with  reading-room),  Via  Corvetto  94. 
—  Visitors'  List,  Pro-Nerm,  twice  a  month,  25  c. 

Climate,  etc.  Nervi,  the  oldest  winter-station  on  the  E.  Riviera,  is 
backed  on  the  N.  by  Monte  Giiigo.  and  is  sheltered  on  the  N.W.  by  the 
Monte  Mora,  a  spur  of  the  Monte  Fasce,  and  on  the  E.  by  the  promontory 
of  Portofino,  while  it  lies  fully  exposed  to  the  .S.E.  wind.  Its  mean  winter 
temperature  (.52°  Fahr.)  is  almost  the  same  as  that  of  the  W.  Riviera,  but 
the  rainfall  at  Nervi  is  more  copious  and  the  periods  of  dry  weather  less 
prolonged.  The  relative  moisture  of  the  three  winter  months  is  60.1  per  cent. 

Nervi,  a  small  town  with  3500  inhab.,  surrounded  with  groves  of 
olives,  oranges,  and  lemons,  is  mucli  frequented  in  winter  by  Eng- 
lish, Russians,  and  Germans,  as  a  health-resort.  Tlie  Viale  Vittorio 
Emanuele,  with  its  line  palms,  leads  to  the  N.  from  tlie  railway- 
station  to  the  (3  min.)  town,  which  is  intersected  from  W.  to  E.  by 
the  highroad,  here  called  Via  Cavour  (to  the  "W.l  and  Via  del  Pozzo 
(^to  the  E.).   In  the  Via  Cavour  are  the  Giardino  Pubblico  (left)  and 

to  Pisa.  KUXA.  -JU.  Route.    109 

the  Villa  Croce  (No.  113 ;  right);  in  the  Via  del  Pozzo  are  the  Park 
of  the  Marchese  Gropallo  (right,  No.  55,  adm.  V2  fr.,  visitors  staying 
at  the  Grand  Hotel  free),  with  a  fine  group  of  date-palms  and  an 
old  watch-tower  on  the  Coast  Promenade,  and  the  Villa  Serra  (no 
adm.).    All  these  are  noteworthy  for  their  luxuriant  vegetation. 

A  feature  of  the  place  is  the  dust-free  and  sunny  *Coast  Prom- 
enade (to  the  left  on  leaving  the  station!,  whicli  runs  along  tlie  shore 
above  the  rocky  beach,  and  is  protected  by  a  lofty  wall  on  the  land- 
ward side.  Pleasantly  placed  benches  on  the  promenade  and  in  the 
adjoining  gardens  afford  resting-places  for  patients  wlio  wish  to  be 
much  in  the  open  air  without  talking  active  exercise. 

The  Via  Belvedere,  beginning  at  the  Piazza  Belvedere,  about  the  middle 
of  the  main  street,  ascends  in  curves  to  (^/t  hr.)  the  church  of  Smif  Ilario 
(640  ft.).  On  the  way,  and  from  beside  the  church,  wc  obtain  admirable 
views  as  far  iis  Portolino  on  the  E.,  and  of  the  Riviera  di  Ponente  and 
the  Ligurian  Alps  on  the  W.  The  footpath  (short-cutl  may  be  chosen 
for  the  descent;  or  we  may  follow  the  hill  to  the  W.  and  descend  via  the 
Cappella  San  Rocco  (655  ft.)  to  the  Giardino  Pubblico  ('/z  hr.).  —  From  Sant' 
Ilario  we  may  proceed  via  the  Monte  Oiugo  (1595  ft.)  to  the  top  of  the  Monte 
Fasce  (2?30ft.;  2V2  hrs.),  whence  a  fine  view  is  obtained  of  Genoa  and  to 
the  N.W.  of  the  Apennines  as  far  as  the  Monte  Rosa  chain;  descent  via 
Apparizione  to  Sturla  (p.  107).  —  The  choice  of  walks  is  small. 

The  numerous  tunnels  that  now  follow  sadly  interfere  with  the 
enjoyment  of  the  view.  —  81/2  ^-  Bogliasco  (Hot.-Pens.  Bristol). 
9'/.2  M.  Pieve  di  Sori,  above,  which  rises  the  chapel  of  Santa  Croce 
(1720  ft.  ;  11/2  lir-  ;  '^'iew).  IO1/2  M.  Sori  (65  ft.)  is  beautifully 
situated  at  the  mouth  of  a  pretty  valley,  up  which  a  road  runs  to 
(I3/4  M.)  Canepn.  We  enjoy  a  noble  survey  of  sea  and  valley  from 
the  viaduct  which  passes  high  above  the  town  and  rivulet. 

13  M.  Kecco  (modest  inn  ;  omnibus  to  Ruta  50  c. ;  carr.  2-3  fr.). 

The  *RoAD  FROM  Recco  to  Rapallo  (carr.  5-6 fr.)  ;iscends  the  mountain- 
slope  to  the  S.E.,  with  a  view,  to  the  right^  of  Camogli  (p.  110)  and  the  pop- 
ulous coast,  and  reaches  (2'/-2  M.)Ruta  (950  ft.;  Kursaal  Udt.  iritalie,  with  a 
menioiial  tablet  to  Nietzsche,  R.  from  2,  B.  1,  dt'j.  21/2,  D.  3-4,  pens.  6-10  fr., 
bargain  desirable;  Oatcvia  Piemontese,  beyond  the  tunnel,  good  cuisine),  a 
village  commanding  a  magnificent  retrospect  of  the  Gulf  of  Genoa.  The 
road  then  traverses  a  tunnel  (80yds.  long;  curious  view)  acd  descends 
through  chestnut  woods  in  wide  bends  via  (SVa  M.)  San  Lorenzo  delta  Costa 
(Flemish  altar-piece  of  1499  in  the  church),  beyond  which  steep  fnotpaths 
diverge  to  the  left  for  San  Massimo  (p.  113),  to  the  right  for  San  Siro  and 
Santa  Marghcrita  (p.  110),  to  (7  Ji.)  Ilapallo  (p.  112)  on  the  X.E. 

Ruta  is  the  most  convenient  starling-point  for  the  ascent  of  the 'Monte 
di  Portofino  or  Monte  Teltgrafo  (2000ft.),  an  almist  si|uare  promontory  of 
hard  tertiary  conglomerate,  with  a  rich  flora,  especially  on  its  S.  slopes. 
A  new  private  road  (adm.  V2  ff-i  carr.  1  fr.)  ascends  from  the  E.  end  of 
the  tunnel  on  the  higli  road  to  the  S.  to  the  (I'/e  M.)  Restaurant  Portofno- 
Kiilm  (1510  ft.),  with  extensive  view;  new  hotel  under  construction  (motor- 
car from  the  stations  of  Recco  and  Rapallo  4  fr.,  brake  3  fr.  there  and 
back).  Farther  on,  there  are  three  paths :  one  leading  to  the  right  to  the 
(V2  l*""-)  SeiiKi/oro,  the  new  signal-station  ('/z  hr.  below  the  old  one)  on  the 
Monte  Campana  (2915  ft.),  another  to  the  left  to  the  Passo  Pietre  Strette 
(p.  110),  while  we  proceed  by  the  middle  path,  finally  through  wood,  to  the 
{3/4  hr.)  summit.  The  Old  Signal  Station  (2000  ft.)  commands  a  magnificent 
view  i)f  the  Riviera,  frc^m  Capo  Berta  near  Oneglia  to  the  islands  off  Porto 
Venere,  while  in  clear  weather  the  Maritime  Alps,  the  Alpi  Apuanc,  and 
Corsica  are  sometimes  visible.  —  From  the  summit  we  proceed  to  the  E. 

IJO    ;^ow/f  i'(^         SANTA  MAKGHERITA.  From  Genoa 

(or  from  tlie  restaurant  mentioned  on  p.  100  to  the  S.E.)  to  the  (20  min.) 
Passo  I'ietre  Slrette  (1415  ft.;  Restaurant  Paradiso,  new),  beyond  which  a 
rough  and  not  easily  found  path  leads  to  the  W.,  with  a  good  view  of  the 
precipitous  S.  side  of  the  cape,  to  the  (3/4  hr.)  Semd/oro  (p.  109).  Another 
path  descends  to  the  S.  from  the  Pietre  Strette  to  (1  hr.)  San  FrtiUuo.10 
(p.  HI),  whore  a  boat  for  Camogli  or  Portoiino  may  be  taten  (2  fr.).  The 
two  main  paths  from  the  Pietre  Strette  lead,  one  to  the  left  to  (l'/4  hr.) 
Santa  Mar glterita  (see  below;  road  projected),  the  other  straight  on,  along 
the  ridge  among  fine  umlDrella-pines,  to  (t'/z  l""-)  Portofino  (p.  111). 

On  the  Monte  Orsena  (2010  ft.),  6  M.  to  the  N.  of  Ruta,  is  the  pilgrimage- 
cliurch  of  Madonna  di  Caravaggio  or  Caravagli  (founded  in  1747),  with  a 
lofty  (light  of  step.s  (414)  and  good  view.  The  best  descent  leads  to  San 
Pietro  di  Novella  (p.  113).  —  From  Ruta  via  Santa  Maria  del  Campo  to  (I1/2  hr.) 
Rapallo,  see  p.  113. 

141/2  M.  Camogli  [Alb.  delta  Stazione,  plain;  boat  to  San  Frut- 
tiioso  4,  to  Portofino  8-10  fr.,  bargain  necessary),  a  small,  but  at  one 
time  important  harbonr  (6700  inhab.),  with  a  school  of  navigation, 
lofty  houses,  and  the  ruined  Cai^lello  Draj/one (views),  is  aho  connect- 
ed with  (21/2  M.)  Ruta  (p.  109)  by  road,  and  with  the  Monte  di  Porto- 
fino (2  hrs.)  by  a  bridle-path  via  San  Rocro.  —  From  San  Rocco  a  bad 
footpath  (views)  leads  to  the  S.  past  t)ie  church  of  San  Nicola  to  the 
Funta  della  Chiappa,  the  S.W.  point  of  the  promontory  (I'/o  ^^-  from 
Camogli),  with  a  small  oratory  (Madonnina),  a  curious  harbour,  and 
an  old  convent  (now  a  private  house).   To  San  Fruttuoso  see  p.  111. 

Beyond  a  tunnel  (1^/4  M.)  penetrating  the  promontory  of  Porto- 
fino the  train  reaches  — 

171/2  M.  Santa  Margherita  Ligure.  —  Hotels  (nearly  all  have 
stcam-lieating).  *Geand-H6tel  Mikamare,  on  the  road  to  Portofino,  with 
lift,  R.  from  4,  B.  IV2.  dcj.  31/2,  D.  5,  board  9fr.;  Grand-Hotel,  in  an 
elevated  situation  (view),  R.  from  5,  B.  IV2,  dej.  3'/2,  D.  5,  pens.  8-12, 
omn.  l/'j  fr. ;  *^  Hutei,  Regina  Elena,  on  the  Portofino  road,  with  lift,  R.  2'/2-6, 
B.  11/2-  de'j.3,  D.  4,  pens.  (L.  extra)  7-12  fr. ;  *Gk.  Hot.  Continental,  with 
lift,  B.  H/2,  dej.  3,  D.  5,  pens.  8-12  fr. ;  M6tropole,  R.  from  21/2,  B.  IV2, 
dej.  2'/?,  f-  4,  pens.  7-10,  omn.  1  fr.,  both  on  the  Rapallo  road  with  line 
gardens;  Stkand  Hotel,  in  the  town,  on  the  sea,  with  lift,  R.  from  4, 
B.  l>/2,  D.  41/2,  pens,  incl.  wine,  10-16  fr. ;  Hot. -Pens.  Victoria,  with 
garden,  pens,  from  71/2  fr- ;  Kdrsaal  Hotel,  with  sea-baths,  R.  from  3, 
B.  11/2,  dej.  3,  D.  41/2,  pens,  from  8  fr.,  very  fair;  Alb.  Roma,  with  restau- 
rant, pens.  6  fr.,  plain  but  good,  both  in  the  town.  —  Pensions:  Slwm- 
(iuitlry,  8-15  fr. ;  Villa  Bauer  ^  6-9  fr. — -Cafe-Restaurants.  Chalet  Margheriia, 
with  sea-baths,  Coffi-Iiistorante  Colom'o,  both  near  the  sea;  Munich  beer 
at  the  Caffe  Ligure.  —  Carriage  to  Portofino  and  back  with  one  horse 
(2  pers.)  6,  with  two  horses  8  fr.  ;  to  Rapallo  3  or  5  fr. ;  to  Ruta  10  or 
14  fr. ;  to  Zoagli  8  or  10  fr. ;  to  Chiavari  16  or  20  fr.;  to  Sestri  Levante  25  or 
35  fr.  —  Boat  to  Portofino  and  hack  4-6,  to  San  Frulluoso  12,  to  Camogli 
(without  return)  15  fr.  —  Physician,  Dr.  Schwenlce. 

Santa  Margherita,  a  town  of  4900  inhab.,  frequented  as  a  winter- 
resort  and  for  sea-bathing,  is  situated  at  the  mouth  of  the  Val  di  San 
Si/ro,  on  one  of  the  beautiful  and  sheltered  bays  of  the  *  Gulf  of 
Rapallo,  also  called  Golfo  Tiyulio  after  an  ancient  town  of  that 
name.  Columbus,  Victor  Emmanuel  II.,  Cavour,  and  Mazzini  are 
all  commemorated  by  statues  here.  Many  of  the  women  are  engaged 
in  lace-making,  while  the  men  go  in  May  as  coral-flshers  to  the 
coasts  of  Sardinia. 

10  Pisa.  roKTOI'lNO.  I'll.  Route .    Ill 

A  inagiiiliceiit  avenue  of  plane-trees  leads  up  the  Val  di.  San  Siro 
to  the  church  of  San  Siro  (to  Sau  Lorenzo  aud  Kuta,  see  p.  109). — 
The  Monte  di  Portofino  (p.  109)  uiay  he  ascended  from  Santa  Mar- 
gherita  in  21/0  I'l's.  via  San  Loren/o  and  Ruta,  in  '2.1/4  hrs.  via  the 
Pietre  Strette. 

The  *RoAD  TO  Portofino  (3  M. ;  omn.  4  times  daily),  coni- 
raenced  under  Napoleon  I.,  is  one  of  the  most  heautiful  in  Italy.  It 
skirts  the  sea  from  Santa  Margherita,  with  views  of  the  coast  as  far 
as  the  hills  of  Spezia,  passing  tlie  Villa  Cosl:a  and  other  villas,  and 
running  helow  the  (i/2br.)  former  Benedictine  convent  of  C'eruara 
(ca.  1361;  now  occupied  hy  French  Carthusians,  p.  449),  where, 
after  the  battle  of  Pavia  (p.  203),  Francis  I.  of  France,  detained  by 
contrary  winds  on  his  way  to  Madrid  as  the  prisoner  of  Charles  V., 
was  once  confined.  Thence  the  road,  passing  the  picturesque  Castle 
of  Paraggi  (Mr.  F.  Brown,  of  Genoa),  leads  to  the  hamlet  of  Paraggi 
(Pens.  Cosmopolite,  with  sea-baths,  pens.  6-9  fr.,  good),  whence  a 
footpath  (see  below)  crosses  the  wooded  hills  to  Santa  Margherita. 

The  fishing-village  oi  '  (*Gr.  Hotel  Splendide,  in  a  lofty 
situation  with  belvedere  and  garden,  R.  i^/-2,  (le'j.  3i/2-i>  ^-  ^-6, 
pens.  9-14,  omn.  21/2^1.,  frequented  by  English  visitors;  Grand 
Hotel,  under  construction;  Piccolo  Hotel,  on  the  beach,  good;  Al- 
bergo  Delfino,  in  the  village.  R.  from  21/2,  pens.  inil.  wine  6-7  fr., 
plain;  Oderia  della  Stella),  the  Roman  Portus  Delphini,  is  ensconced 
in  a  narrow  and  well-sheltered  bay  near  the  S.E.  extremity  of  the 
promontory.  Lace  is  made  here.  The  fine  date-palm  in  front  of  the 
church  should  be  noticed.  The  Romanesque  church  of  San  Giorgio 
(r2th  cent.),  rising  above  sheer  cliffs  [^/i^r.),  commands  a  striking 
view.  The  magnificent  Villa  Carnarvon,  close  by,  was  occupied  by 
the  German  Crown  Prince  Frederick  William  in  1886  (adm.  on  Mon. 

Tlie  extremity  of  the  promontory,  fortified  in  the  14th  cent.,  is 
occupied  by  an  old  Castle  [JiiT  M.  Brown)  and  the  pilgrimage-chapel 
of  Madonna  del  Capo  ('20  min.  from  Portofino  (fine  views). 

Tlie  hitihly  attractive  niounUiin-path  to  Portofino,  reached  by  a  road 
ascending  beside  the  Villa  Costa  (see  above),  crosses  the  hill  below  the 
church  of  Madonna  di  Nozareyo,  and  descends  to  .join  the  road  at  Paraggi. 
On  the  way  a  footpath  diverges  on  the  left  for  Cervara  (see  above)  and 
another  on  the  right  for  Uccellcria.  a  line  pidnt  of  view. 

The  excursion  to  Portofino  may  be  pleasantly  prolonged  (in  calm 
weather)  by  taking  a  boat  ('1-5  fr.),  aloni;  tie  precipitous  S.  coast  of  the 
jiroinontory,  to  (i'/4  hr.)  the  convent  of  'San  FrvUiioso  (Osteria  Unica,  un- 
pretending), mentioneil  as  early  as '.81,  prettily  situated  in  a  bay  between 
steep  rocks.  The  early-Gothic  church  ccmtains  a  Roman  sarcophagus  and 
the  lombs  of  some  memliors  of  I  lie  Doria  family  (13-lUh  cent.).  We  thence 
row  on  to  the  (Yi  br.)  Ptmta  della  Chiappa  and  Cumoyli  (comp.  p.  110). 

The  Monte  di  Pcrtofino  (p.  109)  may  be  ascended  from  Portol'ino  in 
2Vi  hrs.,  from  San  Fruttuoso  in  13/4-2  hrs. 

The  picturesque  *Road  to  RAr.A.LLo  (2M. ;  omn.)  passes  the 
Marchese  Spinola's  Villa  Pagana,  with  its  beautiful  *Garden  (adm. 

112    Route  -20.  RAPALLO.  From  Genoa 

free),  and  tlie  flsliing- village  of /San  Michele  di  Payana,  the  churcli  of 
which  possesses  an  altar-piece  by  Van  Dyck  (Crucifixion;  ca.  1625; 
injured)  and  a  group  of  the  Crucifixion  by  Maragliano  (p.  88). 
The  Railway  runs  to  the  N.  and  traverses  two  tunnels. 

18'/2  M.  Hapallo*  —  Hotels  (comp.  p.  six;  mostly  closed  in  summer  ; 
nearly  all  have  steam-heatin};).  Impekial  Palace  Hotel,  near  tlie  station 
of  Santa  Margherita,  in  an  elevated  situation  (view),  with  lift  and  park, 
R.  from  3,  K.  2,  dej.  4,  D.  6,  bath  3,  pens,  from  12  fr.;  HoTtL  Kdesaal, 
also  on  the  Santa  Margherita  road,  1  M.  from  the  station,  with  concert- 
room,  garden,  and  sea-baths  (new  building  projected).  —  "Gr.  Hot.  Rotal, 
E.  from  3,  B.  fi/i,  dej.  3V2,  D.  41/2,  pens.  7-12,  omn.  1  fr.,  frequented  by 
the  English;  'Gr.  Hot.  Beau-Rivage,  R.  from  3,  B.  IV4,  dg.  3-3V2,  U.  4-5, 
pens.  9-12,  omn.  1  fr.,  both  with  lift,  steam-heating,  and  garden  (these  two 
belong  to  the  same  proprietors);  *Gr.  Hot.  Savoia,  with  the  dcpendance 
Jiosa  Bianctt  and  a  cafe  on  the  sea,  R.  from  3,  B.  l'/2,  dej.  3,  I).  41/2,  pens.  7-12, 
omn.  1  fr.,  many  German.s;  *  Riviera  Splendide  Hotel,  R.  from  3,  B.  IV2, 
d6j.  3V2,  I>.  41/2,  pens,  from  8,  omn.  1  fr.,  new;  Hot.  Mikamare,  R.  from  3, 
B.  IV2,  dej.  3-3'/2,  1).  4-iV2,  pens,  from  8fr.;  'Hot.  Modernk,  R.  31/2-6, 
B.  11/4,  dej.  3-3V2,  D.  41/2-5,  pens.  7-12,  omn.  1  fr.  (the  last  three  in  the 
Giardino  Pubblico,  on  the  sea);  Hot.  Bristol,  R.  from  3.  B.  I1/2,  dej.  3, 
D.  4,  pens,  from  6,  omn.  1/2  fr. ;  Hot.  des  Etrangeks,  E.  from  2V2,  B.  I1/2, 
dej.  21/2,  D.  31/2,  pens.  Ci/2-lOfr. ;  Eden  Hotel  &  Pens.  Germania,  with  a 
small  garden,  R.  from  21/2,  B.  I1/2,  dt5j.  21/2,  D.  3,  pens.  6-7  fr.,  plain.  — 
At  the  E.  end  of  Ihe  town  :  ''Gr.  Hot.  Augusta  Victoria,  on  the  sea,  with 
lift  and  the  dependance  Hdl.  Suisse,  R.  3-5,  B.  I1/4,  dej.  31/2,  D.  41/2,  pens. 
8-19,  omn.  1  fr.,  new;  Grand  Hotel  et  Europe;  H6t.-Restaur.\nt  Marsala, 
on  the  harbour,  R.  2-5,  pens.  G-8  fr.,  verv  fair.  'Gr.  Hot.  Verdi,  R.  3-7, 
B.  IV2,  dej.  3-4,  D.  41/2-51/2,  pens.  7-12,  omn.  I1/2  fr.,  many  English;  *Hot.- 
Pens.  Braun-Bellevue,  R.  2V2-4,  B.  I1/4,  D.  3-3V2,  S.  2-2V2,  pens.  6-9  fr., 
these  two  in  a  lofty  situation  on  the  Recco  road,  1/2  M.  from  the  station. 
"Hot.  du  Parc,  I'/i  M.  from  the  station,  with  garden,  R.  3-5,  B.  I1/2, 
D.  41/2,  S.  21/2,  pens.  7-12,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Hot.  International,  R.  from  21/2, 
B.  11/2,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  7-12  fr. ;  Hot.-Pens.  Metropole,  pens.  7-JO  fr. ; 
-Pens.  Elisabeth,  7-8  fr.,  both  German ;  all  these  are  in  an  open  situation 
on  the  CLiiavari  road;  Pens.  Vill.^  Jolanda,  Via  Montallegro,  6-9  fr.,  also 
at  the  S.E.  end  of  the  town;  Alb.  Mont'  Allegro,  with  restaurant  and 
small  garden,  R.  2  fr.,  Italian,  very  fair.  —  Hotel  Kronpkinzessin  Cecilia, 
at  S.  Michele  di  Pagana  (see  above),  with  electric  light  and  garden,  R.  3-8, 
D.  4,  pens.  10-15  fr. 

Cafes.  Chalet  Saline  (baths);  Cafi  Roma.  —  Alexandra  Tea  Rooms.  — 
Restaurant  de  la  Oare  (Munich  and  Pilsner  beer). 

Gabs  (scarce;  bargain  necessary  ff^r  longer  excursion.s).  To  Sanf  Anna 
and  back  with  one  horse  I1/2,  with  two  3  fr. ;  to  San  Pietro  di  Novella  or 
Santa  Maria  del  Campo  2  or  31/2  fr. ;  to  Santa  Margherita  3  or  41/2  fr. ;  to 
San  Lorenzo  or  Zoagli  'S^l'z  or  5  fr. ;  to  Portofino  or  Ruta  8  or  10  fr. ;  to 
Chiavari  9  or  12  fr.  —  Boats,  Per  hr.  2  fr. ;  during  the  season  motor-boats 
to  San  Fruttuoso  and  Chiavari. 

Physicians.  Dr.  Winslow,  3  Via  Montebello ;  Dr.  Bruck;  Dr.  Schmincke.  — 
Chemist.     Farmacia  Voigt. 

English  Church  (St.  George's),  at  the  W.  end  of  the  town;  services 
(Nov. -April)  at  8.30,  10.30  and  3;  chaplain.  Rev.  F.  Knight,  Hotel  Royal. 

Climate.  Rapallo  is  surrounded  on  the  N.  by  a  semicircle  of  moun- 
tains, which  unite  with  the  promontory  of  Portofino  on  the  W.,  to  forma 
tolerable  shelter  against  the  wind.  Rapallo  is  cooler,  moister,  and  rainier 
than  Nervi,  but  far  excels  it  in  the  number  of  its  attractive  walks. 

Rapallo,  a  small  seaport  with  5800  inhah.,  who  make  lace  and  do 
a  brisk  trade  in  olive-oil,  is  situated  at  the  mouth  of  the  Boato,  at 
the  head  of  the  Gulf  of  Rapallo  (p.  110).  As  a  winter-resort  it  is 
frequented  by  the  English  and  Germans  owing  to  its  agreeable  cli- 

to  Pisa.  CHIAVARI.  20.  Route.    113 

mate,  its  freedom  from  dwst,  and  its  beautiful  situation.  In  summer 
it  is  visited  by  Italians  for  sea-bathing.  The  old  Castello,  on  the 
beach,  Is  now  a  prison  and  coast-guard  station;  close  by  are  the  old 
Porta  Saline  and  a  Zoological  Station.  The  Parish  Church  has  a  lean- 
ing tower;  in  the  Oratorio  dei  Bianchi  is  a  statue  of  St.  Sebastian  by 
Maragliano  (p.  88).  To  the  W.  of  the  town  lie  the  small  Oiardino 
Pubblico  and  an  ancient  Roman  Bridge,  known  as  'Hannibal's  Bridge'. 
Exct3RSi0Na.  By  boat  (IV2  lir. ;  3V2-5  fr.  there  and  b:,ck)  or  by  road 
(p.  Ill ;  6  31.)  via  Santa  Margfierita  to  Portojino  (p.  Ill  1.  —  Via  San  Lorenzo 
delta  Costa  and  Ruta  to  (2V2  hrs.)  t'.ie  lop  of  Monte  di  Portojino,  or  to  ('2'/s- 
3  hrs.)  Recco  or  Camogli,  p.  110.  —  By  road  (.imnibus)  throvigh  the  Boato 
Valley,  with  it3  numerous  orchavd.i,  to  (I  M.)  SanC  Anna.  Thence  to  the 
N.,  by  the  Val  di  Foggia,  dominated  by  the  sheer  Manico  di  Lnme  (2625  ft.), 
to  San  Pietro  di  Novella  and  (21/2  M)  Sanf  Andrea  di  Foggia;  or  to  the  W. 
to  (2  M.)  Santa  Maria  del  Campo,  near  the  Romanesque  church  ot  San  Tommaso 
and  ihe  early-(;otliic  ruins  of  the  Monasterio  di  Valle  Christi  (founded  12U4; 
secularized  1535);  or  to  the  .S.W.  to  (2V2  M.)  San  Massimo.  The  last  two 
villages  are  connected  by  footpaths  with  Rata  and  San  Lorenzo  (see  above). 
—  To  Sant''  Ambrogio,  ^ji  hr.  to  the  S.E.  —  To  the  N.E.  is  the  pilgrimage- 
church  of  'Madonna  di  Montallegro  (2(X15  ft. ;  founded  in  15.57),  reached  by 
a  bridle-path  passing  among  fine  old  ilexes  in  2-21/4  hrs.,  and  commanding 
a  snperb  view.  Beside  the  churcli  is  the  Locanda  di  3iout;illegro  (R.  2-3, 
pens.  5-6  fr.).  The  view  is  still  more  extensive  from  the  Monte  Rosa  (2270  ft. 1, 
10  min.  to  the  E.,  or  from  the  Monte  Castello  (2170  ft.),  V2  hr.  to  the  S.E. 
From  the  latter  we  may  descend  to  the  S.W.  to  Sant^  Ambrogio  (see  above), 
or  we  may  follow  the  ridge  to  the  S.E.  and  then  descend  to  San  Ruffitio 
di  Levi  (915  ft. ;  inn)  and  through  the  pretty  Rupinaro  Valley  to  (2V2  hrs.) 
Chiavari  (sec  below). 

The  *RoAD  FROM  RAv.iLLo  TO  Chiavari  (71/2  M')  is  one  of  the 
most  beautiful  in  Italy,  and  should  be  traversed  by  carriage  (one- 
horse  6-S,  two-horse  12  fr.)  or,  as  far  as  (S*^  M.  from  Uapallo)  Zoagli, 
on  foot.  The  road,  with  fine  views  of  the  coast  as  far  as  Portoflno, 
ascends  a  hill,  where  Chiavari  comes  into  sight,  then  descends  rapidly 
to  (31/4  M.)  Zoagli  (see  below).  We  again  asiend  (two  sliort  tunnels) 
over  the  ridge  bearing  the  ancient  churches  of  Sanf  Andrea  and 
San  Pietro,  and  pass  below  the  church  of  Madonna  delle  Grazie, 
whence  the  road,  commanding  line  views  of  the  coast  as  far  as  Sestri, 
descends  rapidly  to  Chiavari. 

The  Railw.w  between  RapaUo  and  Chiavari  is  an  almost  con- 
tinuous tunnel.  —  21  M.  Zoagli  (166  ft. ;  cafo'),  a  prettily  situated 
little  place,  with  an  interesting  churchyard.  The  manufacture  of 
velvet  is  a  house-industry  here. 

24  M.  Chiavari.  —  Hotels  ""Albergo  del  Negrino,  R.  2-2'/2  fr. ; 
Alb.  OoLosfiio .  Alb.  Priario,  both  clean.  —  Caffi  Sangtiineli,  Pia/.za 
Garibaldi.  —  Boat  to  Portolino  5  fr.  —  Cvrriage  to  Kapallo  6  fr.  — 
Omnibus  to  Sestri  (p.  ll-l)  and  twice  daily  to  Borzonasca  (70  c). 

Chiavari,  an  episcopal  town  with  10,400  inhab.,  near  the  mouth 
of  the  Entella,  where  the  mountains  recede  in  a  wide  semicircle, 
manufactures  lace,  light  chairs  (sedie  di  Chiavari),  and  silk,  and 
builds  ships.  Near  the  station  are  pretty  gardens  and  the  church  of 
Madonna  dell'  Orto  (1613),  now  the  cathedral,  with  a  large  portico 
added  in  1841.    In  the  Piazza  Carlo  Alberto  are  the  handsome  new 

Babdeker.    Italy  I.    13th  Edit.  8 

114   Route  W.  SESTRI  LEVANTE.  From  Genoa 

Law  Courts.  The  ruined  Castle  dates  from  the  12th  century.  Fine 
view  from  the  mouth  of  the  river,  at  the  E.  end  of  the  town. 

Picturesijue  walk  by  the  old  Ponie  della  Maddalena,  the  highest  up  of 
the  bridges  over  the  Entella,  to  (2  M.)  the  late-Komanesque  church  of 
"San  Salvatore,  erected  in  1244-52 ,-  adjacent  is  an  old  palace  of  the  Fieschi 
(see  below).  —  Via  San  liuffino  di  Levi  to  the  Madonna  di  Montallegro  see  p.  113. 

From  Chiavari  a  road  runs  N.  via  Carasco  (100  ft.J  into  the  Sturla 
Valley^  in  which  are  the  villages  of  Borgonuovo  and  (10  M.)  Bvrzonasca 
(510ft.:  several  inns;  omn.  see  p.  113).  From  the  former  a  road  diverges 
to  the  ^^.E.  running  via  the  Passo  del  Bocco  (3125  ft.)  to  the  little  summer- 
resort  and  pilgrim-resort  of  Santa  Maria  del  Taro  (2340  ft.;  inn).  A  bridle- 
path (mnle  5  fr.)  connects  Borzunasca  with  (I1/2  hr.)  Prato  Sopra  la  Croce 
(1845  ft.;  Alb.  del  Club  Alpino,  R.  1  fr.,  well  spoken  of;  Hot  -Pens.  Pitta- 
luga),  a  favourite  summer-resort  in  the  Penna  Valley  (in  wh'.ch  are  many  old 
chestnut  woods),  near  a  cold  mineral  spring.  Prato  is  the  starting-point  for 
the  ascent  of  the  Monte  Ajona  (55S0  ft. ;  31/2  hrs. ;  views)  and  of  the  rugged 
t;reenstone  peak  of  the  Monte  Penna  (5695  ft.;  41/2-6  hrs.),  whence  the  descent 
may  be  made  via  the  Casa  del  Penna  (i^95  ft. ;  good  beds)  to  (21/2  hrs.) 
Santa  Maria  del  Taro  (i-ee  above). 

251/2  M.  Lavayna,  a  ship-building  place,  is  the  ancestral  Beat  of 
the  Counts  Fieschi,  and  the  birthplace  of  Sinibaldo  de"  Fieschi,  pro- 
fessor of  law  at  Bologna,  afterwards  Pope  Innocent  IV.  (1243-54). 
Ascent  of  Monte  Capenardo  via  Cogorno^  see  p.  116.  —  27  M.  C'avi, 
at  the  mouth  of  a  charming  ravine. 

281/.2  M.  Sestri  Levante.  —  Hotels.  "Gband  Hotel  Jensch,  in  an 
open  situation  on  the  W.  bay,  R.  from  3,  B.  IV2,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  9-14 
(L.  extra),  omn.  '/i-l'/i  fr.,  Oernian;  Gb.  Hot.  BIikamark  (Europe).,  on  the 
S.  bay,  R.  from  3,  B.  IV2,  d^j.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  8-12  fr..  with  lifss,  steam- 
heating,  and  gardens;  Alb.  Victoria,  at  the  harbour  (Piazza  Vitt.  Emanu- 
ele).  Alb.  dki  Viaggiatoei,  near  the  station,  both  quite  Italian,  unpretend- 
ing. —  Osteria  Ohio,,  Piazza  Vitt.  Eman.,  good  and  Ligurian 
wine.  —  Caffi  Ligure,  Corso  Colombo  6.  —  Post  Office,  Via  Carlo  Alberto, 
the  main  street.  —  Sea  Baths  at  the  Stahilimento  Nettuno  (also  theatre),  on 
the  W.  hay.  —  Physician:  Dr.  Bartel.  —  Omnibus  to  Chiavari  hourly  (40  c). 

Sestri  Levante,  the  Roman  Segesta  Tiguliorum,  a  small  seaport 
with  3000  iiihab.,  is  situated  on  the  flat  and  fertile  Isthmus  which 
connects  the  plain  at  the  mouth  of  the  streamlet  Grdmolo  with  the 
Jsola  (230  ft.;  once  an  island),  an  abrupt  and  picturesque  sandstone 
cape.  The  shallow  W.  bay  commands  an  extensive  view  of  the  Gulf 
of  Rapallo  (p.  110);  the  small  S.  bay  has  steep  wooded  banks.  Sestri 
is  visited  for  sea-bathing  in  summer  by  Italians  and  as  a  winter- 
resort  by  nervous  patients  (especially  from  Germany),  while  its 
beautiful  and  well-wooded  environs  attract  numerous  pleasure  tour- 
ists. Its  winter -temperature  (46.4°  Fahr.)  is  lower  than  that  of 
other  Riviera  stations  as  it  is  not  so  well  sheltered  from  the  N.  wind, 
but  the  sun  is  longer  visible  and  the  atmosphere  is  drier. 

The  pretty  Coast  Promenade,  on  the  W.  bay,  near  the  station, 
and  the  adjoining  Oiardino  Pubhlico  are  the  favourite  resorts  of 
visitors.  —  From  the  harbour,  at  the  S.  extremity  of  the  bay,  we 
may  either  follow  the  picturesque  road  to  the  end  of  the  promontory, 
or  ascend  past  the  Guardie  di  Flnanza  (coast-guard  station)  to  the 
*ViUa  Piiima  (ring  at  the  upper  gate,  No.  4;  fee  20-30  c).  Passing 
below  the  mansion  and  beyond  a  'castle'  (view),  we  round  the  cape 

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to  Plaa.  SESTRI  LEVANTE.  20.  Route.   115 

to  the  right,  with  Its  tliie  pines  and  undergrowth.  —  Good  views 
of  the  S.  bay  are  obtained  on  the  way  to  the  Campo  Santo  (^from 
the  harbour  to  the  left  by  the  church),  and  also  from  the  Capuchin 
Monastery  and   from  the  Villa  Mandrella,  on  the  E.  margin  of  the 

S.  hay. 

E.^cuRSioNS.  Pleasant  walk  to  the  S.E.  to  liiva  (see  below),  via  the 
villages  of  Pila  and  San  Barlolomeo  (1  hr. ;  boat  from  .Sestri  2-3  fr.).  — 
From  San  Bartolmueo  an  attractive  footpath  leads  to  the  S.W.,  finally 
through  wood,  to  the  (1  hr.)  TeUgrafo,  or  signal-station,  on  the  S.  spur  of 
the  Monte  Castello  (870  ft.).  Here  we  command  a  view  of  the  bay  of  Riva 
and  of  the  coast  as  far  as  the  promontory  of  Portofino.  —  To  the  N.E. 
to  the  Erica  Wood  {V2  hr.)  and  San  Bernardo.  —  A  footpath,  diverging  to 
the  right  from  the  Chiavari  road  immediately  before  the  tunnel  and  affording 
fine  views,  leads  past  the  ruined  chapel  of  SanV  Anna  to  Cavi  (p.  114).  — 
A  bridle-path  ascends  to  the  N.  from  Sant'  Anna  to  the  (21/2  hrs.)  top  of 
the  Monte  Capenardo  (2270  ft. ;  view).  Descent  to  the  W.  to  Cogorno  and 
Lavagna  (p.  114).  —  Carriage-road  via  Pila  to  the  copper-mines  of  Santa 
Vittoria   and  Libiolo,  in  the  Gromolo  valley. 

The  Highroad  fbom  Sestbi  to  Spezia  (35V2M.;  carriage  25,  with  two 
horses  45  fr.)  diverges  to  the  right  from  the  road  to  Borgofavo  (see  below) 
beyond  Pila  (see  above),  and  from  (2  M.)  Trigoso  winds  np  the  scantily 
wooded  mountains  (short-cuts  for  walkers),  atl'ording  a  fine  retrospect  of 
Sestri  and  the  Monte  Castello,  to  the  magnificently  situated  Cata  BertoUo. 
(The  dairy  of  Casaggi,  a  little  to  the  right,  is  another  fine  point  of  view.) 
Thence  we  follow  the  N.  side  of  the  Monl>-  Moneglia  (1710  ft.),  and,  in 
view  of  the  sea,  reach  the  prettily  situated  village  <jf  (Ti/z  M.)  Bracco 
(1310  ft.;  inn),  whence  a  footpath  descends  on  the  S.  to  Moneglia  (see 
below).  We  now  traverse  a  bleak  mountain -district  via  Baracchino  to 
(ll'/s  M)  Baracca  (1930  ft.;  inn).  A  picturesque  road  leads  hence  to  the 
right,  passing  nuarries  of  so-called  red  marble,  to  Bonassola  and  (8V2  M.) 
Leranlo  (p.  116).  Our  road,  however,  descends  tlG'/a  M.)  Currodano 
Inferiore  (555  ft. ;  omn.  to  Spezia)  to  t22'/2  M.)  Borghetto  di  Vara  (360  ft. ; 
Alb.  Europa,  modest;  Caflfe  Conti,  with  rooms),  in  the  valley  of  the 
Vara,  an  affluent  of  the  Magra.  The  road  skirts  the  broad,  gravelly  bed 
of  the  river  and  runs  up  and  down  to  (30  M.)  Bicct)  (460  ft.)  and  the  pass 
of  (33  M.)  la  Fact  (p.  118),  on  the  last  height  before  Spezia,  whence  we 
enjoy  a  magnificent  prospect  of  the  bay  and  the  precipitous  Alpi  Apnane 
(B.  21).    We  then  descend  to  (351/2  M.)  Spezia  (p.  116). 

From  Sestri  to  Borgotaro,  41  M.  (omn.  to  Vare.'ie  twice  daily).  The 
picturesque  road  leads  to  the  E.  frcim  Pila  (.see  above)  via  Sara  to  (3  M.) 
Cataria  Ligure  (110  ft.  I,  in  the  Petronio  valley,  and  thence  past  the  copper- 
mines  (on  the  left)  to  the  bamlet  of  Casclli.  It  then  mounts  rapidly  via 
(7  M.)  Cattiglione  Chiavarese  &iQ  ft.),  Missano,  and  (11  M.)  Veha  (inn)  to 
the  (I'iVaM.)  Passo  di  Velva  (1790  It. ;  inn),  commanding  a  fine  view  of  the 
Apennines  and  the  sea.  On  the  summit  is  a  pilgrimage-church  (Santuario), 
built  in  1805.  We  descend  to  (21  M.)  Vareie  Ligure  (1130  ft. ;  Alb.  degli 
Amici;  Trattoria  Venezia,  with  beds),  and  cross  the  (29  M.)  Passo  di  Cento 
Croci  (3415  ft.;  Alb. -Pens.  Marcone)  to  (41  M.)  Borgotaro  (p.  371).  A  bridle- 
path, following  the  ridge  of  the  Apennines  to  ttie  S.E.  from  the  Passo  di 
Cento  Croci,  leads  to  the  Monte  Gottero  (p.  371)  in  2  hrs. 

The  railway  now  intersects  the  picturt-squehilly  district  of  Sestri. 
Beyond  (31  M.)  Riva-Trigoso  (see  above)  tunnels  succeed  each  other 
in  rapid  succession  all  the  way  to  Spezia.  Several  fine  glimpses  of 
the  sea  and  the  ro>-ky  coast  to  the  right.  —  341/2  M.  Moneglia,  birth- 
place of  Luca  Cambiaso  (1527-86;  p.  80),  the  painter,  has  two  old 
castles.  To  Bracio,  see  above.  —  37'/2  M-  Deiva,  at  the  entrance 
to  a  sitle-valley ;  39  M.  Frnmura.  —  41  M.  Bondssnla,  with  a  ruined 
castle.    To  Baracca,  see  above. 


116   Route  20.  SPEZIA.  From  Genoa 

43  M.  LevantO.  —  Hotels.    »Gkaiid  Hotel,  R.  from  21/2,  B.  1,  dej.  21/2, 

D.  4,  pens,  from  7,  omu.  3/4  fr. ;  Alb.  Nazionale,  R.  IV2  fr.,  B.  60  c,  pens. 
5-51/2  fr.,  incl.  wine;  Stella  d'Italia,  pens  ,  inc].  wine,  51/2-6  fr.,  both  well 
spoken  of;  Alb.  Europa.  —  Er,gUsh  Church  Service  (.)an.  to  April)  at  the 
Grand  Hotel. 

LevantO.  a  small  seaport  town  -with  2700  inhab.,  occupies  a 
sheltered  situation  on  a  semicircular  bay,  at  the  mouth  of  a  short 
and  wide  mountain  valley.  It  contains  an  old  citadel,  a  fine  Gothic 
church  of  1463,  a  small  Giardino  Pubblico,  and  pood  sea-baths.  In 
clear  weather  the  snow-covered  peaks  of  the  Cottian  Alps  (Monte 
Viso,  etc.)  may  be  descried  to  the  W. 

Ih^"  Monte  V^  (1620  ft.),  I'/ihr.  to  the  E.  ofLevanto,  afford.?  a  magni- 
ficent view  of  the  coast  fiom  Portuflno  to  Porto  Venere,  of  the  Alps,  and 
sometimes  of  Corsica.  A  footpath  skirts  the  mountain  on  Ihe  S.,  via  the 
Pwila  del  ilesco  (see  below)  and  the  rained  cbapel  of  SunV  Anlonio  (1015  ft.), 
to  (i'V*  lir.)  Monterosso  (see  below).  —  From  Levanto  to  Baracca,  see  p.  115. 

Beyond  the  Punta  del  Mesco  (tunnel,  II/3  M.  long)  follow  the 
villages  of  the  Cinque  Terre,  occupying  very  sheltered  situations 
but  cut  off  from  each  other  by  lofty  cliffs.  Oranges,  lemons,  and 
wine  are  largely  produced  here;  the  vines  are  in  many  cases  trained 
upon  wire  over  the  gorges  of  the  streamlets  and  on  the  face  of  sheer 
cliffs,  accessible  only  by  ladders  or  ropes. 

46  M.  Monterosso  al  Mare  (inn)  has  a  Gothic  church  of  1307,  a 
lofty  ruined  castle,  and  an  ancient  watch-tower.  The  pilgrimage 
chapel  of  Madonna  di  Soviore  (1535  ft.),  31/2  M.  to  the  N.E.,  eon- 
tains  a  very  ancient  image  of  the  Virgin.  Fine  view  from  the  (6  M.) 
chapel  of  Santa  Croce  (2025  ft.),  whence  we  may  descend  to  Vernazza. 

48  M,  Vernazza,  with  remains  of  fortifications,  is  situated  on  the 
edge  of  an  overhanging  cliff.  The  Monte  Malpertuso  (2690  ft.)  may 
he  ascended  hence;  descent  to  Corniglia,  to  Kiomaggiore,  or  via 
Biassa  (p.  118)  to  Spezia.  —  Beyond  Vernazza  we  observe  the  traces 
of  an  extensive  landslide  (1853-62). 

50  M.  Corniglia,  with  an  old  church.  —  51  M.  Mannrola,  with 
a  ruined  castle.  —   51 V2  M.  Riomaggiore  (inn).    About  3  M.  to  the 

E.  are  the  old  pilgrimage  chapel  oi  Madonna  di  Monte  Negro  (1115  ft.) 
and  the  Capo  Monte  Negro,  the  S.E.  limit  of  tlie  Cinque  Terre.  — 
Beyond  the  Biassa  Tunnel  (21/2  M.;  7  min.)  we  reach  — 

56  M.  Spezia.  —  Hotels.  'Grand  Hotel  Royal  Ckoce  di  Malta 
(English  landlord).  Via  Mazzini,  in  an  open  situation  near  the  sea,  R.  3^/4-5^4, 
B.  IV2,  dej.  3,  D.  5,  pens.  7-12,  omn.  1  fr.  —  Alb.  Italia,  Via  Chiodo,  with 
view  and  good  trattoria,  R.  3-31/2,  omn.  1  fr.,  Gran  Bretagna  e  Roma, 
close  by,  with  trattoria,  R.  from  2'/2,  omn.  s/i-l  fr-,  both  very  fair;  Alb. 
DEL  GiAPPONE,  Corso  Cavour,  with  frequented  trattoria,  R.  2-21/2,  omn. 
3/4  fr.,  these  two  commercial;  Hot.  Contihental,  Alb.  Firenze,  unpretend- 
ing, both  at  tbe  station. 

Cafe.  Caffi  del  Corso,  C.  Bazzel-Orastan,  near  the  Giardino  Pubblico; 
Stella  Polare.  Corso  Cavour. 

Baths.  Warm  baths  at  the  two  first-named  hotels.  —  Sea  Baths  at  the 
Selene,  Nereide,  and  Iridc  establishments  on  the  N.  side  of  the  gulf,  and  at 
San   Terei:zo  and  Lerici  (p.  118). 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office,  Corso  Cavour.  —  Physician,  Dr.  A.  E.  Leeson. 
H6t.  Croce  di  Malta.  —  Chemists.    Magni,  Praii,  both  Via  Chiodo. 

to  Pisa.  SPEZIA.  20.  Route.    117 

Theatres.  Teatro  Civico,  Piazza  Mentaiia:  Politeama  Duca  di  Oenova, 
I'iazza  Verdi.  —  Music  on  Sun.,  Tues.,  and  Thars.  in  the  Giardiuo  Pubblico. 

Electric  Tramways.  1.  Vinle  Margherita  -  Corso  Cavonr  -  Cantiere  San 
Barlolomeo  (."0  c).  —  2.  Viale  Maraherita- Corso  Caivo-ar -  Migliarina  (15  c.). 
—  3.  Railway  Station- Fossa  Mastra  (20  c;  to  Via  Chiodo,  15  c).  —  Omnibus 
to  Porto   Venere,  twice  daily  (70  c). 

Cabs.  Per  drive  60  c,  at  night  1  fr. ;  with  two  horses  1  and  i>U  I'r. 
Circular  drive  via  La  Foce  and  Sarbia,  with  one  horse  7,  two  horses  10  fr. ; 
to  Porto  Ventre,  8  and  12  fr. ;  to  San  Terenzo  and  Lerici,  10  and  14  fr.; 
carr.  and  pair  to  the  top  of  tbe  Monte  di  Castellana  20,  to  Sestri  Levante 
50  fr.  (carriages  at  L.  CecchVs,  Via  Fazio,  etc.). 

Boat  with  one  rower,  li/j  fr.  the  first  hr.,  1  fr.  each  additional  hr. ; 
for  2  pers.  2  fr.,  and  1  fr.  'JD  c.  each  additional  hr. ;  3  pers.  2V2  fr.  and  1  fr. 
40  c. ;  4  pers.  3  fr.  and  1  fr.  60  c. ;  5  pers.  31/2  and  2  fr. ;  to  the  Stabilimento 
Selene  30  c.  (or  50.  60,  70,  and  SO  c);  to  Le  Orazie  IV2  fr-  (or  1  fr.  80,  2  fr., 
2  fr.  3'',  2  fr.  50  c.) ;  to  Son  Terenzo  2  fr.  (or  2  fr.  40,  2  fr.  80,  3  fr.  20,  3  fr.  80  c.) ; 
to  Porto  Venere  or  to  Lerici,  1  pers.  2'/2fr.,  to  Palmaria  3  fr.  (each  ad- 
ditional pers.  1/2  fr.  more). 

Steamboats  (starting  at  the  Giardino  Pubblico).  Via  Le  Orazie  to  Porto 
Venere,  twice  or  thrice  daily  in  1  hr.,  fare  30  c.;  to  San  Terenzo  unA  Lerici, 
hourly  in  summer,  in  ^/z-^/thT.,  fare  30  c.,  at  other  seasons  twice  or  thrice 
daily.  —  Sea-going  Steamers  to   Genoa  and  Leghorn,  see  p.  77. 

British  Viee-Consul,  E.  M.  de  Garston.  —  English  Church.  Via  Principe 
Amedeo;  services  in  winter  at 8.30,  10.30,  and3.30;  chaplain,  Eev.S.Bunbury, 
Hotel  Croce  di  Malta. 

N.B.  Visitors  must  not  approach  within  330  yds.  of  the  forts  (see  the 
notice-boards),  and  sketching  and  photographing  should  be  avoided. 

iSyezJa  (50  ft. ),  an  industrial  town  witli  38,900  inhab.,  lies  at 
the  N.W.  angle  of  the  Golfo  della  Spezia,  at  the  foot  of  heautiful 
hills  fringed  by  picturesque  villages  and  crowned  with  forts.  The 
climate  is  very  mild,  so  that  Spezia  is  frequented  as  a  winter-re- 
sidence by  the  English  and  for  sea-bathing  in  summer  by  the  Italians. 
The  chief  centres  of  traffic  are  the  Corso  Cavour,  the  Via  Chiodo, 
the  neighbouring  Piazza  Vittorio  Emanuele,  converted  into  an  at- 
tractive Qiardino  Pubblico,  the  Via  Mazzini,  and  the  picturesque 
Viale  Umbefto  Primo,  on  the  coast.  The  Via  Chiodo  leads  to  the 
S.W.  to  the  arsenal  (see  below). 

The  *Gulf  of  Spesin,  upwards  of  51/2  M.  in  length  and  41  o  M- 
wide,  one  of  the  largest  and  safest  natural  harbours  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean, anciently  praised  by  Ennius  as  the  Lunai  Partus,  has  been 
the  chief  naval  harbour  of  Italy  since  1861.  The  entrance  is  pro- 
tected not  only  by  several  hill-forts,  but  also  by  the  Diga  Subacquea, 
a  submarine  breakwater  nearly  2  M.  long,  constructed  in  1874. 
Beside  the  latter,  on  the  shore,  are  the  two  forts  of  Santa  Maria{W. ) 
and  Santa  Teresa  (E.).  —  The  Royal  Naval  Arsenal  on  the  S.  side 
of  the  town,  constructed  by  General  Chiodo  (d.  1870),  whose  statue 
rises  at  the  entrance,  is  a  large  establishment,  220  acres  in  extent 
(no  admission).  Beside  it  are  the  Naval  Barracks  and  the  Hospital. 
The  marine  artillery  magazines  in  the  bay  oi  San  Vito  cover  an  area 
of  150  acres.  The  Cantiere  di  San  Bartolomeo  (p.  118),  on  the  N.E. 
side  of  the  gulf,  serve  as  a  torpedo  station.  —  The  commercial  harbour, 
to  the  N.E.  of  the  town,  is  used,  like  that  of  Avenza  (p.  119),  for 
the  export  of  Carrara  marble. 

118   Route  20.  SPEZIA.  From  Genoa 

ExcuKSioNS.  The  best  survey  (if  the  town  and  harbour  is  afforded  by 
the  "Strada  dei  Colli,  or  Sirada  di  Circonvallazione,  which  diverges  to  the 
left  at  the  end  of  the  Via  Mazzini,  and  is  connected  with  the  town  by 
two  flights  of  steps  also.  It  ascends  above  the  Basiih,  or  citadel,  built 
by  the  Milanese  in  1365,  passing  pretty  country-houses  and  the  Ruiorante 
Uinverso,  to  the  Fort  Castellazzo.  Thence  we  may  return  to  the  (own  on 
the  left,  or  continue  our  walk  by  the  lower  part  of  the  beautiful  road, 
which  leads  from  Harbia  to  the  fort  on  the  Monte  Albano^  passing  high 
above  the  Durasca  Valley,  with  its  pine  and  chestnut  woods.  —  Anothei- 
attractive  round  is  the  Oiro  delta  Face  (carr.,  see  p.  117;  2  hrs.'  walk),  a 
circular  route  leading  via  the  Strada  dei  Colli  and  Sarbia  to  the  pass  of 
La  Face  (790  ft. ;  inn;  p.  115),  and  returning  via  Chiappa  and  tlie  Porta  Qenova. 
Near  La  Foce  is  the  stalactite  cavein  of  Bocca  Lnpara,  containing  a  spring 
(key  at  the  Municipio  in  Spezia).  —  Another  picturesque  road  leads  to 
the  S.W.  from  La  Foce  to  the  fortified  Monte  VerugoU  (2425  ft.)  and  Monte 
Bramapane  (2190  ft.),  and  returns  thence  to  the  town  via  Biassa  and 
Pegazzano.  About  halfway  a  branch  road  diverges  for  the  Monte  Parodi 
(2215  ft.),  of  interest  to  geologists. 

A  charming  '^Excursion  may  be  made  to  Porto  Venere,  either  by 
steamer  (see  p.  117)  or  via  the  highroad  (7  M. ;  carr.  and  omnibus,  see 
p.  117),  which  describes  a  wide  curve  round  the  arsenal,  and  then  skirts 
the  S.W.  shore  of  the  gulf,  via  Marola.  Cadimare,  Fezzano,  Panigaglia, 
and  Le  Orazie  (steamboat-station,  see  p.  117). 

Porto  Venere  {Trattoria  del  Genio,  Ristorante  Belvedere,  both  clean),  on 
the  site  of  (ho  ancient  Portiis  Veneris,  with  well-preserved  fortifications 
built  by  the  Genoese  in  1113  and  vainly  attacked  by  the  Spaniards  and 
Neapolitans  in  1494,  is  situated  in  a  calm  and  sheltered  bay,  on  a  pro- 
montory separated  from  the  island  of  Palmaria  by  a  strait,  16()  yds.  wide. 
It  is  celebrated,  like  Palmaria,  for  a  yellow-veined  black  marble,  known 
as  'Portoro\  Charming  prospect  from  the  ruined  church  of  San  Pietro, 
rising  high  above  the  sea,  and  supposed  to  occupy  the  site  of  the  temple 
of  Venus.  Be(ween  two  rocks  beneath  the  church  is  the  Qrotla  Arpaia 
(accessible  by  steps;  fee),  or 'Byron''s  Grotto' (inscription),  where  the  poet 
is  said  to  have  written  much  of  his  'Corsair'.  —  The  island  of  Palmaria 
(613  ft.),  crowned  by  a  fort  containing  a  penitentiary,  commands  a  fine 
view  of  the  Italian  coa'^t  from  Portoflno  (o  Viareggio ;  best  from  beside 
the  light-house  on  the  Capo  deW  /sola,  the  S.  extremity.  On  a  cliff  at  the 
N.E.  extremity  is  the  curious  old  Torre  delta  Sci/ola.  The  Grolta  Aizurra 
and  the  Cala  Grande,  two  interesting  caves  on  the  precipitous  W.  coast, 
are  most  conveniently  visited  in  the  course  of  an  expedition  round  the 
island  from  Porto  Venere  (2  hrs. ;  5  6  fr.  by  bargain).  —  Another  fine  view 
is  obtained  from  Tino  (300  ft.),  a  rocky  islet  to  the  S.  of  Palmaria,  with 
a  signal-station,  castle,  and  ruined  abbey. 

From  Le  Orazie  (see  above)  a  military  road  ascends  to  the  fortified 
8ummi(s  of  the  Monte  di  Castellana  (1627  ft.)  and  Monte  Muzzerone  (1045  ft. ; 
signal-station);  on  the  wav  'View  of  the  gulf  and  of  the  precipitous  coast 
of  the  Cinque  Terre  (p.  116). 

Of  the  excursions  on  the  N.E.  side  of  the  gulf,  that  to  the  Bay  of  Lerici 
is  the  finest  (steamer  and  carr.,  see  p.  117).  The  road  to  Lerici  s'cirts 
the  somewhat  swampy  N.  coast  of  the  gulf,  passing  the  bathing-establish- 
ments (p.  116)  and  the  commercial  harbour  of  Spezia,  and  then  ascends 
to  the  N.E.,  beyond  the  (2V2  M  )  StaUlimento  Pirelli  (submarine  cable 
works),  among  fortified  hills  and  olive-groves  to  the  prettily  situated 
village  o(  Pitelli.  Another  road,  diverging  to  (he  right  at  the  Stabilimento 
Pirelli,  leads  past  the  Cantiere  di  San  Bartolomeo  (p.  117;  tramway,  p.  117) 
and  the  lead-foundries  of  Pertusola,  and  rejoins  the  main  road  beyond  Pitelli. 
The  main  nad  then  descends  via  Solaro  and  Pugliola  (p.  119)  to  Lerici. 

Lerici  (Alb.  Croce  di  Malta,  R.  I1/2  fr. ;  Alb.  Parma),  a  small  seaport 
with  4300  inhab.,  a  Romanesque  church,  and  an  imposing  12lh  cent,  castle 
(now  a  marine  observatory;  no  adm.),  was  the  capital  of  the  Gulf  of  Spezia 
in  the  Middle  Ages.  Its  sheltered  site  and  charming  environs  adapt  it  for  a 
residence   of  some    duration.   —   A    road   leads   from  Lerici    to  the  W.  to 

to  Pisa.  SARZANA.  20.  Route.   119 

0»/h  M.)  San  Termzo  (with  a  ca?tle  and  sea-batlis;  30  c.),  where  Shelley  spent 
his  liist  days.  The  Casa  Maccarani,  formerly  Casa  Magni,  nenr  the  village, 
was  occupied  by  Lord  Byron  in  18y?.  —  Another  road  (omnibus  four  times 
daily,  60  c.)  unites  I.eriei  with  PuglioUi  (p.  118)  and  (41/2  M.)  Sarzana  (see 
below).  —  The  picturesque  iishing-village  of  TUaro  lies  3  M.  to  the  S.E. 
of  Lerici  by  a  pretty  footpath  passing  below  the  village  of  Serra.  From 
Telaro  we  may  prolong  our  walk  eitlier  to  tlie  E.  over  abrupt  ridges  and 
boulder-strewn  fields  to  (1  hr.)  Amejlia  (see  below),  or  to  the  S.E.  via 
the  village  oi  Monte  Marcello  (SIO  (t.;  signal-station)  to  the  (I'/z  hr.)  mouth 
of  the  Miigra  (see  below). 

Railway  from  Spezia  to  Parma  (Milan),  see  R.  62. 

Soon  after  quitting  Spezia  we  enjoy  a  beautiful  view  of  the  Gulf 
of  Spezia  to  the  right.  —  Beyond  (61  M.)  Vezznno  Ligure  (p.  371), 
whence  the  line  to  Parma  diverges  to  the  N.,  we  see  to  the  left 
the  Alpi  Apuane  (K.  21).  —  62'/2  M-  Areola,  with  a  conspicuous 
campanile.  The  train  crosses  the  broad  Magra,  the  ancient  Macra, 
which  formed  the  boundary  between  Etruria  and  Ligtiria. 

6G  M.  Sarzana  (86  ft.  ;  Alb.  cV Italia,  K.  '2  fr, ;  Alb.  di  Londra, 
very  fair),  with  6500  inhab.,  Rom.  Sergiana,  or  Luna  Nova,  from 
its  having  sticceeded  the  ancient  Lnna  (see  below),  was  taken  by  the 
Florentines  in  1467  under  Lorenzo  Magniflco,  from  whom  it  was 
wrested  by  Charles  Vlll.  of  France.  It  subsequently  belonged  to 
Genoa.  Sarzana,  the  seat  of  a  bishop  since  1204,  was  the  birthplace 
of  Pope  Nicholas  V.  (Tommaso  Parentucelli,  1447-55).  The  town, 
whicli  is  situated  in  a  fertile  plain,  Is  noted  for  its  well-preserved 
Town  Walls  of  the  15th  century.  The  handsome  Cathedral  of  white 
marble,  in  the  Italian  Gothic  style,  re-erected  in  1340-55,  contains 
an  ancient  painted  crucifix  from  Luni.  In  San  Francesco  are  the 
tomb  Guarniero,  a  son  of  Castrucdo  Castracani  (p.  442),  by  Giov. 
di  Balduccio,  and  two  tombs  of  the  Malaspina  family.  A  pleasant 
and  well-shaded  promenade  skirts  the  town  on  the  8.  On  the  verge 
of  the  hiU  (numerous  villas),  ^/^  M.  to  the  N.,  is  the  picturesque 
fortification  of  Sarzanello,  constructed  by  Castruccio. 

ExcuEsioNs.  To  tlie  N.E.  to  Fosdinovo  (p.  364),  on  the  road  to  Fivizznno 
(Reggio).  —  To  the  S.E.  to  (41/2  M)  Castelnuoro  di  Magra  (620  ft.),  with  a 
castle  of  1274.  —  To  the  W.  via  (l»/i  M.)  Ponte  di  Magra  to  Lerici  (comp. 
above).  —  To  the  S.E.  along  the  right  bank  of  the  Magra  to  (5  M.)  Amcglia 
(inn;  .<:ee  above),  or  by  the  river-plain  to  the  Iishing-village  of  <Santa  Crvce, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  "Magra  (abounding  in  eels ;  very  picturesque  river- 
landscape),  with  tlie  remains  of  a  monastery  in  which  Dante  is  said  to 
have  ouco  lived.  Hence  we  may  proceed  to  the  N.W.  via  Monte  Marcello 
to  Teliiro  and  Lerici  (coinp.  above);  or  we  may  crops  to  tlie  left  bank  of 
the  Magra  (ferry  V2  *'>■■)  •'•nd  walk  along  the  shore  to  the  E.  to  (I1/2  hr.) 
Marina  d'Avenza  (p.  120). 

Railway  from  Sarzana  to  Parma  (Milan),  sec  R.  5'2. 

On  the  Alpi  Apuane,  to  the  left,  we  observe  the  conspicuous 
white  ravaneti  (p.  120).  —  Near  (691/2  M.)  Luni  are  the  ruins  of 
Luna.  This  originally  Etruscan  town  was  destroyed  by  the  Arabs 
(1016),  and  its  episcopal  see  was  in  consequence  transferred  to 
Sarzana  in  the  13th  cent.  The  ruins  of  an  amphitheatre  and  a  theatre 
are  still  traceable.  From  Luna  the  district  derives  its  name  of  La 

120   Route  20.  CARRARA.  From  Genoa 

72  M.  Avenza,  above  which  rises  an  old  castle  of  Gastruccio 
Castracani,  of  1322,  with  bold  round  towers  and  pinnacles,  was 
once  the  frontier-town  of  the  Duchy  of  Massa.  It  is  now  in  Tus- 
cany. On  the  coast  to  the  S.E,  lies  Marina  d' Avenza  or  Marina  di 
Carrara,  with  a  pier  300  yds.  in  length,  the  terminus  of  the  marble- 
railway  mentioned  below. 

Bkanch  Railway  in  1/4  l^'-  (fares  60,  45,  30c.);  one-horse  earr.  1  fr.) 
to  (3  M.)  - 

Carrara  (Alb.  della  Posta,  very  fair,  R.  2V2,  omn.  >/2  fr- ;  -^ib.  Roma, 
R.  I'/sfr. ;  one-Lorse  carr.  to  Massa,  3-4  fr. ;  omn.,  see  \>.  121),  a  pleasant 
little  town  with  21,000  inliab.,  most  of  whom  gain  their  livelihood  by 
working  the  marble.  Some  of  the  studios  of  the  numerous  sculptors  are 
interesting.  American  Consular  Agent,  Ulisse  Boccacci.  —  From  the  rail, 
station  we  turn  to  the  right  into  an  avenue  ot  plane-trees,  cross  the  Car- 
rione  (right),  and  then  follow  the  Via  Vitlorio  Emanuelc,  the  main  street 
of  the  town,  to  the  left.  This  passes  the  Theatre  and  leads  to  the  Piazza 
Alberica,  which  is  embellished  with  a  statue  of  the  Grand  Duchess  Maria 
Beatrice  (1861).  —  The  Via  Alberica  runs  hence  to  the  right  to  the  Piazza 
deir  Accademia,  with  the  former  ducal  palace,  now  the  Aocademia  di 
Belle  Aeti,  containing  works  by  sculptors  of  Carrara  and  several  Roman 
antiquities  found  in  the  quarries  of  Fantiscritti  (see  below ;  e.g.  a  bas- 
relief  of  Jupiter  with  Bacchus).  —  Not  far  off  is  the  church  of  Sant' 
Andbb.4,  a  Gothic  structure  of  the  13th  cent.,  with  a  fine  facade  and  good 
sculptures.  The  church  of  the  Madonna  delle  Orazie  with  sumptuous  de- 
corations in  marble  of  a  more  recent  date,  the  Gothic  Casa  liepetli,  and 
the  fine  Gi'irdino  Pubblico  are  also  worth  a  visit. 

The  Uarble  Cluarries  (Cave)  of  Carrara  enjoy  a  worldwide  fame. 
The  deposits  of  marble  occur  throughout  almost  the  whole  of  the  Apuari 
Alpt  ['R,.2i),  from  the  little  river  Aulclla  on  the  N.  to  Pietrasanla  (p.  121) 
on  the  S.  and  Castelnuovo  di  Garl'agnana  (p.  371)  un  the  E.  The  quarries 
in  the  valleys  of  FaniUcritii,  Colonnata,  aud  Torono  were  worked  by  the 
Romans,  hut  after  the  downfall  of  the  West  Roman  Empire  the  'marmor 
Lunensis'  (so  named  from  the  seaport  of  Luna,  p.  119)  was  almost  entirely 
forgotten.  The  building  of  the  cathedral  of  I'isa  and  the  churches  of 
Lucca,  Pistoia,  and  other  neighbouring  towns  again  created  a  demand  for 
Carrara  marble ;  and  the  artistic  activity  of  the  i5-16th  cent,  gave  a  renewed 
impulse  to  its  use.  The  industry  now  grows  steadily;  in  1901  about 
204,(X)0  tonr!  of  rough  blocks  were  exported,  besides  164,€00  tons  of  sawn 
blocks  and  29,700  tons  of  otherwise  worked  blocks.  About  635  quarries 
in  all  are  in  operation ;  of  these  411,  with  ca.  5SU0  workmen,  are  at  Carrara, 
89  (1100  men)  at  Massa,  and  the  reit  in  the  Versilia  (p.  121)  and  at  Ami  (p.  1 24). 
There  are  74  marble-sawing  works  at  Carrara  and  33  at  Massa.  The  best 
and  largest  blocks  yield  the  mat  mo  statuavio.  —  The  quarrymen ,  who 
receive  1-3  fr.  per  day,  work  from  8  to  4  in  winter,  in  summer  from  5  to  3. 

A  visit  to  the  quarries  (2-3  hrs. ;  guide,  not  indispensable,  2-3  fr.)  is 
best  made  early  in  the  morning  when  the  weather  is  vyarm.  From  the 
above-mentioned  Piazza  dell'  Accademia  we  follow  the  Via  Santa  Maria  to 
the  end  of  the  town  and  ascend  the  valley  along  the  left  bank  of  the 
Carrione.  At  (1/4  M.)  a  group  of  houses  a  path  diverges  to  the  right  to 
large  quarries  of  inferior  marble,  but  we  continue  to  follow  the  road, 
passing  numerous  marble  cutting  and  polishing  works.  At  the  entrance 
to  the  (1  M.)  village  of  Torano  we  turn  to  the  right  and  climb  the  steep 
lanes  to  the  marble  railway  (see  below),  the  metals  of  which  we  follow 
in  the  narrow  shadelesg  upland  valley,  passing  numerous  quarries,  to  (1  M.) 
the  station  of  Piastra.  We  may  push  on  to  the  highest  station  (small  re- 
staurant), but  the  ascent  is  fatiguing,  and  the  visitor  will  probably  he 
satisfied  by  the  quarries  and  expanses  of  dazzling  white  debris  (ravaneti) 
already  seen.  A  horn  is  blown  as  a  signal  when  the  rock  is  about  to  be 
blasted.  The  blocks  of  marble  are  roughly  squared  on  the  spot.  Some- 
times they  are  sinii'ly  rolled  down  the  mountain,  but  usually  they  are 
carried  down  on  rude  wooden  sledges  (lizze)  descending  steep  paved  slip- 

to  Piaa.  VIAHEGGIO.  20.  Route.   121 

ways  provided  with  soaped  wooden  rollers,  and  controlled  by  hempen  cables 
wound  round  posts  at  the  sides  of  the  slipways.  At  the  foot  they  are  carried 
away  on  ox-waggons,  either  to  Ihe  ships  direct  or  to  the  railway  (Ferrovia 
Marmi/era),  wbich  sends  branches  into  two  of  the  lateral  valleys.  Visitors 
are   sometimes   allowed   to  ride  in  the  trains;   the  tunnels  are  very  cold. 

Ascent  of  the  Monte  Sagro  from  Carrara,  see  p.  123. 

TG'/q  M.  Massa  (213  ft;  H6tel  Massa,  with  garden,  R.  2-2V2, 
pens.  71/2  fr.,  Alb.  il  Giappone ,  R.  2,  ouin,  1/2  fr.,  both  very  fair; 
omn.  from  the  station  to  the  Piazza  Dmherto  Primo  and  thence  to 
Carrara),  formerly  the  capital  of  the  Duchy  of  Massa-Carrara,  with 
10,600  inhab.,  is  pleasantly  situated  on  the  Frigido  amidst  marhle- 
yieldiiig  hills,  and  enjoys  a  mild  climate.  The  handsome  Palazzo 
Ducale  (1701 ;  now  the  prefecture),  with  its  fine  court,  was  a  sum- 
mer-residence of  Napoleon's  sister  Elisa  Bacioochi  (p.  442).  The 
loftily  situated  Eocca,  now  a  prison,  3/^  M.  to  the  N.E.,  commands 
a  splendid  view  (permesso  at  the  prefecture). 

A  Light  Raii-wat  (20  niin.;  fares  25,  20c.)  runs  from  Massa  to  the 
little  port  (>f  San  Giuseppe  or  Marina  di  Massa  (Gr.  Hot.  Tirreno,  R.  27^3, 
pens,  from  7  fr.),  3  M.  to  the  S.W.,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Frigido,  with 
sea-baths.  The  wooden  jetty,  where  marble  is  shipped,  affords  a  splendid 
view  of  the  coast  from  Porto  Venere  to  Viareggio,  and  of  the  Alpi  Apuaue. 

Excursion  from  Massa  to  the  Alpi  Apxuxne  see  K.  21. 

We  now  pass  through  extensive  olive-woods;  to  the  left  lies  the 
village  of  Montuinoso  (325  ft.)  with  the  picturesque  ruins  of  the 
Castello  Aghmolfi  on  a  steep  hill.  —  BO'/o  M.  Serravezza  is  the 
station  for  the  village  of  that  name  (p.  124),  which  lies  2  M.  to  the 
N.E.  Beside  the  station  is  the  hamlet  of  Querceta  (Alb.  nl  Monte 
Altissimo).  —  About  2  M.  to  the  S.W.  lies  Forte  dei  Marmi,  a  little 
seaside  resort  surrounded  by  pine-woods,  with  a  quay  for  shipping 

83  M.  Pietrasanta  (Alb.-Bist.  Ballerini;  Alb.  Garibaldi),  a  small 
town  (8700  inhab.)  with  ancient  walls,  the  capital  of  the  Versilia, 
beautifully  situated,  was  taken  by  the  Florentines  in  1484,  At  the 
beginning  of  the  town  is  the  Kocchetta,  a  relic  of  the  fortitications. 
The  cathedral  of  San  Martina  (11  Duomo)  dates  from  the  I4th  cent.; 
the  interior,  modernized  in  the  17th  cent.,  contains  a  pulpit  and 
sculptures  by  Stagio  Stagi.  Campanile  of  1380.  Sanf  Agostino  is 
an  unflnished  Gothic  church  of  the  14th  century.  To  the  S."VV.  of 
the  town  rises  the  Rocca,  the  imposing  castle  (13th  cent.).  —  Near 
Pietrasanta  are  quicksilver-mines  and  marble-quarries.  Excursion 
to  the  Alpi  Apuaue,  see  R.  21. 

89'/2  ^1-  Viareggio.  —  Railway  Station  at  the  K.  end  of  the  town, 
Yi  M.  from  the  beach. 

Hotels  (mostly  overcrowded  in  summer  and  prices  raised;  tbe  larger 
houses  have  steam-heatinj:).  'Grand  Hotel  Rovai,,  in  an  open  situation, 
with  a  small  garden,  U.  from  3  fr.,  B.  l-lV'i,  di'j.  3,  D.  5,  pens.  6-8  (in 
summer  9-12),  onm.  i  fr. ;  Ge.  Hot.  de  Rissie,  R.  from  41/2,  B.  11/4,  dej.  8V2, 
D.  4V2,  pens.  8-12  fr  ;  these  two  in  the  Via  Manin,  at  the  corner  of  the  il'Azeglio;  'Hot.  d'Italie  ,  R.  from  2V2  fr.,  L-  36  c.,  B.  1,  dej. 
2-2Vv,  D.  3V2-4,  pens.  6-8  fr.,  well  managed;  Hot.  db  Pabis-Soleil;  'Hot. 
DE  Rome,  wiih  small  garden,  pens.  d-V/i  (in  summer  8-10)  fr. ;  these  three 
iu  the  Piazza  d'Azeglio;  "Hot.  dk  Nice,  Viale  Ugo  Foscolo,  good  cuisiue; 

122   Route  20.  VIAREGGIO. 

'H6t.  dk  Florence,  R.  from  21/2  fr.,  B.  80  c.,  d^j.  2,  D.  3,  pens.  (L.  extra) 
5-7  (in  summer  6-8)  fr. ;  Hot.  de  la  Paix,  both  Via  Manin^  Hot.  Gbandb 
Bretagne,  Via  San  Martino,  at  the  corner  of  the  Via  Manin,  pens.  7-9  fr. ; 
Hot.  Aqcila  d'Oko,  Via  Ant.  Fratli,  with  restaurant;  Alb.  Vittoria.  Via 
Eegia,  at  the  corner  of  the  Piazza  del  Mercato,  '/«  M.  from  the  station, 
both  unpretending;  Alb.  k  Trattoria  la  Stazione,  Via  Fontanella,  at  the 
station,  R.  2  fr.,  unpretending.  —  Pension:  English  Pension  Villa  Shelley, 
Via  Zanardelli  84,  pens.  6-7  fr.  —  Apartments  moderate. 

Cafes.  Caffe  del  Teatro.,  Piazza  Vittorio  Emanuele;  Caffi  del  Casino, 
in  the  Casino  (see  below),  Piazza  Blanzoni;  and,  in  summer,  several  cafes 
and  confectioners  in  the  Via  Manin. 

Cabs.  Per  drive  1  pers,  1  fr.,  several  pers.  I'/z  fr- ;  per  hr.  within 
13/4  M.,  2  fr.,  each  addit.  hr.  l'/2  fr. ;  longer  drives  according  to  bargain. 
Same  fares  at  night.     Hand-luggage  free;  trunk  30-50 c. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office,  Piazza  ViKorio  Emanuele  Secondo.  — Theatres. 
Heale  Teatro  Pacini,  Piaz/a  Vitt.  Kman.  Secondo;  Casino,  Piazza  Manzoni; 
Politeaina,  open-air  theatre,  on  the  beach. 

Sea  Bathing  at  the  •  Stabilimento  Nettuno  and  Balena,  both  with  restau- 
rants, l)all-rooms,  and  skating-rinks ;  Bagno  di  Felice.  —  Beggars  and  hawkers 
are  exceedingly  troublesome  on  the  beach  in  summer. 

English  Church,  Via  Sanf  Andrea  144;  services  in  winter;  chaplain, 
Rei'.  A.  J.  Ard,  Via  Zanardelli  23. 

Viareggio  (13  ft.),  founded  by  Lucca  in  1171,  is  a  quiet  country- 
town  (14,900  irihab.),  with  regular  and  mouotonous  streets,  situated 
in  a  spacious  and  somewhat  marshy  plain  on  the  sea,  about  3  M. 
to  the  S.E.  of  the  spurs  of  the  Alpi  Apuane.  Its  excellent  sandy 
beach  attracts  numerous  sea-bathers  (especially  from  Tuscany)  in 
July  and  Aug.,  and  in  spite  of  its  want  of  protection  against  the 
wind  it  is  occasionally  visited  as  a  winter-station. 

From  the  railway-station  a  road  leads  to  the  W.  direct  to  the 
beach,  crossing  the  Ponte  di  Pisa,  skirting  the  Fosso  Burlamacca 
(here  known  as  the  Porto  Canale),  the  discharge  of  the  lake  of 
Massaciuccoli  (p.  128),  and  passing  the  Darsena  Vecchia  and  Dar- 
sema  Nuova,  two  small  harbours.  From  the  end  of  the  N.  Molo 
(220  yds.  long),  at  the  mouth  of  the  canal,  we  enjoy  a  splendid 
view  of  the  Alpi  Apuane  and  of  the  coast  from  Leghorn  to  the 
Gulf  of  Spezia. 

The  Via  Manin,  skirting  the  beach,  and  the  Piazza  d'Azeglio, 
with  its  gardens,  are  the  favourite  resorts  of  visitors.  The  Piazza 
Principe  Amedeo,  adjoining  the  Via  Manin  to  the  W.,  is  embellished 
with  a  Monument  to  Shelley  (p.  437),  by  Urbano  Lucchesi. 

On  the  side  of  the  pedestal,  encircled  by  intertwined  branches  of  oak 
and  olive,  is  a  book  bearing  on  its  cover  the  word  'Prometeo'.  Above 
this  is  the  following  inscription:  —  '1894  to  P.  R.  Shelley,  heart  of  hearts, 
in  1822  drowned  in  this  sea,  consumed  by  fire  on  this  shore,  where  he 
meditated  the  addition  to  'Prometheus  Unbound'  of  a  posthumous  page  in 
which  every  generation  would  have  a  token  of  its  struggles,  i(s  tears, 
and  its  redemption'. 

The  Pineta,  or  pine-forest,  of  Viareggio,  extends  for  6  M.  along 
the  coast  to  the  N.  It  belongs  to  the  town  and  is  open  to  visitors, 
and  is  reached  from  the  Via  Manin,  etc.  In  the  somewhat  neglected 
pine-forest  to  the  S.  of  the  town  (the  property  of  Archduke  Leopold 
Salvator  of  Austria)  is  the  Villa  dei  Borboni,  built  for  the  Arch- 

APUAN  ALPS.  21.  Route.    123 

duchess  Marie  Louise  (p.  365).  The  villa  is  entered  (permesgo 
essential)  from  the  Via  della  Fornace,  near  the  old  harhour. 

From  Viareggio  a  narrow-gauge  railway  runs  to  the  N.E.  in  ca.  V2  l"". 
to  (7  M  )  the  liltle  town  of  Camaiore  (147  ft.;  Alb.  il  Giardinetto) ;  2  M. 
to  the  E.  lies  the  Piere  di  Camaiore,  a  Romanesque  church  founded  at  a 
very  early  date.  From  Camaiore  a  road  leads  to  the  S.E.  via  (S'/i  ^•) 
Mvntemagno  (735  ft.)  to  (Irji/z  M.)  Lucca  (p.  442). 

A  pleasant  Drive  (or  cycle  tour)  may  be  made  to  (6  M.)  Pietrasanta 
(p.  121)  or  to  the  Lago  di  Massaciuccoli  (2V2sq.  M.;  8  ft.  deep),  near  the 
station  of  Torre  del  La^o  (see  below).  Near  the  village  of  Massacinccoli, 
at  the  E.  end  of  the  lake,  are  the  so-called  Bagni  di  N^erone,  a  Roman 
ruin.     The  lake  may  be  reached  by  boat  on  the  canal. 

Fkom  Viakeggio  to  Ldcca,  I4V2  M.,  branch-railway  in  V*  ^^-  ^'i^  (6  M.) 
Massarosa  and  (S'/j  M.)  Nozzano.  From  Lucca  (p.  442)  to  Florence  via 
Pistoia,  see  p.  449;  to  Bologna  via  PLstoia,  see  pp.  149,  450,  and  408,  407. 

The  Railway  traverses  a  thick  pine-wood  (Macchia  di  Migliarino) 
beyond  (9272*1.)  Torre  del  Lago,  and  at  (_97V2  M.)  Migliarino 
crosses  the  Serchio  (p.  427). 

102'/2  M.iPisa  (p.  426).  To  the  left,  before  we  enter  the  station, 
rise  the  cathedral,  baptistery,  and  campanile.  We  then  cross  the 

21.  The  Apuan  Alps. 

The  name  of  the  Alpi  Apiiane  is  derived  from  the  warlike  tribe  of 
the  Apvani,  subdued  by  the  Romans  in  180  B.C.  and  mostly  transferred 
to  Samnium.  Along  with  the  mountain  chains  of  Spezia  they  constitute 
an  independent  system,  geologically  allied  with  the  Maritime  Alps.  They 
consist  mainly  of  hard  limestone  rocks,  to  the  pronounced  crystalline 
formation  of  which  is  due  their  extraordinary  wealth  of  marble  (p._i20); 
but  older  slate  formations  also  occur,  as  in  the  Monte  Pisanino  (6385  ft.), 
the  highest  summit  of  the  group.  The  Apuan  Alps  are  separated  by  the 
deep  valleys  of  the  Aulella  and  the  Serchio  from  the  Etruscan  Apennines; 
and  their  boldly  shaped  peaks  stand  in  vivid  contrast  to  the  flat  rounded, 
summits  of  the  latter,  which  in  winter  are  much  more  thickly  covered 
with  snow.  The  best  periods  for  excursions  in  this  comparatively  little 
known  but  beautiful  mountain  region  are  from  April  to  June  and  in 
September  and  October.  In  summer  the  midday  sun  is  too  hot  for 
exertion.  In  clear  weather  the  peaks  command  fine  views  of  the  Apen- 
nines, the  fertile  vales  of  the  Magra  and  the  .Serchio,  of  the  coast-line 
from  Spezia  to  Leghorn,  and  of  the  Tuscan  inlands  and  the  distant  Corsica. 
Only  the  chief  routes  are  given  in  our  description  below. 

1.  Carrara  (p.  120)  is  the  best  starting-point  for  the  fatiguing  but 
repaying  ascent  of  the  Monte  Saijro  (5740  ft.;  4'/2lii'S-,  '^'ia  Torano). 

2.  From  Massa  (p.  121)  a  road  ascends  the  picturesque  Val 
Frigido,  to  the  N.E.,  to  (4l/oM.)  Forno,  whither  a  light  railway  also 
runs  on  Sun,  (4  trains  in  60  min.).  At  Guadine  (485  ft),  a  little 
short  of  Forno,  a  road  diverges  to  the  right  for  the  village  ofResceto 
(1625  ft. ;  inn  ;  guide,  G.  Conti),  7'/2  M-  from  Massa.  A  broad  path, 
interrupted  at  places,  ascends  from  Kesceto  to  the  (3  hrs.)  Pasfo  della 
Tambura  (6315  ft.),  lying  between  the  Monte  Tamhura  (6200  ft. ; 
view),  3/4  hr.  to  the  N.,  and  the  Alio  di  Sella  (5655  ft. ;  ascent  dif- 
flcult).  Thence  we  descend  to  the  N.E.,  via  Vagli  di  Sopra  (2380  ft. ; 
good  inn)  and  Vagli  di  Sotto  (1970  ft.)  to  (81/2  hi"sO  Camporgiano 

124   Route  '27.  PONTE  STAZZAMESE. 

(p.  371),  in  the  valley  of  the  Serchio.  — The  Passo  delta  Focolaccia 
(5465  ft. ;  near  it  to  the  8.  the  Rifagio  Aronte  of  the  I.  A.  G. ;  key 
at  Resceto),  3  hrs.  to  the  N.  of  Resceto,  is  the  starting-point  for  the 
difficult  ascent  of  the  Monte  Pisanlno  (6385  ft.). 

3.  A  high-road  (omnibus  to  PoTite  Stazzeniese  50  c,  carr.  5  fr.) 
runs  to  the  N.  from  Pietrasanta  (p.  121)  up  the  valley  of  the  Serra 
to  Serravezza  (180  ft.;  railway-station,  see  p.  1*21),  formerly  a  resi- 
dence of  the  Grand-duke  of  Tuscany.  The  Casino  Ducale  here  was 
built  for  Cosimo  I.,  by  Rart.  Ammanati.  The  large  marble-quarries 
at  Serravezza  were  opened  In  1518  by  Micliael  Angelo,  on  behalf  of 
Pope  Leo  X.  Farther  on  the  road  enters  the  Val  di  Vezza  to  the  E., 
and  proceeds  via  (5  M.)  VArgentera,  a  very  ancient  silver-mine,  and 
(51/2  M.)  Ruosina,  to  (8</2  M.)  Ponte  Stazzemese  (565  ft.;  Alhergo 
Milani;  guides,  L.  Bianchini  and  others). 

A  highly  picturesque  mountain-road  leails  to  the  N.  from  Ruosina  to 
the  (8  M.J  CipoUaio  Tunnel  (.2640  ft.),  1200  yds.  long  and  entirely  unlighted, 
and  to  the  marble-quarries  in  the  romuutic  valley  of  the  Turriie  Secca, 
lielow  the  milling  village  of  Ami  (^005  ft.;  inn).  From  Arni  we  may 
ascend  via  the  Passo  cli  Sella  (5020  ft.)  tii  Vagli  di  Sopra  (p.  123). 

Ponte  Stazzamese  offers  the  best  headquarters  for  the  exploration  of 
the  S.  portion  of  the  Alpi  Ajjuane.  To  the  N.  we  proceed  via  Volegno 
(1390  ft.)  and  the  (21/4  brs.)  Foce  di  Moscela  (4100  ft.;  refuge-hut),  where 
a  bridle-path  diverges  for  Ruosina  via  Levi'jUani,  to  the  top  of  the  (4  hrs.) 
"Pdnia  della  Croce  (6100  ft.),  long  famous  as  a  point  of  view.  To  the  K.E. 
v/e  may  ascend  the  Monte  Forato  (4015  ft.),  via  Cardoso  (885  ft.);  on  the 
top  is  a  curious  rock-aroh  resembling  a  window.  To  the  E.  rises  the 
Monte  Procinto  (3860  ft.),  the  wooded  summit  of  which,  surrounded  on  all 
sides  by  sheer  precipices  nearly  500  {>.  deep,  is  celebrated  by  Ariosto  as 
'the  abode  of  Suspicion'.  The  route  (3  hrs.)  leads  via  Stazzima  (1410  ft.), 
with  its  13th  cent,  church  (interesting  sculptures  on  the  portal),  and  the 
(2  hrs.)  Alpe  delta  Orotta  (2840  ft.),  where  we  find  the  guide  (G.  Gherardi, 
2  fr.).  The  flnal  ascent  (1  hr.),  by  means  of  ladders  and  steps,  should  be 
attempted  only  by  climbers  with  steady  heads. 

From  the  Alpe  della  Grotta  (see  above),  we  proceed  via  the 
Callare  di  Matanna  (3705  ft.),  a  pass  1/2  ^^-  to  the  i>f.  of  the  Monte 
Matanna  (4320  ft.),  to  (i  hr.)  the  Plan  d'Orsina  (3410  ft.;  inn, 
pens,  b^l^-l  fr.),  with  its  attractive  mountain-pastures.  A  path 
indicated  by  red  marks  leads  hence  to  the  E.  via  Palignana  (2440  ft. ; 
Alb.  Matanna)  to  (2  hrs.)  F'ibbrkhe,  and  thence,  in  21/2  li^s.  more, 
Anally  traversing  the  valley  of  the  Serchio,  to  the  Bagni  di  Lucca 
(p.  448). 

IV.  Lombardy. 

11.   Milan f28 

a.  From  the  Piazza  del  Diiomo  to  the  Central  Station. 
Northern  (Quarters  of  the  City.  The  Brera,  1.31.  —  b.  From 
the  Piazza  del  Duomo  and  the  Piazza  de'Me:canti  to  the 
Castello  and  the  Arco  della  Pace,  146.  —  c.  West  Quar- 
ters of  the  City.  Biblioteca  j^mbrosiana.  Santa  Maria 
delle  Grazie.  Sant'  Ambrogio,  151.  —  d.  Along  the  Via 
Torino  to  the  Southern  Quarters  of  the  City  (San  Lorenzo, 
Sant'Eustorgio,  OspedaleMaggiore),  156.  —  e.  East  Quarters 
of  the  City.  Corso  Vittoiio  Emanuele  and  its  Side 
Streets.    Giardini  Pubblici,  159.  —  f.  The  Cemeleries,  161. 

Excursion  to  the  Certosa  di  Pavia 161 

-B.   From  Milan  to  Oonio  via  Saroniio 164 

'24.   From  Milan  to  Como  and  Lecco  (Colico)  via  Moiiza  .    .    165 

25.  From  Milan  to  Bellagio.    The  Brianza 171 

26.  Lake  of  Como i?.'} 

From  Colico  to  the  Val  Tellina  and  to  Bovmio,  180. 

27.  From  Menaggio,   on  the  Lake  of  Como,  to  Lugano  and 

to  Luino,  on  the  Lago  Maggiore 182 

28.  From  Milan  to  Porto  Ceresio,  on  the  Lake  of  Lugano,  via 
Gallarate  and  Varese 186 

29.  From  Milan  to  Laveno,  on  the  Lago  Maggiore,  via  ,Sa- 
ronno  and  Varese 187 

30.  From  Bellinzona  to  Genoa  via  Alessandria 189 

From  Milan  to  Mortara  (Genoa)  via  Vigevano,  190. 

31.  Lago  Maggiore 190 

32.  From  Milan  to  Genoa  via  Pavia  and  Voghera    ....  202 

From  Pavia  to  Alessandria  via  Torre-Kerretti  and  Valeuza 
and  to  Cremona,  205. 

33.  From  Milan  to  Mantua  via  Cremona 206 

From  Cremona  to  Brescia  and  to  Piacenza,  209. 

34.  From  Milan  to  Bergamo 209 

35.  The  Bergamasque  Alps 213 

1.  Val  Brembana,  213.  —  2.  Val  Seriana,  215. 

36.  From  Leico  to  Brescia  via  Bergamo 216 

37.  From  Milan  to  Verona 217 

38.  Brescia 219 

39.  The  Brescian  Alps 225 

1.  I.ago  d'Iseo  and  Val  Camonica,  225.  —  2.  Val  Tiximpia, 
227.  —  3.  Val  Sabbia  and  Lago  d'Idrn,  228. 

40.  The  Lago  di  Oarda.    Riva.    Arco 229 


The  name  of  the  Germanic  trihe  that  invaded  Italy  in  568  is  now 
applied  to  the  country  between  the  Alps  and  the  Po,  which  is  separated 
from  Piedmont  by  the  Ticino ,  and  from  Venetia  by  the  Mincio.  It  is 
divided  into  the  eight  provinces  of  Como,  Milano,  Pavia,  Sondrio,  Ber- 
gamo., Cremona.,  Brescia,  and  Mantova,  covering  an  area  of  about  9000  sq.  M., 
and  containing  4,334,100  inhabitants.  The  name  was  once  applied  to  a 
much  larger  tract.  Lombardy  has  not  inaptly  been  likened  to  an 
articholce,  the  leaves  of  which  were  eaten  off  in  succession  by  the  lords 
of  Piedmont;  thus  in  1427  they  appropriated  Vercelli,  in  1531  Asti,  in  1703 
Val  Sesia,  in  1706  Alessandria,  in  1736  Tortona  and  Novara,  and  in  1743 
Domodossola.  The  heart  of  the  country ,  if  we  continue  to  use  the 
simile,  would  then  be  the  District  op  Milan,  or  the  tract  lying  between 
the  Ticino,  Po ,  and  Adda.  The  three  zones  of  cultivation  are  the  same 
as  in  Piedmont,  viz.  the  region  of  pastures  among  the  mountains,  that 
of  the  vine ,  fruit-trees ,  and  the  silk-culture  on  the  lower  undulating 
country  and  the  slopes  adjoining  the  lakes,  and  that  of  wheat,  maize, 
and  meadows  in  the  plains,  the  yield  of  these  last  being,  however,  far 
more  abundant  than  in  Piedmont.  The  climate  of  Lombardy  is  thoroughly 
continental:  winter  in  the  plains,  which  are  scourged  by  bitter  winds,  is 
very  cold  (minimum  at  Milan,  1.4°  Fahr.)  and  abounds  in  snow  and  mist 
(in  1899  at  Milan  snow  occurred  on  18  days,  mist  on  50);  while  in  summer 
the  heat  is  greater  than  that  of  S.  Italy  (maximum  at  Milan,  97°  Fahr.). 
In  the  height  of  summer  rain  is  rare  beyond  the  lower  Alps,  and  falls 
more  frequently  when  the  wind  is  from  the  E.  than  from  the  W.,  as  the 
moisture  of  the  latter  is  absorbed  by  the  Maritime  Alps  and  the  Apennines; 
but  a  thorough  system  of  irrigation,  without  a  parallel  in  any  other  part 
of  Europe,  prevails  here,  so  that  a  failure  of  the  crops  is  hardly  possible.  In 
the  middle  ages  the  importance  of  Milan  was  due  to  its  woollen  industries, 
but  sheep-breeding  has  in  modern  times  been  largely  superseded  by  the 
silk-culture,  an  industry  which  has  so  materially  increased  the  wealth  of 
the  country,  that  it  used  to  be  said  during  the  Austrian  regime  that  the 
army  and  the  officers  lived  on  mulberry  leaves,  as  their  produce  alone 
sufficed  to  pay  the  land  taxes.  Under  these  circumstances  the  population 
is  unusually  dense ,  being  about  380  persons  to  the  sq.  mile,  or  only  a 
little  less  dense  than  in  Liguria  and  Campania. 

The  central  situation,  and  the  wealth  of  the  country,  have  ever  ren- 
dered it  an  apple  of  discord  to  the  different  European  nations.  In  the 
earliest  period  known  to  us  it  was  occupied  by  the  Eiruscaris,  an  Italian 
race,  which  about  400  B.C  was  subjugated  or  expelled  by  Cells  from  the 
W.  These  immigrants  founded  Mediolanum  (Milan),  near  the  site  of  the 
Etruscan  Melpum,  destroyed  in  396  B.C.  Traces  of  their  language  still 
survive  in  the  modern  dialect  of  the  country,  as  it  does  in  the  dialects 
of  Piedmont  and  Emilia.  It  was  but  slowly  that  the  Italians  subdued  or 
assimilated  these  foreigners,  and  it  was  not  till  B.C.  222  that  the  Romans 
extended  their  supremacy  to  the  banks  of  the  Po  by  their  victory  at 
Clastidium  (p.  357).  In  the  following  century  Oallia  Cisalpina  was  con- 
stituted a  province,  on  which  Csesar  conferred  the  rights  of  citizenship 
in  B.C.  46.  Throughout  the  whole  of  the  imperial  epoch  these  regions 
of  Northern  Italy  formed  the  chief  buttress  of  the  power  of  Rome.  From 
the  4th  cent,  on  Milan  surpassed  Rome  in  extent,  and,  in  many  respects, 
in  importance  also.  It  became  an  imperial  residence,  and  the  church 
founded  here  by  St.  Ambrosius  (who  was  bishop  of  Milan  in  374-97),  long 
maintained  its  independence  of  the  popes. 

The  Lombards  made  Pavia  their  capital,  but  their  domination,  after 
lasting  for  two  centuries,  was  overthrown  by  Charlemagne  in  774  (p.  3). 
The  Lombard  dialect  also  contains  a  good  many  words  derived  from  the 
German  (thus,  bron,  gast,  grii,  pib,  smessor,  storA.,  and  stosit,  from  the 
German  Brunnen,  Gast,  Greis,  Pflug,  Messer,  storen,  and  stossen).  The 
crown  of  Lombardy  was  worn  successively  by  the  Franconian  and  by  the 
German  Kings,  the  latter  of  whom,  particularly  the  Othos,  did  much  to 
promote  the  prosperity  of  the  towns.  When  the  rupture  between  the 
emperor  and  the  pope  converted  the  whole  of  Italy  into  a  Guelph  and 
Ghibelline  camp,  Milan,  the  leader  of  the  federated  Lombard  cities  since 


1167,  formed  the  headquarters  of  the  former,  and  Cremona  those  of  the 
latter  party,  and  the  power  of  the  Hohenstaufen  proved  to  be  no  match 
for  the  Lombard  walls.  The  internal  dissensions  between  the  nobles  and 
the  burghers,  which  prevailed  in  every  town,  led  to  the  creation  of  several 
new  principalities.  In  1277  Archbishop  Ottone  degli  Visconli  of  Milan  (whose 
family  was  so  called  from  their  former  office  of  'vicecomites',  or  archiepisc- 
opal  judges)  was  nominated  'Capitano  del  Popolo',  and  in  1294  Maiteo 
Visconli,  his  nephew,  was  appointed  governor  of  Lombardy  by  the  German 
king.  Although  banished  for  a  time  by  the  Guelph  family  Delia  Torre, 
both  Matteo  and  his  sons  and  their  posterity  contrived  to  assert  their 
right  to  the  Signoria.  The  greatest  of  this  family  were  Lucchino  Visconli 
(1339-49),  Petrarch's  patron,  and  Giovanni  Oaleazzo,  who  succeeded  his 
father  OaUazzo  II.  (p.  147;  d.  1378)  as  ruler  of  the  W.  portion  of  the 
district  of  Milan.  In  1335  Giovanni  wrested  the  reins  of  government  in 
the  K.  portion  also  from  his  uncle  Bernabd,  and  afterwards  extended  his 
duchy  to  Pisa  and  Bologna,  and  even  as  far  as  Perugia  and  Spoleto.  His 
chief  concern  was  to  raise  taxes  for  the  purpose  of  carrying  on  war,  but 
at  the  same  time  the  country  nourished  under  his  just  and  systematic 
government.  The  municipal  councillors  were  entrusted  with  administrative 
and  executive  powers  in  matters  of  police,  while  artists  and  men  of 
letters  were  invited  to  the  court  by  the  prince,  who  founded  the  Cathedral 
at  Milan  and  the  Certosa  at  Pavia.  But  after  his  death  in  1402  chaos  came 
again.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  three  sous,  Giovanni  Maria,  assassinated 
in  1412  by  the  sons  of  Bernabo,  Filippo  Maria,  and  Gabriele  Maria  (d.  1408). 
Under  Filippo  wars  were  carried  on  with  Florence,  Venice,  and  Naples. 
On  the  extinction  nf  the  Visconti  family  with  the  death  of  Filippo  Maria 
in  1447,  Milan  declared  itself  a  republic  under  the  name  Repuhblica  di  SanC 
Amhrogio.  In  1450,  however,  Francesco  Sforza  the  condoltiere,  who  had 
been  elected  general-in-chief  by  the  'capitani'  of  the  republic,  made  himself 
duke,  and  restored  order  and  security  to  the  distracted  state.  He  rebuilt 
the  Castello,  constructed  the  Martesana  Canal  and  the  Ospedale  Maggiore, 
and  surrounded  himself  with  Byzantine  and  Italian  scholars,  who  applauded 
the  Latin  orations  of  his  daughter  Hippolyta.  Francesco  died  in  1466,  and  his 
art-loving  but  dissolute  son,  Galeazzo  Maria,  was  assassinated  ten  years  later 
in  the  church  of  Santo  Stefano,  leaving  his  son  Giovanni  Qaleazzo  still  a  minor. 
Ludovico  il  Mora  seized  the  regency  in  name  of  his  nephew,  and  on  the  death 
of  the  latter  in  1494,  he  induced  Charles  VIII.  of  France  to  undertake  a 
campaign  against  Naples,  thus  inaugurating  a  new  period  in  the  history 
of  Italy.  Since  that  time  Italy  has  at  once  been  the  battlefield  and  the 
prey  of  the  great  powers  of  Europe.  Lodovico  himself,  after  having 
revolted  against  France  and  been  defeated  at  Novara  in  1500,  terminated 
his  career  in  a  French  dungeon.  His  ?on  Massimiliano,  after  a  brief  reign 
(15r2-15)  surrendered  Milan  to  Francis  I.,  the  victor  at  Marignano  (p.  357). 
The  victory  of  Charles  V.  at  Bicocca  in  1522  placed  Francesco  II.  Maria, 
brother  of  Massimiliano,  on  the  throne;  and  in  1525  the  battle  of  Pavia  con- 
stituted Charles  V.  arbiter  of  the  fortunes  of  Italy.  In  1540,  five  years  after 
the  death  of  the  last  Sforza,  he  invested  his  son,  Philip  II.  of  Spain, with 
the  duchy  of  Milan.  In  1714  the  Spanish  supremacy  was  followed  by  the 
Austrian  in  consequence  of  the  War  of  Succession.  On  four  occasions 
(1733,  1745,  1796,  and  1800)  the  French  took  possession  of  Milan,  and  the 
Napoleonic  period  at  length  swept  away  the  last  relics  of  its  mediaeval 
institutions.  Although  Napoleon  annexed  the  whole  of  Piedmont,  Genoa, 
Parma,  Tuscany,  and  Rome  (about  36,000  sq.  M.  of  Italian  territory)  to 
France,  the  erection  of  the  Cisalpine  Republic  (1797)  and  then  of  a  Kingdom 
of  Italy  (1805)  contributed  materially  to  arouse  a  national  spirit  of  pat- 
riotism. This  kingdom  embraced  Lombardy,  Venice,  S.  Tyrol,  Istria, 
the  greater  part  of  the  Emilia,  and  the  Marches.  Milan  was  the  capital, 
and  Napoleon  was  king ,  but  was  represented  by  his  stepson  Engine 
Beauharnais.  The  Austrian  Supremacy,  which  was  restored  in  1815,  proved 
irreconcilable  with  the  national  aspirations  of  the  people.  By  the  Peace 
of  Zurich  (10th  Nov.,  1859)  Lombardy,  with  the  exception  of  the  district 
of  Mantua,  was  ceded  to  Napoleon  III,,  and  by  him  to  Sardinia. 


22.  Milan,  Ital.  Milano. 

Railway  Stations.  1.  The  Central  Station  (PI.  F,  G,  1;  'Restaurant,  with 
prices  displayed),  built  in  1864,  is  used  by  all  the  lines  of  the  Rete  Adriatica 
and  the  Kete  Mediterranea.  Omnibuses  from  most  of  the  hotels  are  in 
waiting  (fare  'A'lVz  fr-)-  Cab  from  the  station  1  fr.,  day  or  night;  each 
large  article  of  luggage  25  c,  small  articles  taken  inside  the  cab  free. 
Electric  tramways  (Nos.  t,  2,  &  7)  into  the  town  10  c.  (hand-baggage  only 
allowe<l).  —  2.  The  Stazione  Ferrovie  Nord  (PI.  C,  4),  for  the  lines  of  the 
N.  Railway  to  Saronno  and  Como  (R.  23),  to  Erba  (R.  25),  and  to  Varese 
and  Laveno  (K.  29),  is  connected  with  the  Piazza  del  Duomo,  the  Stazione 
di  Porta  Genova,  and  the  Central  Station  by  the  electric  tramways  Nos  3 
(fe  7  (p.  130).  —  3.  The  Stazione  di  Porta  Genova  or  di  Porta  Ticinese 
(PI.  B,  8),  a  secondary  station  for  the  trains  to  Mortara  and  Genoa  (p.  190), 
is  of  little  significance  to  strangers.  —  Porterage  to  the  town  for  luggage 
under  110  lbs.  50  c,  according  to  tariff  (from  any  ."station).  —  Railway- 
tickets  for  the  Eete  Adriatica  and  the  Kete  Mediterranea  may  also  be 
procured  at  the  Agenzia  Inter nazionaU  di  Yiaggi  (Fratelli  Gondrand), 
(Jalleria  Vittorio  Emanuele  24,  or  from  Thos.  Cook  d  Son,  Via  Alessandro 
Slanzoni  7;  for  the  N.  Railways  at  the,  Agenzia  Ferrome  Nord,  Galleria 
Vittorio  Emanuele  26.  —  Agency  of  the  Sleeping  Car  Co.,  at  the  Gr.  Hotel 
Jlilan  and  at  the  station-inspector's  office. 

Hotels  (mostly  in  a  noisy  situation;  all  those  of  the  first  class  have 
lifts  and  steam-heating).  In  the  Town :  "Hotel  dr  la  Ville  (PI.  a;  F,  5), 
Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  34,  with  post  and  railway-ticket  offices,  R.  5-10, 
B.  i'/s,  dej.  4,  D.  6,  pens,  from  12,  omn.  I'/i  fr. ;  "Grand  Hotel  de  Milan 
(PI.  c;  F,  3,  4),  Via  Alessandro  Manzoni  29,  with  ticket  and  luggage  office, 
R.  5-9,  steam-heating  IV2,  B.  I'/z,  dej.  4,  D.  6-7,  pens,  from  121/2,  omn. 
1  fr. ;  *6r.  Hot.  Continental  (PI.  e;  E,  4),  Via  Alessandro  Manzoni,  with 
railway-ticket  office,  R.  4-8,  B.  I'/z,  dej.  4,  D.  5-6,  pens,  from  10,  omn. 
11/4  fr. ;  'Hot.  CAVonR  (PI.  b;  F,  3j,  Piazza  Cavour,  pleasantly  situated 
opposite  the  Giardini  Pubblici,  R.  from  4,  B.  IV2-2,  dej.  4,  D.  6-7,  omn. 
11/4  fr.,  frequented  by  Italians.  The  following  are  also  first-class  but 
somewhat  less  expensive  :  "Elwert's  Hot.  Grande  Bretagnk  et  Reichmann 
(PI.  d;  D,  E,  6),  Via  Torino  45,  R.  31/2-51/2,  B.  11/2,  dej.  31/2,  D-  41/2,  pens, 
from  9,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Hotel  MtTROPOLE  (PI.  q ;  E,  5),  Piazza  del  Duomo, 
German,  R.  81/2-71/2,  B.  I1/2,  dej.  31/2,  D.  5-6,  pens.  9-12,  omn.  1  fr., 
variously  Judged.  —  Regina  Hotel  kt  Rebecchino  (PI.  p;  E,  5),  Vi-a 
Santa  Ulargherita  16,  with  lift,  fteam-heating,  and  restaurant,  R.  4-8, 
B.  11/2,  dej.  31/2,  D.  5,  pens,  from  10,  omn.  I1/4  fr.,  many  English  visitors; 
"Europe  (PI.  f :  F,  5),  Corso  Vitt.  Emanuele  9,  with  lift  and  steam-heaUng, 
charges  raised  if  meals  are  not  taken  in  the  hotel,  R.  4-6,  B.  I1/2,  d^j.  3, 
D.  41/2-6,  pens.  9-14,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Manin  (PI.  k;  F,  '2),  Via  Manin,  near  the 
Giardini  Pubblici,  in  a  pleasant  situation,  R.  from  4,  B.  11/2,  dej.  3-31/2, 
D.  41/2-6,  pens,  from  I21/2,  omn.  1  fr.,  patronized  by  English  travellers; 
"Bella  Venezia  (PI.  i;  E,  F,  5),  Piazza  San  Fedele,  R.  31/2-5,  B.  I1/2, 
dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens,  from  10,  omn.  1  fr. ;  'Victoria  (PI.  o;  G,  4,  5),  Corso 
Vittorio  Emanuele  40,  with  lift  and  steam-heating,  R.  21/2-6,  B.  I1/2,  d^j.  3, 
D.  4,  pens,  from  8,  omn.  ^/t  fr. ;  Roma  (PI.  g;  F,  5),  Corso  Vitt.  Emanuele  7, 
\vith  lift,  R.  from  4,  B.  IV2,  dt?;.  31/2,  D.  5,  pens,  from  11,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Grand 
Hot.  Royal,  Piazza  Cordusio  (PI.  D,  4,  5),  with  lift  and  steam-heat- 
ing. —  The  following  are  good  Italian  houses  of  the  second  class  :  Pozzo 
&  Central  (PI.  1;  E,  6),  Via  Torino,  with  steam-heating,  R.  from  31/2, 
dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  9-11,  omn.  1  fr.;  Hot.  de  France  (PI.  m;  F,  5),  Corso 
Vitt.  Eman.  19,  with  lift  and  steam-heating,  R.  3-31/2,  dej.  3,  D.  41/2,  pens. 
9-11  fr.,  incl.  wine,  omn.  ^t-i  fr. ;  Agnello  et  dd  Dome  (PI.  h;  F,  5),  Via 
Agnello  2,  with  lift  and  steam-heating,  R.  2-4,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  8-10  fr. ; 
AncSra  e  Ginevra  (PI.  n;  F,  5),  Via  Agnello  1  and  Corso  Vitt.  Emanuele, 
with  lift,  R.  21/2-31/2,  ddj.  21/2,  D.  31/2,  omn.  V*  ff- ;  Angioli  et  Sempionb, 
Via  San  Protasio,  R.  21/2,  dej.  3,  D.  4,  omn.  V*  fr- i  Bi.scionk  k  Bellevce 
(PI.  t:  F,  5),  Piazza  Fontana,  R.  21/2-31/2,  dej.  21/2-8,  D.  31/2-4,  pens.  8-9, 
omn.  '/ifi"- -~  Pli'i":  ALn.  del  Commercio,  Piazza  Fontana,  with  restaurant, 

d^B  Jiuia  3  ■  zin-S  ^-^ 

pPtdidi  sa<^.j(ITg  jjn$t:^A  ^^^g^ly^^jI^U3'J 


Bakuekbb.     Italy  I.    13th  Edit. 

Practical  Notes.  MILAN.  2-2.  Route.   129 

11.  'i'/2-3'/7,  omn.  1  fr.,  much  frequented;  Hot.  Si-luga  e  PotOLO  (PI.  r; 
K,  5),  Via  San  Protasio,  cor.  of  Via  Santa  Margherita,  with  lift  and  trattoria, 
R.  2'/2  fr. ;  Alb.  Passabella,  Via  della  Passarella  24  (,P1.  F,  G,  5),  R.  from 
2  fr.  i  Hot.  St.  Michel  et  Beknekhoi",  Via  Pattari  (PI.  F,  5),  R.  2'/-ii  omn. 
'^/i  fr. ;  AuNBLLiNO,  Via  Agnello  4  (PI.  F,  5),  R.  2  fr. ;  Hot. -Pens.  Suisse, 
in  the  narrow  ViaVisconti,  R.  2-3  fr.;  Alb.  del  Falcone, Via  del  Falcone, 
with  good  trattoria. 

Near  the  Central  Station,  for  passing  travellers  :  *Palace  Hotel  (PI.  y ; 
G,  1),  flrst-class,  with  restaurant  and  booking  office,  R.  from  5,  B.  li/a, 
dej.  4V2,  D-  (J-8,  omn.  (luggage  extra)  '/'^  'i"- ;  Hot.  du  Nokd  (PI.  u;  F,  1), 
with  lift  and  the  dc-pendance  H6t.  des  Anglais,  R.  3-5,  B.  I1/4,  d^j.  3,  D. 
4  fr.;  Bellini's  Hot.  Terminus  (PI.  v;  G,  1),  with  lift,  R.  3-6,  B.  IV2,  dej.  3, 
D.  4,  omn.  V^  fr.,  generally  well  spoken  of;  Hot.  d'Italie  (PI.  z;  F,  1), 
R.  from  3,  B.  iV4,  dej.  3,  D.  4fr.;  Concokdia  (PI.  w;  F,  1),  R.  3,  B. 
lV4fr. ;  Hot.  Como,  next  the  Hot.  Terminus,  R.  2V2-3>/i,  B.  IJ/i  fr. ;  these 
si.x  in  the  square  in  front  of  the  station.  —  Hot.  du  Pakc  (PI.  x;  F,  2), 
Via  Principe  Umberto  29,  with  lift,  R.  2V2-4V2,  B.  fi/i,  dej.  2V2,  D.  3V'2  fr., 
variously  judged;  Hot.  Sohmid,  Via  Galilei  (PL  F,  1),  R.  from  21/2,  B.  11/4, 

D.  3  fr.,  well  spoken  of;  Alb.  Nizza,  Via  Principe  Umberto  6,  R.  2-3V2, 
B.  1,  D.  2,  S.  11/2  fr. ;  Alb.-Ristok.  Cervo,  Via  Prin.  Umb.  14-16,  R.  2  fr., 
B.  90  c.,  dej.  or  D.  2'/2  fr.,  incl.  wine  (the  last  three  quite  unpretending). 

Hotels  Gamis.  Cokso  Hotel,  Corso  Vitt.  Eman.  15,  with  restaurant 
and  tea-room,  R.  from  4,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Gk.  Hot.  Marino,  Via  Filodrammatici, 
cor.  of  Piazza  della  Scala,  R.  41/2-6,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Gr.  Hot.  Modeene,  Piazza 
del  Duomo  (Via  Carlo  Alberto  16),  R.  3-4,  omn.  1  fr.,  all  three  with  lift 
and  steam-heating. 

Pensions  (comp.  p.  xx).  Pension  Anglaise  (Mrs.  Ernst) ,  Corso  Vitt. 
Emannele  26,  6-8  fr. ;  Miss  Betham,  Via  Brera  5,  6  fr. ;  Finzi,  Via  Manzoni  16 ; 
Bonini,  Piazza  del  Duomo  (Via  Carlo  Alberto  8),  6-12  fr. ;  Papa,  Via  Gabrio 
Casati  1,  6-7  fr. ;  Pens.  InternazionaU,  Via  Brera  16,  from  7  fr. ;  Venanzi,  Corso 
Vittor.  Eman.  36,  6-7  fr. ;  Bassi,  Piazza  del  Duomo  19;  S/orzini,  Via  Oriani  1, 
6-8  fr. ;   ]V!/ss,  Buenos  Ayres  1,  4th  floor,  4V2-7  fr. 

Restaurants  (^Ristoranti,    Traltorie;    comp.   p.  xxi).     'Caffi  Cova,  Via 
Giuseppe  Verdi,  near  the  Scala,   with  a   ganien  (evening-concerts  in  sum 
mer);    Bi/ri,   'Savini,    "Gambrinus- Halle,   all   three   in    the   Galleria  Vitt 
Emannele;  'Eden  (p.  l')ti)>  Via  Cairoli;  Corso,  Corso  Vitt.  Emanuele   ('ee 
above);  Birreria  Pilsen,  Via  S.  Protasio  5;  "Fiasc/ietteria  Toscnna,  near  the 

E.  branch  of  the  Galleria  Vitt.  Emanuele,  good  Tuscan  wine;  Orologio, 
Piazza  del  Caraposanto,  on  the  E.  side  of  the  Cathedral;  Unions  Cooperativa, 
Via  Meravi^li,  Ristoranle  Belcedei'C,  near  the  N.  .stition,  these  three  inexpen- 
sive.    Most  of  the  above-mentioned  Italian  hotels  are  also  restaurants. 

Cafes  (comp.  p.  xxiii).  Biffi,  expensive  (concerts  in  the  evening), 
Campari,  both  in  the  G  tlleria  Vitt.  Emanuele ;  Cova  (see  above) ;  Ci'espi, 
Via  Tommaso  Grossi,  corner  of  the  Via  Santa  Margherita  (concerts  in  the 
evening) ;  Eden,  Via  Cairoli  Ip.  130);  Morefco,  Via  Solferino,  near  the  Brera  ; 
the  cafes  in  the  Giardini  Pubblici  (p.  161)  and  the  Nuovo  Parco  (p.  161). 

Confectioners  (Pasticceria).  Cnfi  Cova,  see  above;  Biffi,  Via  Alessandro 
Manzoni;  ' Marchesi,  Yi^,  del  Monie  Napoleone  (PI.  F,  4).  —  Panettone  is  a 
favourite  kind  of  cake,  chiefly  used  during  the  continuance  of  the  Carnival. 

Birrerie  (see  p.  xxiii).  ' Gamhrinus-Balle,  see  above  (Munich  beer,  con- 
'cert  in  the  evening) ;  Spiitentn-du,  Via  Ugo  Foscolo  2,  adjoining  the  Gall.  Vitt. 
Eman.,  frequented  by  Germans;  Birrei-iu  Nazionale  Casanova,  on  the  W. 
side  of  the  Piazza  del  Duomo ;  Orologio,  see  above;  Ristoranle  della  Borsa, 
Piazza  Conlusio,  these  three  with  Munich  and  Pilsenor  beer;  Sternhalle, 
Via  Santa  Margherita,  at  the  corner  of  Via  del  Gallo. 

Baths.  "Terate,  Foro  Bonaparte  08,  with  swimming,  Turkish,  and 
medicinal  baths;  Tre  Re,  Via  Tre  Alberghi  24  (PI.  E,  6);  Bayni  Dufour, 
Via,  SdaWWore;  Bugni  deWAnnunziata,  Via  Annunziata  11;  Bagni  Centrali, 
Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  17,  with  medicinal  baths,  clean  and  not  ex- 
pensive. —  Swimming  Baths:  "Bagiio  di  Diana  (PI.  H,  2),  outside  the 
Porta  Venezia  (1  fr.),  closed  in  winter. 

Cabs  CCiltadine"  or  '■Broughams';  a  tariff  in  each  vehicle).  Per  drive 
by  day  or  night  1  fr. ;  per  hour  I'/a  fr.,  each  V2  hr.  addit.  1  fr. ;  each  large 

Bakdbkkb.    Italy  I.    13th  Edit.  t) 

130  Route  22.  MILAN.  Practical 

article  of  luggage  25  c.  —  Motoe-Cakriagks  may  be  hrxl  from  the  Societh 
Oenerale  Esevcizi  con  Aulomobili,  Via  Brera  16. 

Electric  Tramways.  1.  Piazza  del  Duomo  (PI.  E,  5)-Via  Al.  Manzoni- 
Via  Principe  Vxabtvio- Central  Station  (PI.  F,  G,  1).  —  2.  Piazza  del  Duomo- 
Porta  Venezia  (PI.  H,  2)-Central  Station.  —  3.  Piazza  del  Duomo-\ia,  Dante- 
Stazione  Ferrovie  Nord  (PI.  C,  4)-Via  Vincenzo  Monti -Porta  Sempione 
(PI.  B,  2)-Corso  Sempione  (PI.  A,  B,  1,  2)  —  4.  Piazza  del  TMomo-Yia,  Dante- 
Porta  Tenaglia  (PI.  C,  2)- Via  Bram ante- Cimito-o  Monvmentale  (comp.  PI.  C,  1). 
—  5.  Piazza  del  Daomo-Piazza  della  Scala-Via  di  Brera  (PI.  E,  4,  3)-Porta 
Volta  (PI.  C,  i.yCimitero.  —  6.  Piazza  del  /)«omo- Piazza  Sant'  Ambrogio 
(PI.  C,  5,  6)-Fta  Filangeri  (PI.  A,  6).  —  7.  Tramvia  Inter stazionale:  Central 
Station-V oris.  Nnova  (PI.  E,  F,  1)-Via  Pontaccio  (PI.  D,  E,  3)-Stazione  Ferrovie 
Nord  (PI.  C,  kystaz.  di  Porta  Genova  or  Ticinese  (PI.  B,  8).  —  8.  Tramvia 
di  Circonvallazione  round  the  whole  of  the  old  town.  —  Lines  also  run 
from  the  Piazza  del  Duomo  to  most  of  the  other  City  Gates.  Fare  from  6.30 
to  8  30  a.m.  (in  winter  7-9)  5  c.,  later  10  c.  (on  line  No.  8  always  10  c). 
There  are  no  fixed  stations;  passengers  hail  the  driver  when  they  wish 
to  enter  and  ring  when  they  wish  to  alight.  The  cars  on  the  chief  lines 
are  often  overcrowded,  and  passengers  should  be  on  their  guard  against 
pickpockets.     Cars  running  to  the  Central  Station  carry  letter-boxes. 

Electric  Railway  to  Monza  (p.  165;  9'/2  M.  in  1  hr.,  fares  70  or  45  c., 
return  1  fr.  10,  or  70  c. ;  every  Vz  hr.  from  the  Piazza  del  Campo  Santo, 
p.  136,  to  the  E.  of  the  cathedral)  via  the  Corso  Buenos  Ayres  (PI.  H,  2,  1) 
and  the  Viale  Monza  with  its  plane-trees;  the  chief  .stations  arc  Precoiio, 
with  a  large  brass-foundry,  and  Sesto  (p.  165),  beyond  which  the  view  of 
the  Alps  is  unimpeded.  The  chief  stoiipiug-places  in  Monza  are  at  the 
station,  the  Piazza  Roma,  and  the  royal  chateau. 

Steam-Tramways  connect  Milan  with  a  large  part  of  Lombardy  (comp. 
the  Map,  p.  164).  The  only  line  of  much  interest  for  the  stranger  is  that 
to  the  Tor're  del  Mangano  and  Pavia  (Certosa;  see  p.  102). 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (PL  D,  5),  Via  Bocchetto  2,  open  from  8  a.m. 
to  9  p.m.;  branch-otfices  at  the  Central  Station,  etc. 

Theatres  (comp.  p.  xxiv)  The  "Teatro  alia  Scala  (PI.  E,  4),  the  largest 
in  Italy  after  the  San  Carlo  Theatre  at  Naples,  was  built  by  Oius.  Pier- 
marini  in  1778 ,  and  holds  3600  spectators.  The  performances  (operas, 
ballets,  spectacular  pieces)  take  place  during  winter  only.  The  interior  is 
worthy  of  inspection  (open  9-4;  V2  fr.).  —  Teatro  Lirico  Jnternazionale 
(PI.  F,  6),  built  by  Sfondrini  in  1894,  at  the  corner  of  the  Via  Larga  and 
the  Via  Eastrelli ;  Teatro  Manzoni  (PI.  E,  5),  Piazza  San  Fedele,  elegantly 
fitted  up,  good  performances  of  comedy;  Teatro  Dal  Verme  (PI.  1),  4),  Foro 
Bonaparte  (operas  and  ballets,  sometimes  used  as  a  circus) ;  Teatro  Filo- 
drammatici  (PI.  E,  4),  Via  San  Dalmazio,  operas;  Teatro  Fossriii  (Pl.D, 3), 
Foro  Bonaparte,  comedies,  operettas,  etc.  —  Eden  Theatre  of  Varieties, 
Via  Cairoli  (PI.  D,  4);  adm.  1  fr. 

Bands  play  in  summer  in  the  Piazza  della  Scala  (p.  137;  Thurs., 
8-10  p.m.),  the  Giardini  Pubblici  (p.  161;  Sun.,  3-6  and  8-11  p.m.),  and  the 
Nuovo  Parco  (p.  151;  Sun.,  8-11  p.m.). 

Bankers.  Banca  Commerciale  Italiana ,  Piazza  della  Scala  3;  Credito 
Italiano,  Piazza  Cordusio ;  Mylius  ik  Co.,  Via  Clerici  4  (PI.  E,  4);  Societd. 
Bancaria  Milanese,  Piazza  Belgioioso.  —  Money  Changers:  Ponti,  on  the 
N.  side  of  the  Piazza  del  Duomo;  Rasini  <i-  Co.,  Piazza  Mercanti  (PI.  E,  5); 
Terzaghi  cfc  Cagnoni,  Via  Al.  Manzoni  3. 

Booksellers.  Hoepli,  Galleria  de  Cristoforis  (p.  159),  Corso  Vitt. 
Emanuele37;  Sacchi  tk  Figli,  Corso  Venezia  13;  Libreria  Treves,  Gall.  Vitt. 
Emanuele;  Fratelli  Bocca,  Corso  Vitt.  Emanuele  21 ;  Remo  Sandron,  Via  Al. 
Manzoni  7;  Ant.  Vallardi,  Piazza  alia  Scala  10;  Baldiiti,  Castoldi  Jk  Co.,  Gal- 
leria Vitt.  Emanuele;  Sperling,  Via  Carlo  Alberto  27.  —  Newspapers.  Jl 
Corriere  della  Sera  {p.  xxiii;  5  c.);  La  Perseveranza ;  La  Sera;  II  Secolo,  etc. 

Shops.  The  best  are  in  the  Corso  and  the  Galleria  Vittorio  Emanuele. 
The  Alle  Citta  d^ Italia  (lYatelH  Bocconi),  Piazza  del  Duomo,  is  an  establish- 
ment in  the  style  of  the  large  Magasins  at  Paris  (fixed  prices) ;  the  similar 
Unione  Cooperativa,  Via  Meravigli  9  (PI.  D,  5)  is  less  expensive.  —  The  Silk 

Notes.  MILAN.  22.  Route.   131 

Industry  of  Milan  is  very  important  (comp.  p.  132).  The  following  are  noted 
retail-dealers:  Haimann  (Citth  di  ComoJ,  Via  Morone  3;  Saielta,  Oiovannoli, 
<t  Co.,  Corso  Vitt.  Kman.  31  (fixed  prices);  Betozzi,  ifonghisoni,  <£•  Co., 
Corso  Vitt.  Eraanuele  2S.  —  Inlaid  Furniture:  Pogliani,  Via  del  Monte 
Napoleone  18. —  Photographs:  Boncmi,  Gall.  Vitt.  Emanuele  84;  Lamperti 
4c  Oarbaffnali,  Via  degli  Omenoni  4  ;  Compagnia  Rotografica,\\s.  Guastalla  9 
(also  photographic  materials).  —  Art  Dealers  :  Grandi,  Corso  Venezia  12 
(engravings);  f/n(6ic.",  Piazza  Castello  2  (modern  art;  Segantini  exhibition). 

Cigars.  Genuine  havanas  may  be  obtained  at  Galleria  Vitt.  Emanuele  90. 

Physicians.  Dr.  Hubert  Higgins,  Piazza  StazioDe  Centrale  3  (1-4); 
Dr.  Jul.  Verdi,  Via  Brera  3;  Dr.  Cozzi,  Via  Monforte  6;  Dr.  Morotti,  Via 
Spiga  22 ;  Dr.  Fornoni,  Via  Spiga  4  ;  Dr.  A.  Tilger,  Via  del  Monte  Napoleone  16. 
—  Dentist:  Dr.  Pape,  Via  Gesu  12;  Dr.  Flatow.  Via  delta  Passarella  36.  — 
Pkivate  Hospitals :  ^.<!i7o  Eiangelico,  Via  Monte  Eosa  12,  outside  the  Porta 
Magenta,  the  hospital  of  the  foreign  colony  in  Milan ;  Casa  di  Salute  Privata 
Pcirapini,  Via  Alfonso  Lamarmora  (PI.  G,  H,  7).  —  Chemists:  Cooperativa 
Farmaceutica,  Piazza  dol  Duomo  (Via  Carlo  Alberto);  Falcamonica  ed  In- 
Irozzi,  Corso  Vitt.  Emanuele  4;  ZambelleW,  Piazza  San  Carlo,  Corso  Vitt. 
Emanuele;  Erba,  Piazza  del  Duomo;  Talini,  Via  Al.  Manzoni. 

Goods  Agents.  Fratdli  Gondrand,  Via  Tre  Alberghi  3  (PI.  E,  6); 
Seb.  Boser,  Via  Carlo  Alberto  24. 

American  Consul,  James  E.  Dunning,  Via  Bettino  Eicasoli  2;  vice-con- 
sul, Henry  P.  Smith.  —  British  Consul,  Joseph  H.  Towsey;  vice-consul, 
Wm.  M.   Tweedie. 

English  Church:  All  Saints''  (PI.  D,  2),  Via  Solferino  17,  adjoining  the  Consulate,  San.  at  8.30,  11,  and  3.30  (Rev.  H.  B.  Foster,  H(5tel  de  la 
Ville).  —   Waldentian  Church,  Piazza  San  Giovanni  in  Conca,  at  11  and  7. 

Collections  and  Objects  of  Interest.  For  a  list  of  the  national  holi- 
days, see  p.  xxiv.     The  museums  are  very  cold  in  winter. 

Ambrosiana.  Library  shown  daily  10-3,  Sun.  and  holidays  1-3,  i/g  fr., 
free  on  Wed. ;  open  to  students  from  Nov.  12th  to  Aug.  31st,  daily,  10-3, 
except  Wed.,  Sun.,  and  festivals.  Pinacoteca,  Sun.  and  festivals  1-3,  other 
days  10-3,   i/z  fr.;  from  Jlay  1st  to  Sept.  30th,  Wed.,   10-3,  free;  p.  152. 

Brera.  Library,  daily,  9-7  (May  to  Oct.,  9-5»,  Sun.  10-2,  closed  on  holi- 
days. Picture  Gallery,  daily,  9-4.30  (Nov.-Feb.  10-4),  1  fr.;  on  Sun.  and 
hiilidays,  12-1,  free;  p.  139.  —  Collection  of  Coins,  Mon.,  Wed.,  and  Frid., 
12-3;  closed  on  Sun.  &  holidays. 

Castello  S/orzesco  Collections  {i.e.  Museo  Archeologico  ed  Artistico,  Gal- 
leria  d'Arte  Moderna,  and  Museo  del  Hisorgimento  Nazionale;  pp.  147-150), 
Jlon.  1-4  or  1-5,  other  days  10-4  or  5;  open  free  on  Thurs.,  Sun,,  and 
holidays  9-11.30;  adm.  to  each  museum  after  11.30  on  Thurs.  50  c,  Sun. 
&  holidays  20c.,  all  other  days  1  fr.  (Museo  del  Risorgimento  alone  10  or 
20c.).  Inclusive  ticket  (biglietto  cumulativo),  valid  for  one  day;  Sun.  & 
holidays  30  c.,  Thurs.  76  c.,  other  days  I'/z  fr.  —  The  collections  are  closed 
on  the  first  Mon.  in  each  month. 

Exhibition  of  the  Societa  per  le  Belle  Arti,  daily,  9-6  (winter  10-4);  adm. 
50  c.,  on  Sun.  and  holidays  25  c. ;  p.  139. 

Last  Supper  of  Leonardo  da  Fiwci ,  daily  9.30-4.80  (Nov.-Feb.  10-4), 
1   fr. ;  Sun.  12-3,  free;  p.  154. 

Museo  Borromeo,  Tues.  &  Frid.,  1-4,  fee  (V2-I  ff-);  p.  153. 

Museo  Civico  di  Storia  Naturale,  Tues.,  Wed.,  Frid.,  &  Sat.  10-5,  Sun., 
Bfon.,  &  Thurs.  1-5  (Nov.-Feb.  till  4),  '/a  fr- ;  on  Thurs.,  Sun.  &  holidays 
9-11.30,  free;  p.  160. 

Museo  Poldi-Pezzoli,  daily,  9-4,  Sun.  &  holidays,  12-3,  1  fr. ;  p.  137. 

Palazzo  Reale,  daily,  10-4,  fee  (Ifr.);  p.  136. 

Principal  Attractions  (2  days).  1st  Day,  in  the  morning:  *Cathedral 
(Mass  11-12  on  Sun.),  jtscend  to  the  "Roof;  Galleria  Vittorio  Emanuele; 
•Brera  (picture-gallery);  in  the  afternoon:  Piazza  de'  Mercanti ;  Ca.stello 
Sforzesco ;  in  the  evening :  walk  in  the  Corso  Vitt.  Emanuele  and  Piazza 
del  Duomo,  or  in  summer  in  the  Giardini  Pubblici.  —  2nd  Day,  in  the 
morning:  Santa  Maria  delle  Grazie  and  'Leonardo  da  Vinci's  Last  Supper; 
Sant'   Ambrogio;   'San  Lorenzo;   San   Satire;   Ospedale  Maggiore;  in  the 


132   Boute  22.  MILAN.  UUtory. 

aflernoou;   Museo  Toldi  Pezzuli;  Cimitero  Monumeutale.  —  Excursion  to 
the  'Certosa  di  Pavia  (p.  1G2J;  to  Monza  (p.  165;  comp.  p.  130). 

Milan  (405  ft.),  Ital.  Milano,  sumamed  'la  grande',  the  Medio- 
lanum  of  the  Komans,  is  the  capital  of  Lombardy,  the  seat  of  an  arch- 
bishop, the  headquarters  of  the  second  army  corps,  the  chief  financial 
centre  of  Italy,  and  one  of  the  wealthiest  manufacturing  and  com- 
mercial towns  in  the  country.  Silk  (over  200  important  firms), 
woollen  and  cotton  goods,  gloves,  carriages,  machinery,  and  art- fur- 
niture are  the  staple  commodities,  while  it  also  exports  a  consid- 
erable amount  of  cheese,  butter,  eggs,  poultry,  and  other  country 
produce.  The  town  is  situated  near  the  small  but  navigable  river 
Olona  (p.  183),  which  is  connected  by  means  of  the  Naviglio  Orande 
(p.  68)  with  the  Ticino  and  Lago  Maggiore,  by  the  Naviglio  di  Pavia 
(p.  202)  with  the  Ticino  and  the  Po,  and  by  the  Naviglio  della 
Martesana  (p.  167)  with  the  Adda,  the  Lake  of  Como,  and  the  Po. 
About  8000  river-craft  enter  the  city  annually.  Milan  ranks  next 
to  Naples  in  point  of  population,  containing,  with  the  suburbs  and 
a  garrison  of  7000  men,  520,000  inhabitants.  There  are  numerous 
Swiss  and  German  residents.  —  The  drinking-water  is  indifferent. 
For  the  climate,  comp.  pp,  xxvii,  126. 

History.  The  favourable  situation  of  Milan  in  the  centre  of  Lombardy, 
near  the  beginning  of  several  of  the  great  Alpine  passes,  has  always  secured 
for  it  a  high  degree  of  prosperity.  Under  the  Romans,  who  conquered  it 
in  B.C.  222,  it  was  one  of  the  largest  cities  in  Italy,  but  owing  to  its 
repeated  destruction  hardly  a  trace  of  that  period  has  been  left  (p.  156). 
After  the  decay  of  the  Lombard  sovereignty  the  power  of  the  archbishops 
(p.  127)  increased  enormously,  especially  under  Arihert  (1018-45),  against 
whom  the  smaller  va'sals  formed  a  league  in  1035,  known  as  the  Motta. 
At  a  later  date  the  people,  grouped  round  the  Carroccio,  fought  for  the 
Archbishops  again:?t  Conrad  II.  and  the  noblesse,  expelling  the  latter 
from  the  city  in  1041.  At  this  time  Milan  is  said  to  have  contained 
3(X),000(?)  iriliab.,  and  its  trade  and  industry,  e.'pecially  the  weaving  of 
woollen  goods  and  the  making  of  arms  and  objects  in  gold,  had  become 
very  important.  The  Eoman  walls  had  long  since  become  too  cramped, 
and  in  1157  an  almost  circular  moat,  still  preserved  in  the  inner  canal 
(Naviglio) ,  was  constructed  round  the  town.  Neither  this  fortification, 
however,  nor  the  heroic  courage  of  the  Milanese  could  resist  the  Emp. 
Frederick  Barbarossa,  who,  with  the  help  of  the  Ghibelline  towns  of  Lom- 
bardy, totally  destroyed  the  city  in  1162,  with  the  exception  of  a  few 
churches.  The  emperor's  severe  rule,  however,  soon  roused  the  whole  of 
Lombardy  against  him ;  five  years  later  (1167)  Milan  was  rebuilt  by  the 
allied  cities  of  Brescia,  Bergamo,  Mantua,  and  Verona,  while  the  battle 
of  Legnano  (p.  5;  1176)  finally  shattered  Barbarossa's  hopes  of  re-estab- 
lishing the  empire  of  Charlemagne  (comp.  p.  126). 

The  Visconti  (p.  127),  wlio  became  'Signori'  of  Milan  in  1277  and 
famished  several  occupants  to  the  archiepiscopal  chair,  made  an  end  of 
the  city's  consMtutional  independence,  but  contributed  to  its  well-being  by 
the  introduction  of  the  silk-industry  (ca.  1340)  and  by  the  wide  extension 
of  their  sway.  A  new  outer  rampart  (the  Refosso  or  Rede/osso)  was  con- 
structed in  this  period  to  protect  the  suburbs.  The  S/orzas  (1450-1535) 
endeavoured  to  reconcile  the  Milanese  to  their  loss  of  liberty  by  the  bril- 
liancy of  their  court  and  their  patronage  of  art. 

The  wars  of  the  early  part  of  the  16th  cent,  and  the  heavy  taxes  of 
the  /Spanish  Period  did  not  prevent  the  growth  of  the  city,  which  in  1590 
numbered  246  000  inhabitants.  In  1527  city -walls  were  erected  on  the 
site  of  the  outer  ramparts,  and  in  1549  a  new  series  of  fortified  and  bastioned 

Art  History.  MILAN.  22.  Route.    133 

walls  were  begun.  In  1714  Milan,  with  the  rest  of  Lombardy,  passed  into 
the  hands  of  Austria.  In  1797  it  became  the  capital  of  the  ^Cisalpine  Re- 
public', and  then  (down  to  1815)  that  of  the  Kingdom  of  Italy.  The  bloody 
insurrection  of  the  Cinque  Giornate  (March  17th-22nd,  1848)  compelled  the 
Ausirians  to  evacuate  the  city  for  several  months,  and  the  patriotic  agi- 
tations which  ensued  were  happily  ended  by  the  desired  union  with  the 
new  kingdom  of  Italy  in  18o9.  No  town  in  Italy  has  undergone  such 
marked  improvement  as  Milan  since  this  date. 

Art  History.  The  only  buildings  of  the  early-Christi;\n  and  Romanesque 
periods  that  survived  the  destruction  of  1162  were  the  churches  of  San 
Lorenzo  (the  oldest  church  in  Jlilan),  Sant'  Ambrogio  (the  quaintest  church 
in  Milan),  San  Simpliciiino,  Han  Sepolcro,  San  Celso,  and  Santa  Babila. 
The  Gothic  churches  are  more  of  decorative  tlian  constructive  value-, 
some,  like  the  cathedral,  represent  a  not  very  successful  compromise  be- 
tween the  styles   of  the  N.   and   of  Italy ,   while  others   follow  Venetian 

f  italy , 
mndels  (the  Frari).  ^''^% 


It  was  not  tiU  after  1150  that  i^i7are<«  (tower-gate  of  the  Castello,  Ospc- 
dale  Maggiore)  and  Michelozzo  (Pal.  Medici,  Cappella  Portinari  in  Sanf 
EustorgioJ  succeeded  in  introducing  the  Tuscan  early- Renaissance  style, 
and  this  only  after  protracted  struggles  with  the  Lombard  masters,  who 
clung  obstinately  to  the  pointed  arch.  Their  influence,  along  with  traces 
of  that  of  N.  art.  is  mirrored  in  the  Lombardic  school  of  sculpture,  which 
grew  up  about  1^60  and  gradually  extended  its  activity  to  Venice,  Genoa, 
and  even  S.  Italy.  Its  principal  masters,  Crisloforo  Mantegazza  (d.  1482), 
Giov.  Ant.  Ainadeo  (1447-1522),  Crisloforo  Solari  (d.  after  1525),  and  Tom. 
Rodari,  may  best  be  studied  in  the  Certosa  in  Pavia,  the  Cappella  Colleoni 
in  Bergamo,  and  the  Cathedral  of  Como.  The  decline  of  the  style  is  shown 
in  the  late  works  of  Agostino  Bnsti,  surnamed  Bambairt  (ca.  1480-1548).  A 
more  serious  and  realistic  conception  is  revealed  by  the  versatile  Cristoforo 
l''ojypa,  surnamed  Caradosso  (ca.  1445-1527),  who  is  also  famous  as  a  medal- 
engraver  and  goldsmith.  —  The  eailier  painters  of  this  period,  such  as 
I'incenzo  Foppa  (d.  ca.  1515),  who  seems  to  have  been  trained  in  Padua, 
and  his  pupil -■fmftro^io  5or^ojrreone  (d.  1533),  remained  faithful  to  the  local 

Milanese  art  reached  the  zenith  of  its  reputation  as  the  residence  of 
jSrciHifin^e  (1472-1500),  to  whom  are  due  the  choir  and  dome  of  Santa  Maria 
delle  Gra/.ie  and  the  baptistery  of  San  Satiro,  and  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci 
(1485-1500  and  1506-16).  The  latter  here  executed  his  masterpieces  :  the 
Last  Supper  and  the  clay  model  of  the  equestrian  monument  of  Francesco 
Si'orza,  destroyed  by  the  French  in  149S).  Among  the  pupils  of  Leonardo 
were  the  painters  Giovanni  Antonio  Boltraffio ,  Marco  d'Oggiono ,  Andrea 
ISalaino,  Cesare  da  Sesto,  and  Gianpiehino;  and  his  inlluence  is  also  mani- 
fest in  the  works  of  Bernardino  Luini,  Andrea  Solario,  Gaudenzio  Ferrari, 
and  GioiK  Ant.  Bazzi  (il  SOdoma). 

We  recognize  Bramante's  style  in  many  buildings  of  Lombardy,  such 
as  Santa  JIaria  in  Busto  Arsizio,  the  church  of  Abbiategrasso,  Santa  Maria 
della  Croce  at  Crema,  the  Cathedral  and  Santa  Maria  de  Canepanova  at 
Pavia,  the  Incoronata  at  Lodi.  Milan  itself  owes  its  present  architectural 
physiognomy  rather  to  the  masters  of  the  late- Renaissance :  —  Galeazzo 
Alessi  (p.  80;  Pal.  Marino),  Vine.  Seregni  (1509-94;  Pal.  dei  Giureconsulti, 
Pal.  di  Giustizia),  and  I'ellegrino  Tibaldi  of  Bologna  (1532-06;  court  ol  the 
Archiepiscopal  Palace).  The  churches  by  these  architects  (San  Paolo,  San 
Vittore,  San  Fedelc,  lower  part  of  the  cathedral  facade)  show  the  tran- 
sition to  the  baro(iue  style.  The  most  important  architect  of  the  17th  cent, 
was  Franc.  Maria  Richino  (Brera,  parts  of  the  Ospedale  Maggiore). 

The  three  earlier  ProcacHni,  the  chief  painters  after  1550,  betray  the 
mannerism  of  the  Carraeci,  while  Er cole  Procaccini  the  KcuHif^cr  (1596-1676), 
Giov.  Bait.  Crespi,  surnamed  Jl  Cerano  (1557-1633),  Daniele  Crespi  (1590-l(i3O). 
and  Carlo  Franc.  Nuvoloni  (1608-61)  are  vigorous  disciples  of  the  same 
eclectic   masters  (p.  365).  —  The  sculpture  of  this  period  is  insignificant. 

Since  the  Napoleonic  period,  and  more  especially  since  1859,  Milan 
has  assumed  a  modern  appearance,   owing  to  comprehensive  internal  im- 

134    RduUTi.  MILAN.         a.  Fromthf  Piatmdet. 

provements,  to  wUicIi  many  notable  buildings  have  been  .sacrificed.  In 
painting  it  ranks  with  Venice  and  Rome  among  the  most  important  artistic 
centres  of  modern  Italy.  Sculpture  is  here  carried  on  to  such  an  extent 
as  to  have  become  almost  a  special  industry.  The  Milanese  sculptors 
take  great  pride  in  their  technical  skill ,  and  in  effective  imitations  of 

a.  From  the  Piazza  del  Dnomo  to  the  Central  Station.  Northern 
Quarters  of  the  City.    The  Brera. 

The  focus  of  the  commercial  and  public  life  of  Milan  is  the 
*Piazza  del  Dnomo  (PI.  E,  5),  which  has  been  much  extended 
since  1876,  and  is  now  enclosed  on  the  N.  and  S.  by  imposing  edi- 
fices designed  by  Mengoni  (p.  137).  It  is  a  centre  for  electric 

The  celebrated  **Catliedral  (PI.  E,  F,  5) ,  dedicated  'Mariae 
Nascenti\  as  the  inscription  on  the  facade  announces  and  as  the 
gilded  statue  on  the  tower  over  the  dome  also  indicates,  is  built  on 
the  site  of  the  smaller  early  -  Christian  basilica  of  Santa  Maria 
Maggiore.  It  was  at  that  period  the  largest  church  in  existence 
and  it  is  still  one  of  the  largest  and  most  sumptuous  in  the  world. 
This  huge  structure  covers  an  area  of  14,000  sq.  yds.  (of  which  about 
2400  sq.  yds.  are  taken  up  by  the  walls  and  pillars),  and  holds  about 
40,000  people.  The  interior  is  162  yds.  in  length,  the  transept 
96  yds.  in  breadth,  the  facade  73  yds.  in  breadth ;  nave  157  ft.  in 
height,  18  yds.  in  breadth.  The  dome  is  223  ft.  in  height,  the  tower 
354  ft.  above  the  pavement.  The  roof,  marble  like  the  rest  of  the 
building,  is  adorned  with  98  pinnacles,  and  the  exterior  with  upwards 
of  2000  statues  in  marble.  The  stained-glass  windows  in  the  choir 
are  said  to  be  the  largest  in  the  world.  The  cathedral  was  founded 
by  the  splendour-loving  Giovanni  Galeazzo  Visconti  in  1386.  The 
general  style  of  the  building  is  Gothic,  but  it  shows  many  peculiari- 
ties, due,  perhaps,  to  a  compromise  among  several  competing  de- 
signs. Simone  da  Orsenigo  and  Marco  da  Campione  (d.  1390)  are 
named  as  the  earliest  master-builders.  The  building  progressed 
but  slowly,  owing  to  the  dissensions  between  the  Italian  architects 
and  the  German  and  French  musters  [Nicholas  de  Bonavenluri,  Hans 
von  Freiburg,  Heinrich  von  Omiind,  Vlrich  von  Fiissingen,  Jean 
Mlgnot^  and  others),  who  were  frequently  called  to  their  aid.  Be- 
tween 1459  and  1476  Giovanni  Solari  and  his  son  Quiniforte  Solari 
are  mentioned  among  the  superintendents  of  the  building-opera- 
tions; about  1500  Francesco  di  Oiorgio  of  Siena  and  Oiov.  Ant. 
Amadeo  appear  to  have  been  associated  in  that  office ;  and  after 
them  the  work  was  conducted  by  Oiov.  Dolcebuono ,  Cristoforo 
Solari,  etc.  The  crypt  and  the  baptistery,  the  style  of  which  is  quite 
out  of  harmony  with  the  general  design  of  the  building,  were  added 
in  the  second  half  of  the  16th  cent,  by  Pellegrino  Tibaldi,  who  also 
laid  down  the  marble  pavement  and  designed  a  baroque  facade.  The 
church  was  consecrated  by  San  Carlo  Borromeo  on  Oct.  20th,  1577. 

iHiomo  fotlie  N.  Quartern.     MILAN.  '2'J.  Roitie     135 

The  dome  was  begun  in  1759  by  the  architects  Croce  ami  MeruLa, 
and  was  finished  ten  years  later.  The  facade,  begun  in  1616  after 
Tibaldi's  design,  remained  uncompleted  until  in  1805  Napoleon 
(whose  marble  statue,  in  antique  costume,  is  among  those  on  the 
roof)  caused  the  works  to  be  resumed,  with  moditlcations  by  Zanoia 
and  Amati.  Since  1903  the  upper  portion  of  the  facade  has  been 
gradually  restored. 

The  church  is  cruciform  in  shape,  with  double  aisles  and  a  tran- 
sept, the  latter  also  flanked  with  aisles.  The  Interior  (open  from 
5.30  or  6.30  a.m.  till  dusk)  is  supported  by  fifty-two  pillars,  each 
16  paces  in  circumference,  the  summits  of  which  are  adorned  with 
canopied  niches  with  statues  instead  of  capitals.  The  pavement 
consists  of  mosaic  in  marble  of  different  colours. 

Interior.  By  tbe  principal  inner  portal  are  two  huge  monolith  col- 
lamns  of  granite  from  the  quarries  of  Baveno  (see  p.  198).  —  Right  Aisle 
Sarcophagus  of  Archbishop  Aribert  (1018-45),  above  which  is  a  gilded 
cracilix  of  the  11th  century.  Monument  of  Ottone  Visconti  (d.  1295)  and 
Giovanni  Visconti  (d.  1354),  both  archbishops  of  Milan.  Gothic  monument 
of  Marco  Carelli  (d.  1394),  by  Niccolb  d'Arezzo  of  Florence  (?).  Tomb  of 
Canon  Viraercati,  by  Damhaia.  —  Right  Transept  (W.  wall):  Monument 
of  the  brothers  Giovanni  Giacomo  and  Gabriele  de'  Medici,  both  of  Milan, 
erected  by  their  brother  Pope  Pius  IV.  (1560-62),  the  bronze  statues  by 
Leone  Leoni.  [Tickets  for  the  roof  (see  p.  136)  are  obtained  near  this  mon- 
ument; the  staircase  leading  to  the  dome  is  in  the  corner  of  the  side-wall.] 
The  altar  of  the  Offering  of  Mary  (E.  wall  of  S.  transept)  is  adorned  with 
fine  reliefs  by  JIambaia,  with  a  relief  of  the  Nativity  of  the  Virgin  by  Tcai- 
tardini  at  the  foot.  Adjacent  is  the  Statue  of  St.  Bartholomew  by  Marco 
Agrate  (1562),  anatomically  remarkable,  as  the  saint  is  represented  flayed, 
with  his  skin  on  his  shoulder,  and  bearing  the  modest  inscription  'non 
me  Pra.xiteles  sed  Marcus  finxit  Agrates'. 

AiiBULATOKT.  The  door  of  the  S.  Sacristy  here  is  remarkable  for  its 
richly  sculptured  Gothic  decorations,  hy  Hans  Fernach  (1393).  In  the  sacristy 
is  the  Treasury  (adm.  1  fr.),  which  contains  silver  statues  and  candelabra 
(if  the  17th  cent. ;  the  enamelled  Evangelium  of  Abp.  Aribert ;  diptychs 
of  the  6th  cent.;  book-covers  adorned  with  Italian  and  Byzantine  carving 
of  the  early  middle  ages  ;  ivory  vessel  belonging  to  Bishop  Godfrey;  a 
golden  Pax  by  Caradosso ;  and  lastly  a  statue  of  Christ  by  Cristoforo  Solari. 

In  the  ambulatory,  a  little  farther  on,  is  a  highly  revered  Madonna, 
erroneously  ascribed  to  Luini,  beyond  which  is  a  sitting  figure  of  Martin  V. 
by  Jacoptno  da  Tradate  (1421).  Then  the  black  marble  Monument  of 
Cardinal  Marino  Caracciolo  (d.  1538) ,  by  Sambaia.  The  fourth  of  the 
handsome  new  Gothic  confessionals  is  for  the  German,  French,  and  English 
languages.  The  stained  glass  in  the  three  vast  choir-windows,  comprising 
350  representations  of  Scriptural  subjects,  were  executed  by  Giov.  Berlini 
(1844) ;  most  of  them  are  copies  from  old  pictures.  — Before  the  N.  Sackistt 
is  reached  the  statue  of  Pius  IV.  is  seen  above ,  in  a  sitting  posture,  by 
Angela  Sic.iliano.  The  door  of  this  sacristy  also  is  adorned  with  fine  sculp- 
tures by  Jac.  da  Campione  (d.  1398). 

In  front  of  the  choir,  below  the  dome,  is  the  subterranean  Cappella 
San  Carlo  Borromeo  (p.  202),  with  the  tomb  of  the  saint;  entrance  opposite 
the  doors  to  the  sacristy,  to  the  N.  and  S.  of  the  choir  (open  till  10  a.m., 
at  other  times  1  fr.;  for  showing  the  relics  of  the  saint  5  fr.). 

In  the  centre  of  the  N.  Transept  is  a  valuable  bronze  "Candelabrum, 
in  the  form  of  a  tree  with  seven  branches  and  decorated  with  figures  on 
the  lower  portions  (prob.  French  work  of  the  13th  cent.). 

Left  Aisle.  Altar-piece,  painted  in  1600  by  Fed.  Barocdo,  rcpresent- 
;  Sant'  Ambrogio  releasing  Emp.  Theodosius  from  ecclesiastical  penalties. 
The  third  chapel  contains  the  old  wooden  Crucifix  which  San  Carlo  Borro- 

136    Route  'J2.  MILAN.        a.  From  the  Piazza  del 

meo  bore  in  1576,  when  engaged,  barefooted,  in  his  missions  of  mercy 
during  the  plague.  Adjacent,  the  monument  of  three  archbishops  of  the 
Arcimboldi  family  (ca.  1550),  and  by  the  w;ill,  the  statues  of  eight  Apostles 
(13th  cent.).  Not  far  from  the  N.  side-door  is  the  Font,  consisting  of  an 
antique  bath  of  porphyry ;  canopy  by  Pellegrino  Tibaldi. 

The  traveller  should  not  omit  to  ascend  to  the  *Roof  and 
TowBB  of  the  Cathedral.  The  staircase  ascends  from  the  corner  of 
the  right  transept  (ticket  25  c),  where  an  excellent  panorama  of  the 
Alps  by  Pirola  may  be  bought  (75  c).  Single  visitors  are  not  now 
admitted,  except  when  other  visitors  are  already  at  the  top.  The 
visitor  should  mount  at  once  to  the  highest  gallery  of  the  tower  (by 
194  steps  inside  and  300 outside  the  edifice).  A  watchman,  generally 
stationed  at  the  top,  possesses  a  good  telescope. 

View.  To  the  extreme  left  (S.W.),  Monte  Viso,  then  Mont  Cenis 
(p.  2);  between  these  two,  lower  down,  the  Superga  (p.  41)  near  Turin; 
Mont  Blanc,  Great  St.  Bernard;  M<inte  Rosa,  the  most  conspicuous  of  all; 
then,  the  Mischabelhorner,  Monte  Moro,  theFletschhorn,  the  Monte  Leone 
near  the  Simplon,  the  Bernese  Alps,  and  Spliigen,  the  Bernina,  and  (in 
the  distance  to  the  E.)  the  Ortler.  The  foreground  on  the  N.  is  occupied 
by  the  hilly  district  between  the  Lago  Maggiore  and  the  Lago  di  Como. 
To  the  S.  the  Certosa  di  Pavia  (p.  162)  is  visible,  farther  E.  the  towers 
and  domes  of  Pavia  itself,  in  the  background  the  Apennines.  Perfectly 
clear  weather  is  necessary  to  see  all  these  points. 

In  the  gardens  in  front  of  the  cathedral  rises  the  colossal  bronze 
Equestrian  Statue  of  Victor  Emmanuel  11.^  completed  in  1896  from 
the  model  by  Ercole  Rosa  (d.  1893).  The  well-executed  reliefs  on 
the  pedestal  represent  the  Allies  entering  Milan  after  the  battle  of 

The  W.  side  of  the  Piazza  del  Duomo  is  skirted  by  the  Via  Carlo 
Alberto  (see  p.  146),  beyond  which,  to  the  N.W.,  lies  the  Piazza 
de'  Mercanti  (p.  146). 

To  the  S.  stands  the  Palazzo  Reale  (PI.  E,  F,  5,  6;  adm.,  see 
p.  131),  built  in  1772  by  Gius.  Piennurini  on  the  site  of  the  Palazzo 
di  Corte,  the  earliest  mansion  of  the  Visconti  and  the  Sforza.  It  is 
adorned  with  frescoes  by  Appiani,  *B.  Luini  (from  the  Casa  della 
Pelucca,  near  Monza),  and  Hayez,  and  contains  several  handsome 
saloons.  In  the  street  to  the  left,  beyond  the  palace,  are  visible  the 
tovrer  (1330;  built  by  F.  Pecorari)  and  apse  of  the  church  of  San 
Gottardo,  formerly  the  chapel  of  the  Visconti.  —  Adjacent,  on  the  E., 
in  the  Piazza  del  Campo  Santo  (formerly  the  cathedral-cemetery), 
rises  the  large  Archiepiscopal  Palace  (Palazzo  Arcivescovile ; 
PL  F,  5),  originally  built  at  the  ind  of  the  15th  cent,  in  the  early- 
Renaissance  style,  but  altered  in  1570  by  Pellegrino  Tibaldi,  while 
the  facade  towards  the  Piazza  Fontana  was  designed  by  Fahio 
Mangone.  The  handsome  first  court  has  a  double  colonnade  and 
marble  statues  (Moses  and  Aaron)  by  Tantardini  and  Strazza.  The 
second  court,  on  the  side  next  the  Piazza  Fontana,  is  embellished 
with  Corinthian  columns  of  the  15th  century. 

On  the  N.  side  is  the  imposing  palatial  facade  (finished  in 
1878)  which  forms  the  entrance  to  the  *Galleria  Vittorio  Emanuele 

J >uomo  to  the  N.  Quarters.     MILAN.  'J'2.  Route.    137 

(PI.  E,  5),  connecting  the  Piazza  del  Duomo  with  the  Piazza  della 
Scala.  This  is  the  most  spacious  and  attractive  structure  of  the 
kind  in  Europe.  It  was  built  in  1865-67  hy  Oius.  Mengoni,  who 
unfortunately  lost  his  life  by  falling  from  the  portal  in  1877.  The 
gallery,  which  is  said  to  have  cost  8  million  fr.  (320,000i.) ,  is 
213  yds.  in  length,  16  yds.  in  breadth,  and  85  ft.  in  height.  The 
form  is  that  of  a  Latin  cross,  with  an  octagon  in  the  centre,  crowned 
at  a  height  of  164  ft.  with  a  glass  cupola. 

In  the  Largo  Santa  Margherita  (PI.  E,  5),  on  the  "W.  side  of 
the  Galleria,  stands  a  bronze  statue,  by  Ettore  Ferrari  (1901),  of 
Carlo  Cattaneo  (1801-69),  the  economist  and  patriot. 

The  Piazza  della  Scala  (PI.  E,  4)  is  embellished  with  the 
Monument  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci  (1452-1519)  by  Magni,  erected 
in  1872.  The  colossal  statue  of  the  master  stands  on  a  lofty  pedestal, 
surrounded  by  Marco  d'Oggiono,  Cesare  da  Sesto,  Salaino,  and  Bol- 
trafflo,  four  of  his  pupils.  —  In  the  piazza,  to  the  N.W.,  is  the 
Teatro  alia  Scala  (p.  130).  To  the  S.E.  is  the  large  Palazzo 
Marino  (PI.  E,  4),  in  which  the  Municipio  has  been  established 
since  1861,  erected  by  Galeazzo  Alessi  in  1558-60  for  Tom.  Marini 
of  Genoa.  The  main  facade,  towards  the  Piazza  della  Scala,  was 
completed  in  1890  from  the  designs  of  Luca  Beltrami.  The  *Court 
and  the  council-chamber  (formerly  the  ball-ronm)  on  the  first  floor 
are  interesting. 

Behind  the  Pal.  Marino  is  the  Piazza  San  Fedele,  with  a  mon- 
ument to  Alessandro  Manzoni  (p.  171)  and,  to  the  N.,  the  Jesuit 
church  of  San  Fbdble  (  PI.  E,F,4),  erected  by  San  Carlo  Borromeo  in 
1569  from  designs  by  Pellegrino  Tibaldi  and  containing  a  sump-, 
tuous  high-altar.  The  adjoining  Palazzo  del  Censo  ed  Archivio,  for- 
merly the  Jesuit  college,  contains  part  of  the  government  archives. 
—  To  the  N.E.  of  this  point  is  the  Via  degli  Omenoni,  with  the 
palace  of  the  same  name  (No.  11,  erected  by  Leone  Leoni  and 
adorned  with  Atlant<58.  The  Via  degli  Omenoni  ends  in  the  Piazza 
Belgioioso,  which  contains  the  Palazzo  Belgioioso  (No.  2)  and 
ManzonVs  House  (No.  3 ),  with  frescoes  by  Giac.  Campi  (1894). 

Adjacent,  Via  Morone  10,  is  the  *Mu8eo  Poldi-PezzOli  (PI.  E, 
r,  4),  bequeathed  to  the  town  by  Gian  Giac.  Poldi-Pezzoli  in  1879 
and  exhiliited  in  the  tastefully-furnished  house  formerly  occupied 
by  the  founder.  The  collections  include  valuable  pictures,  textile 
fabrif-s,  arms  and  armour,  and  small  objects  of  antiquity  (adm., 
p.  131  ;  catalogue,  19il2,  1  fr.).    Director,  Camillo  Boito. 

Ground  Floor.  —  In  Room  I  are  Oriental  carpets.  —  Rooi  II.  Coptic 
Icxtiles  and  pajnliiigs:    73.  Carlo  iloratta.  Portrait  of  a  cardinal. 

First  Floor.  In  the  Sala  Vkrue  (to  the  left),  formerly  the  library, 
is  an  ancient  Flemish  tapestry  (15th  cent.),  representing  King  Solomon  and 
the  Queen  of  Sheba,  unit  the  following  paintings:  "95.  .Riftera,  Portrait  of 
an  ecclesiastic  (1638);  103.  Fr.  Guardi,  Lagoon  at  Venice;  113-115.  O.  B. 
Tiepolo,  Madonna  with  .saints,  Two  sketches.  —  The  Antisala  and  the 
Sala  Gialla,  the  next  two  rooms,  contain  nothing  of  importance. 

138    Route  22.  MILAN.  a.  Northern  Quarters: 

Salone  Dorato  (lo  the  right).  In  the  wall -case  is  porcelain  from 
Dresden,  China,  Capodimontc,  Vienna,  Sevres,  and  elsewhere.  In  the 
cases  at  the  window;  to  the  left,  antique  gold  ornaments  and  silver  plate; 
to  the  right,  goldsmith's  work  of  the  16-18fh  cent.  ;  in  the  centre-cases, 
valuable  ecclesiastical  vessels,  etc.  (some  Gothic);  in  the  last  case,  antique 
glass,  vases,  and  bronzes.  Beside  the  nairror,  Persian  weapons  and  line 
"■Persian  carpet  (14th  cent.).  Among  the  pictures  may  be  mentioned: 
*157.  Z>om.  Veneziano  (sometimes  ascrilied  to  Piero  della  Francesco  or  Ant. 
PoUainolo)y  Portrait  of  a  woman ;  156.  Botticelli^  Madonna.  In  the  small 
room  adjacent:  436.  PeseUino(?),  Annunciation.  —  Sala  Nera.  Pictures: 
473.  SignoreUi^  Mary  Magdalen;  474.  Borgognone ,  St.  Catharine;  '477. 
Marioito  Albertinelli,  Small  winged  altar-piece,  with  the  Bladonna  and 
SS.  Catharine  and  Barbara  within  and  the  Annunciation  without  (1.500). 
—  Sala  dei  Vetri  (formerly  a  bedroom).  Glass  from  Venice  and  Murano. 
Pictures:  490  492.  Fra  Viltore  Ohislandi  (p.  212),  Portraits;  489.  Bertini, 
Portrait  of  the  founder.  —  Corner  Room  (Gabinetto  Dante).  Romanesque 
crosses  and  reliquaries.  —  Sala  degli  Specchi.  555.  Oirolamo  Romanino  (?)•, 
Madonna  enthroned  with  saints  and  angels,  in  an  attractive  landscape;  560. 
Palma  Vecchio,  Portrait. 

Sala  del  Pekugino.  577.  Michele  da  Verona(Oi  Samson  and  Delilah 
(signature  'Victor  Carpatias'  forged);  581.  And.  Verroccldo,  Madonna  with 
angels  (school-piece);  589.  Ant.  Vivarini,  Madonna  enthroned,  with  argels; 
593.  Ambrogio  Lorenzetli,  Same  subject;  591.  Ste/ano  da  Zevio,  A  hermit 
saint;  597.  Cosimo  Tiira,  Maternal  love  (school-piece);  5l,'8.  Piero  della 
Francesco,  St.  Dumiiiic;  600.  Cos.  Tura,  A  canonized  bishop;  '^£03.  Pieiro 
Perugino,  Madonna  with  angels  (on  an  oa^el). 

Gabinetto  dei  Veneti.  617,  618.  Bart.  Montagna.,  St.  Jerome  and  St. 
Paul;  620,  621.  Carlo  Crivelli,  Clirist  and  St.  Francis,  St.  Sebastian;  624. 
Oiov.  Bellini,  Pieta;  623.  Cima  da  Conegliano,  Head  of  a  youthful  saint; 
*625.  Mantegna,  Madonna  with  the  sleeping  Child  (early  work;  showing 
the  influence  of  Donatello);  627.  Franc.  Buonsignori,  Portrait;  611.  Andr. 
Previtali,  Portrait.  —  Returning  to  the  Sala  degli  Specchi,  we  enter,  to 
the  right,  the  — 

Sala  dei  Lombakdi.  "637.  Andrea  Sulario,  EcceHomo;  640.  Borgog- 
none.  Madonna  with  singing  angels;  "642.  Oiov.  Ant.  Boltra/Jio,  Madonna; 
643.  Vin.  Foppa,  Madonna;  A.  Solaria,  *655.  Rest  on  the  Flight  into  Egypt 
(1515),  653.  John  the  Baptist,  657.  St.  Catharine  of  Alexandria;  B.  Luini,  659. 
Bearing  of  the  Cross  with  the  weeping  Mary,  663.  Marriage  of  St.  Catharine. 
On  easels  :  667.  Cesare  da  Sesto,  filadonna  with  the  Lamb  (showing  Leon, 
da  Vinci's  influence);  no  number,  Solaria,  M;idonna.  —  Three  bridal  chests 
(i5th  cent.),  that  on  the  right  with  two  charming  medallions  by  Bart. 
Montagna  (?).  —  We  now  return  and  enter  the  ARMoURy  to  the  right. 

The  Via  Alessandro  Manzoni  (PI,  E,  F,  4,  3 ;  tramway  to 
the  Central  Station,  see  p.  130),  one  of  the  chief  thoroughfares  of 
the  city,  begins  at  the  Piazza  della  Scala  (p.  137).  In  the  Via  Bigli, 
the  first  cross-street  beyond  the  Via  Morone,  stands  the  Casa  Ta- 
uerna  or  Ponti  (No.  11,  to  the  right),  with  a  fine  portal  and  an  ad- 
mirably restored  court  of  the  beginning  of  the  16th  century.  — 
From  the  Via  del  Monte  Napoleone,  the  next  cross-street,  we  turn 
to  the  left  into  the  Via  Santo  Spirito  (PI.  F,  4,  3),  with  the  Palazzi 
Bagatti-Valsecchi  (No.  10  on  the  right,  No.  7  on  the  left),  built  in 
1882  and  1895  In  the  style  of  the  16th  cent,  and  adorned  with 
art-treasures  (visitors  admitted;  fee  1  fr.). 

The  Via  Alessandro  Manzoni  ends  at  the  Piazza  Cavour  (PI.  F,  3), 
In  which,  opposite  the  S.W.  entrance  of  the  Giardini  Pubblici 
(p.  161),  rises  a  Bronze  Statue  of  Cavour,  by  Tabacchi,  with  a  figure 
of  Clio,  by  Tantardini,  on  the  pedestal.   —   To  the  right  is  the 

Brera.  MILAN.  22.  Route.    139 

Ibtituto  Tecnico  SurERioRE,  in  the  court  of  which  is  a  statue 
of  the  mathematician  Francesco  Brioschi  (1824-97J. 

Farther  on,  in  the  Via  Principe  Umherto,  to  the  left,  is  a  statue 
of  Agostino  Bertano  (1812-86),  physician  and  statesman.  To  the 
right  (No.  32)  are  the  show-rooms  of  the  Societd.  per  le  Belle  Arti 
(PI.  F,  2;  adm.,  see  p.  131).  This  street  ends  at  the  Porta  Principe 
Umberto  (PI.  F,  1)  and  the  large  open  space  in  front  of  the  Central 
Station  (p.  128). 

At  the  N.W.  angle  of  the  Piazza  della  Scala  begins  the  Via 
OiusEPPB  Vkrdi  (PI.  K,  4),  which  is  traversed  by  the  tramway 
(No.  5 ;  p.  130)  to  the  Porta  Volta.  To  the  right  is  the  former  Casino 
de'  Nobili  (Nos.  2  &  4),  with  a  Renaissance  court  by  Bramante.  — 
In  the  Via  del  Monte  di  Pietk,  the  second  side-street  on  the  right, 
is  the  handsome  Cassa  diRisparmio,  or  savings-bank,  by  Balzarctti. 

—  The  Via  di  Brera,  forming  a  prolongation  of  the  Via  Giuseppe 
Verdi,  leads  to  the  — 

*Palazzo  di  Brera  (PI.  E,  3;  No.  28),  built  for  a  Jesuit  college 
by  Richifio  in  1651  et  seq.,  since  1776  the  seat  of  the  Accademia 
di  Belle  Arti,  and  now  styled  Palazzo  di  Scienze,  Lettere  ed  Arti. 
It  contains  the  Picture  Gallery  described  below,  the  Library  founded 
ill  1770  (300,000  vols.;  adm.,  see  p.  131),  the  Reale  Gabinetto 
\umismatico,  or  Collection  of  Coins  (50,000;  adm.,  see  p.  131), 
and  the  Observatory,  founded  in  1766. 

In  the  handsome  Court  is  a  bronze  statue  of  Napoleon  I.,  as 
a  Roman  emperor,  by  Canova,  considered  one  of  his  finest  works 
(1810),  erected  here  in  1859.  By  the  staircase,  to  the  left,  the 
statue  of  the  celebrated  jurist  Cesare  Beccarta  (1738-94),  who  was 
the  first  scientific  opponent  of  capital  punishment.  The  court  is 
also  adorned  with  several  other  statues. 

The  staircase  ascends  to  the  first  floor,  on  which  is  the  *PictTire 
Gallery  or  Pinacoteca,  founded  in  1809.  Adm.,  see  p.  131;  catalogue 
(1904),  1  fr. ;  large  scientific  catalogue  in  preparation.  Director, 
Dr.  G.  Sinig'igUa.  The  collection  has  been  greatly  enlarged  in  recent 
years  by  bequest  and  piirchase;  and  in  1899-1902  it  was  rearranged 
according  to  schools  by  Corrado  Ricci,  the  late  director  (p.  484). 

—  The  chief  strength  of  the  cnllertion  lies  in  the  large  number  of 
works  by  N.  Italian  masters.  Among  the  paintings  of  the  15th 
cent.,  the  three  f  xamplcs  of  Maniegnn  (Room  IX)  rank  first.  The 
collection  also  affords  an  instructive  survey  of  the  progress  of  Carlo 
CriveUi  (R.  IX),  a  master  who  flourished  in  1468-93  and  con- 
nects the  Paduan  school  with  that  of  Venice.  The  most  notable 
works  of  the  latter  school  are  The  Preaching  of  St.  Mark  by  Gentile 
Bellini  (R.  V),  three  works  by  Giovanni  Bellini  (R.  IX),  and  three 
by  Cima  da  Conegliano  (R.  V);  and  of  a  later  period  The  Finding 
of  Moses  by  Bonifnzio  I.  (R.  IV),  the  Portrait  of  Porcia  and  the 
St.  Jerome  by  Titian  (R.  VI),  Tintoretto's  Finding  of  the  body  of 

140   Route  22. 

MILAN.        a.  Northern  Quarters  . 

St.  Mark  (li.  IV),  and  tlie  admirable  series  of  portraits  by  Lorenzo 
Lotto  (R.  VII),  rivalled  lay  Oiov.  Bait.  Moroni  of  Bergamo  (R.  III). 
The  Lombard  pupils  oi  Leonardo  da  Vinci  are  amply  and  adequately 
represented  in  RR.  XIV  and  XV.  The  Madonna  in  a  bower  of  roses 
(R.  XVI)  is  the  best  of  the  oil-paintings  by  Bernardino  Luini,  and 
the  best  of  his  frescoes  are  thfe  Madonna  with  SS.  Anthony  and  Bar- 

yi  o  /•'. 

O  s  c  u,  r  V 

bara  ( R.  II)  and  the  Burial  of  St.  Catharine  (R.  XVI).  The  schools 
of  Emilia  are  illustrated  by  interesting  works  by  the  Ferraresc 
masters  Ercole  de'  Eoberti  and  Dosso  Dossi  (R.  XX).  Of  Correggio 
the  collection  now  possesses  an  admirable  early  work  (R.  XX). 
The  examples  of  the  masters  of  Central  Italy  are  few  in  number, 
but  they  include  not  o)ily  exquisite  works  by  the  Umbrians  Gentile 


MILAN.  22.  Route.   141 

da  Fabriano  and  Piero  ddla  Francesca  (R.  XXV),  but  also  Raphael's 
far-famed  Sposalizio  (R.  XXII),  the  chief  work  of  his  first  Urabriau 
period,  and  Bramante's  vigorous  frescoes  (R.  XXIV),  which  are 
perhaps  the  most  valuable  of  the  recent  acquisitions.  Domenichino 
and  Guercino  (R.  XXVII)  represent  the  Italian  masters  of  the  17th 
century.  The  most  important  works  of  foreign  schools  are  the  por- 
traits of  ladies  by  VanDyck  (R.XXXl)  and  by  Rembrandt  (II.  XXX). 

From  Room  I,  in  which  admission-tickets  are  obtained,  we  enter 
(to  the  right)  — 

Room  II.,  a  long  gallery,  hung  with  frescoes  of  the  Lombard 
Scliool.  To  the  left,  15. -Bramrrntjno,  Madonna  enthroned,  with  angels; 
Vine.  Foppn^  19.  Madonna  with  SS.  John  the  Baptist  and  John  the 
Evangelist  (1485),  20.  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian;  22-25.  Borgog- 
none,  Nine  saints  (from  San  Satire),  Madonna  with  angels;  to  the 
right,  33.  Gaud.  Ferrari,  Adoration  of  the  Magi;  to  the  left,  Ber- 
nardino Luini,  *66.  Madonna  with  SS.  Anthony  and  Barbara  (1521), 
73.  Sacrilice  to  Pan,  74.  Apollo  and  Daphne,  76  (r.).  Birth  of  Adonis, 
these  three  from  the  Casa  della  Felucca  (p.  136).  —  The  Anteroom 
on  the  right  contains  the  archives  and  a  large  collection  of  photo- 
graphs for  purposes  of  study.  —  Straight  on  are  the  nine  — 

Rooms  of  the  Venetian  Schools  of  the  15 -18th  centuries. 
Room  III.  To  the  left,  Moretto,  91.  Madonna  with  SS.  Jerome,  An- 
thony Abbas,  and  Francis  (injured),  92.  Assumption.  —  93.  Moretto, 
St.  Francis;  QS.  Romanino,  Madonna;  99.  Franc.  Torbido,  Portrait; 
*100.  Giov.  Bait.  Moroni,  Portrait  of  Navagiero,  Podesta  of  Bergamo 
(1565);  Paris  Bordone,  104.  Holy  Family  with  St.  Ambrose  and  the 
donor,  105.  Love-scene.  —  *114.  Girol.  Savoldo,  *Madonna  and  four 
saints;  116.  Cariani,  Holy  Family  with  six  saints.  —  119.  Palma 
Vecchio,  Adoration  of  the  Magi  (completed  by  Cariani).  —  To  the 
left  is  — 

Room  IV.  To  the  left,  Paolo  Veronese,  *139.  SS.  Anthony  Abbas, 
Cornelius,  and  Cyprian,  amonk,  and  a  page,  the  finest 'conversazione' 
piece  (see  p.  291)  by  this  master,  140.  Christ  at  the  house  of  Simon 
the  Pharisee;  142.  Juc.  Tintoretto,  SS.  Helena,  Macarius,  Andrew, 
and  Barbara.  —  **143,  Tintoretto,  Finding  of  the  body  of  St.  Mark, 
from  the  Scuola  di  San  Marco  in  Venice  (ca.  1548;  comp.  p.  298); 
*144.  Bonifazio,  Finding  of  Moses,  in  the  style  of  Giorgione.  —  148. 
Paolo  Veronese,  Adoration  of  the  Magi  (injured).  —  To  the  left  is  — 

Room  V.  To  the  left,  160.  Michele  da  Verona,  Crucifixion  (1501). 
—  164.  Gentile  Bellini  (completed  by  Giovanni  Bellini),  Preachinji- 
of  St.  Mark  at  Alexandria,  from  the  Scuola  di  San  Marco  in  Venice 
(injured);  *105.  Bart.  Montagna,  Madonna  enthroned,  with  saints 
and  angels  with  musical  instruments,  one  of  the  master's  best  works 
(1499).  —  Vitt.  Carpaccio,  170.  St.  Stephen  and  the  Scribes  (1514), 
171.  Presentation  of  the  Virgin  (1504);  Cima  da  Conegliano,  *174. 
St.  Peterwith  John  the  Baptist  and  St.  Paul,  175.  Madonna  enthroned, 
vfith  SS.  John  the,  Sebastian,  Rochns,   and  Mary  Magdalen 

142    Route  22.  MILAN.  a.  Northern  Quarters: 

(ail  early  work).  —  177.  Liberate  da  Verona,  St.  Sebastian;  *176. 
Cima  da  Conegliano,  SS.  Peter  Martyr,  Augustine,  and  Nicholas  of 
Bari.  —  To  the  right  is  — 

Room  VI.  Titian,  *180.  Portrait  of  Count  Porcia  (of  the  master's 
middle  period,  ca.  1537;  injured),  *182.  St.  Jerome  in  a  fine  sylvan 
landscape,  a  characteristic  example  of  his  later  style  (about  1560). 

Room  Vil  *183-185.  Lorenzo  Lotto,  Three  portraits. 

'The  fine-chiselled  features  (of  the  ladyj,  extremely  pure  in  drawing, 
charm  by  their  mild  expression.  A  delicate  but  healthy  complexion  is  . 
displayed  in  warm  sweet  tones  of  extraordinary  transparence;  and  masterly 
transitions  lead  the  eye  from  opal  lights  into  rich  and  coloured  shadows. 
A  half  length  in  the  same  collection  represents  a  man  of  lean  and  bony 
make  with  a  swallow-tailed  beard  ,  a  grey  eye ,  close  set  features,  and  a 
grave  aspect.  ...  A  third  half  length,  companion  to  these,  offers  another 
variety  of  type  and  execution.  A  man  stands  at  a  table  in  a  pelisse  with 
a  fox  skin  collar;  he  is  bare-headed  and  bearded.  His  right  hand  rests 
on  the  table  and  grips  a  handkerchief.  The  ruddy  skin  of  the  face  is 
broken  with  touches  now  warm  now  cold  by  which  the  play  of  light  and 
reflections  is  rendered  with  deceptive  truth'.  —  G.  dt  C. 

We  proceed  through  Room  VIII  and  to  the  left  enter  — 
Room  IX,  containing  masterpieces  of  the  15th  century.    To  the 
right,  Andrea  Mantegna,  *198.  Madonna  in  a  nimbus  of  angels' 
heads ;  199.  Pieta. 

'It  is  a  picture  in  which  Mantegna's  grandest  style  is  impressed, 
foreshortened  with  disagreeable  boldness,  but  with  surprising  truth, 
studied  from  nature,  and  imitating  light,  shade,  and  reflection  with  a 
carefulness  and  perseverance  only  equalled  by  Leonardo  and  Diirer;  dis- 
playing at  the  same  time  an  excess  of  tragic  realism,  and  a  painful  un- 
attractiveness  in  the  faces  of  the  Marys.'  —  C.  dk  C. 

Andrea  Mantegna,  200.  Large  altar-piece,  at  the  top  the  Madonna 
and  St.  John  weeping  over  the  dead  body  of  Christ,  below  St.  Lulie 
and  other  saints,  painted  in  1454,  and  a  proof  of  the  early  maturity 
of  the  artist,  then  23  years  old;  Carlo  Crivelli,  *201.  Madonna  en- 
throned, with  four  saints  (1482),  202,  203.  Coronation  of  the  Virgin, 
with  a  Pieta  above  it  (1493),  206.  Crucifixion  with  the  Madonna 
and  St.  John,  *207.  Madonna  enthroned ;  Oiovanni  Bellini,  *214. 
Pieta,  an  early  and  genuinely  impassioned  work,  215.  Madonna  (a 
late  work,  about  1610),  216.  Madonna  (an  early  work  with  Greek 
inscriptions).  —  We  pass  through  Room  VIII  and  to  the  left  enter  — 

Room  X.  223.  Stefano  da  Zevio,  Adoration  of  the  Magi  (1435)  ; 
225.  Franc.  Morone,  Madonna  enthroned  with  SS.  Nicholas  and  Zeno ; 
228.  Antonio  da  Murano  and  Giov.  Alemanno,  Madonna  with  saints. 

Room  XI  (18th  cent.).  230.  G-iov.  Batt.  Tiepolo,  Battle-piece 
(sketch);  235,  236.  Bern.  Belotto,  Landscapes  (near  Varese);  242. 
243.  Franc.  Ouardi,  The  Grand  Canal  in  Venice.  —  We  next  enter 
the  seven  — 

Rooms  of  the  Lombard  Schools.  Room  XII.  No  number,  Defen- 
dente  de  Ferrari,  SS.  Catharine  and  Sebastian,  St.  Andrew ;  248. 
Vine.  Civerchio,  Adoration  of  the  Child.  —  Room  XIII.  To  the  right, 
269,  258.  Borgngnone,  Madonna  with  a  Carthusian  monk  and  SS. 
Clara,  Jerome,  Ambrose,  and  Catharine,  with  a  Pieta  above  it. 

Brera.  MILAN.  22.  Route.   143 

Rooms  XIV  and  XV.  School  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci.  To  the  right, 
262.  Gian  Pietrino,  Mary  Magdalen;  265.  Bern.  Lanini,  Madonna  and 
Child  with  St.  Anna,  271.  Bern,  de"  Conti,  'La  Vierge  aux  Rochers' 
(copies  of  Leonardo's  pictures  in  the  Louvre).  —  Room  XV.  To  the 
right,  276.  Cesar e  da  Sesto,  Jtadonna  under  the  laurel-tree;  277. 
Gaud.  Ferrari,  Madonna;  278.  Franc.  Napoletano,  Madonna;  280. 
Leonardo  da  V'mf/(v),  Head  of  Christ,  a  drawing  (injured):  281. 
Boltraffio,  Kneeling  donors,  remains  of  a  larger  altar-piece;  Andr. 
Solarlo,  282.  Portrait  of  a  man,  285.  Madonna  with  SS.  Joseph  and 
Jerome,  an  early  work  (1495;  restored);  286.  Sodoma,  Madonna. 

Room  XVI,  with  pictures  and  frescoes  hy  Bern.  Luini.  In  the 
1st  Section  :  41-44.  Angels  (from  the  former  Monastero  delle  Vetere 
at  Milan);  *288.  St.  Catharine  placed  in  her  sarcophagus  hy  angels, 
with  the  inscription  C.  V.  S.  Ch.,  i.e.  'Catharina  Virgo  Sponsa  Christi' 
(from  the  Casa  della  Felucca,  p.  136);  289.  Madonna  in  a  grove  of 
roses.  In  the  2nd  Section  (an  imitation  of  the  Chapel  of  St.  Joseph 
in  the  old  church  of  Santa  Maria  della  Pace) :  294-305.  Scenes  from 
the  life  of  the  Virgin,  with  angels. 

Room  XVII.  To  the  right,  321.  Gaud.  Ferrari,  Martyrdom  of 
St.  Catliarine  of  Alexandria.  —  309.  Brdmaniino,  Crucifixion;  308. 
Borgognone,  Assumption  and  Coronation  of  the  Virgin  (1522);  307. 
Vine.  Foppa,  Madonna  enthroned  W'ith  angels,  and  six  panels  with 
figures  of  saints.  —  *310.  Bern.  Zenale  ('?),  Madonna  enthroned,  with 
tlie  four  great  church-fathers,  SS.  Jerome,  Gregory,  Augustine,  and 
Ambrose,  and  the  donors,  Lodovico  il  Moro,  his  wife  Beatrice  d'Este, 
and  their  two  children.  —  On  an  easel:  3l9.  Boltraffio,  Portrait  of 
Girolamo  Casio,  the  poet  (injured;  in  an  old  frame).  —  In  the 
middle,  Dravtdngs  (15-18th  cent.)  hy  Gaud.  Farrari,  Primaticcio, 
Guercino,  Sim.  Cantarini,  and  others. 

Room  XVIII  contains  works  of  the  17-18th  centuries.  — Farther 
on  are  the  two  — 

Rooms  of  the  Schools  of  the  Emilia.  Room  XIX.  To  the 
Tight,  417.  Fil.  Mazzola,  Portrait.  —  Room  XX.  To  the  right,  *428. 
Ercole  de'  Eoherti,  Madonna  enthroned  with  SS.  Anna,  Elizabeth, 
Augustine,  and  the  beatified  Pietro  degli  Onesti  (from  Santa  Maria 
in  Porto  Fuori  at  Ravenna);  429.  Lor.  Costa,  Adoration  of  the  Magi 
(1499)  ;  431-433.  Dosso  Dossi,  Francesco  d'Este  as  SS.  George,  John 
the  Baptist,  and  Sebastian.  — 438.  Garofalo,  Pieta  (1627).  —  439. 
Garofalo,  Crucifixion;  447.  Cos.  Tura.  Fragment  of  a  Crucifixion; 
448.  Franc.  Francia,  Annunciation ;  449.  Franc.  Cossa,  Two  wings 
of  an  altar  with  SS.  Peter  and  John  the  Baptist.  —  On  an  easel: 
*427.  Correggio,  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  an  early  work  in  the  master's 
Ferrarese  style.  —  We  next  enter  — 

Room  XXI;  Schools  of  the  Romagna.  To  the  right,  Nice.  Ron- 
dinelli,  452.  St.  John  the  Evangelist  appearing  to  Galla  Placidia 
(p.  410),  453.  Madonna  enthroned,  with  four  saints.  —  We  now  enter 
the  four  — 

144   Route  22.  MILAN.        a.  Northern  Quarters: 

Rooms  of  the  Schools  of  Central  Italy  (the  Marches ,  Tus- 
cany, Umhria,  etc.). 

Room  XXII.  **472.  Raphael's  far-famed  Sposalizio,  or  the 
Nuptials  of  the  Virgin,  painted  in  1504  for  the  church  of  San 
Francesco  in  Cittli  di  Castello,  where  it  remained  till  1798. 

The  composition  closely  resembles  that  of  the  Sposalizio  of  Perugino 
(now  at  Caen),  in  whose  studio  Raphael  then  worked.  'In  both  paintings 
the  top  is  rounded,  and  in  both  a  small  polygonal  temple,  a  charming 
forecast  of  Bramante's  buildings,  rises  in  the  background.  The  central 
part  of  the  foreground  is  occupied  by  the  Inng-bearded  high-priest,  who 
joins  the  hands  of  the  bridal  pair ;  Mary  is  attended  by  a  group  of  graceful 
virgins,  while  near  Joseph  stand  the  rejected  suitors,  the  most  passionate 
of  whom  breaks  his  shrivelled  wand.  A  closer  examination  of  Raphael's 
work,  however,  divulges  so  many  points  of  divergence,  as  to  make  the 
observer  almost  oblivious  to  its  Peruginesque  character.  The  transposition 
of  the  bride  and  bridegroom  with  their  attendant  groups  to  opposite 
sides  of  the  canvas  is  a  purely  external  difference  and  one  of  little  signi- 
ficance, but  the  conception  and  drawing  of  the  individual  figures  and  the 
more  delicate  disposition  of  the  grouping  reveal  the  original  and  peculiar 
genius  of  the  younger  artist'.  —  '■Raffael  und  Michelangelo\  by  Prof.  An- 
ton Springer. 

Room  XXIII.  To  the  right,  Luca  Slynorelti,  All.  Madonna, 
476.  Scourging  of  Christ  (early  works) ;  *475.  Beno&zo  Oozzoll, 
Miracles  of  St.  Dominic  (part  of  an  altar-piece). 

Room  XXIV.  *489-496.  Bramante,  Ileraclitus  and  Demo- 
critus,  with  six  figures  of  heroes  and  minstrels,  fragments  of  frescoes 
from  the  Casa  Panigarola  (now  Prinetti)  in  Milan.  —  Room  XXV.  To 
the  right,  *497.  Oenti/e  da  Fabriano,  Altar-piece,  above,  Coronation 
of  the  Virgin,  with  four  saints ,  on  the  predella.  Charming  scenes 
from  the  life  of  the  Virgin  (early  work).  —  503.  Oiov.  Santi  (father 
of  Raphael),  Annunciation;  507.  Timoteo  Viti,  Annunciation  with 
SS.  John  the  Baptist  and  Sebastian.  —  505.  Luca  Slgnorelli,  Ma- 
donna enthroned  with  four  saints;  *510.  Piero  della  Francesco,  Ma- 
donna enthroned  with  saints,  angels,  and  the  worshipping  donor, 
Duke  Federigo  da  Montefeltre.  —  Then  come  to  the  two  — 

Rooms  of  thb  Bolognese  School  (16-17th  cent.).  Room  XXVI. 
To  the  left,  538.  Ouido  Rent ,  SS.  Peter  and  Paul.  On  an  easel: 
513.  Franc.  Albani,  Dance  of  Cupids.  —  Room  XXVII.  550.  Dome- 
nichino,  Madonna  enthroned,  with  SS.  John  the  Evangelist  and 
Petronius ;  656.  Quercino,  Expulsion  of  Hagar.  —  Room  XXVIII : 
Roman  School  (16-17th  cent.).  To  the  right,  565.  Ang.  Bronuno, 
Portrait  of  Andrea  Doria  (p.  79)  as  Neptune;  574.  Fed.  Baroccio, 
Martyrdom  of  St.  Vltalis  (1583);  583.  Sassoferrato,  Madonna. 

Room  XXIX :  Schools  of  Genoa  and  Naples.  To  the  right,  603. 
Luca  Giordano,  Madonna  and  saints ;  607.  Salv.  Rosa,  Landscape, 
with  St.  Paul  the  Hermit.    On  an  easel :  613.  Ribera,  St.  Jerome. 

Rooms  XXX  and  XXXI:  Foreign  Schools.  Room  XXX.  To  the 
right,  620.  Herri  de  Bles,  Adoration  of  the  Magi ;  655.  Jan  Brueghel, 
Village-street  (1607).  On  an  easel:  *614.  Rembrandt,  Portrait  of 
his  sister,  an  early  work  (1632).  —  Room  XXXI.  To  the  right,  679. 
Rubens,  Last  Supper  (from  Malines;  ca.  1615-20);  699.  Jac.  Jor- 

I'ul.  Crespi.  MILAN.  I'-J.  Roule.    145 

ilaen',  Abraham's  sacrifice;  701.  A.  ran  Dyck,  Madonna  and  St.  An- 
thony of  Padua.  Near  the  window;  706.  Raphael  Mengs,  Dom. 
Annibali,  the  singer  (1750).  On  an  easel ;  *700.  Van  Dyck,  Princess 
Ainalie  of  Solms. 

The  following  rooms  contain  works  of  the  19th  century.  In  Room  XXXII, 
near  the  2nd  wimlow  :  Fr.  Hayez ,  Portraits  of  Manzoni  (No.  38),  Massimo 
d'Azeglio  t54),  and  Ant.  Rosmini  (56).  —  In  Rooms  XXXIII-XXXV  are 
competitive  de'^igns  by  pupils  of  the  academy  (XXXIII.  Andr.  Appiani, 
Franc.  Hayez,  Dom.  Jnduno,  Ruff.  Casnedi;  XXXIV.  Elent.  Pagliano,  Loii. 
Fogliaghi,  Most  Bianchi;  XXXV.  Oaet.  Freviali,  Fil.  CaTcano,  Am.  Cagnoni). 
Room  XXXV.  also  contains:  Appiani,  Portrait  of  Ugo  Foscolo;  P.  Troit- 
hetzkoy,  Bust  of  Giov.  Segantini. 

At  No.  18  Via  di  Borgo  Nuovo,  behind  the  Brera,  is  the  Palazzo 
Crespi  (PI.  E,  3),  containing  an  important  *  Picture  Gallery  (ca. 
200  pictures  by  old  masters),  to  which  admission  in  courteonsly 
granted  on  previous  application.    Catalogue  in  preparation. 

Room  I.  Titian  (Bern.  Licinio?),  'Portrait  of  a  woman  ('la  Schiavona'') ; 
Bacchiacca,  Adoration  of  the  Magi.  —  To  the  right  is  — 

Room  II.  On  easels:  Florentine  School  (not  Michael  Angela'),  Madonna; 
Mariotto  Alberlinelli,  "Adoration  of  the  Child;  Franc.  Francia,  "St.  Barbara; 
Correggio,  "'Adoration  of  the  Child,  early  work  in  the  master's  Ferrarese 
style;  Liberate  da  Verona,  Hadonna;  Franc.  Granacci,  State-entry  of 
Charles  VIII.  into  Florence.  —  On  the  walls:  Canalelto  (Ant.  Canale),  The 
Grand  Canal  in  Venice;  Bern.  Licinio,  Holy  Family;  Bacchiacca,  JIadonna: 
Set.  Mainardi,  Society  of  the  Rosary  (1195);  Dom.  Morone,  *The  fall  of  the 
Bonacolsi  (p.  257),  with  an  interesting  representation  of  the  Piazza 
Sordello  (1490).  —  In  the  firit  side-room  are  some  Netherlandish  and 
German  works  (B.  Briiyn,  Portrait).  —  In  the  second  side-room:  Fiero  di 
Cosimo  (?),  Portrait;  Franc.  Caroto,  *Holy  Family  (1530);  Oiov.  Batt.  Tiepolo, 
Vision  of  St.  Anna  (with  the  sketch  beside  it),  the  Beata  Laduina;  Ribei-a, 
St.  Jerome;  Bart.  Veneto,  Madonna;  Marco  Basalt',  Madonna  with  two  saints 
(1521);  Giov.  Batt.  Moroni,  Portrait;  5a«w<a  del  Dosso ,  Portrait;  J.  L. 
David,  Portrait. 

Room  III.  On  easels  :  Lor.  Lotto,  'Holy  Family  ;  Be7-n.  Luini,  St.  Jerome  ; 
Oianpietrino.  Madonna;  Ambr.  de  Predis,  Madonna;  Andr.  Solaria,  Portrait; 
Giov.  Ant.  Boltraffio ,  Madonna.  —  On  the  walls:  Solario,  Christ  in  an 
attitude  of  blessing;  Oirol.  Savoldo ,  Adora'ion  of  the  Child;  Romanino, 
•Bearing  of  the  Cross;  Gianpietrino ,  Holy  Family;  Boccaccio  Boccaccina, 
Madonna;  Giov.  Bellini,  'Madonna;  Farig  Bordone,  "Shepherd  and  nymph; 
Morello,  "Viiitatiim;  Palina  Vecchio,  Christ  arisen;  A.  Solaria,  Madonna, 
The  Virgin  at  prayer,  Ecce  Homo;  Gand  Ferrari,  JIadonna;  Ambr.  Bor- 
gognone,  "Adoration  of  the  Child ;  Fine,  i^oppa.  Madonna;  Marco  d'Oggiano, 
Altar-piece  in  three  parts,  Madonna  enthroned  with  angels,  saints  and 
adoring  donors. 

In  the  Bf.droom  :   Gaud.  Ferrari,  *Pii'ta. 

Adjacent,  at  the  junction  of  the  Martesana  (p.  166)  with  the 
Na-viglio,  is  the  church  of  San  Marco  (PI.  E,  3),  originally  a  Gotldc 
building  of  the  13-14th  cent.,  but  entirely  modernized  in  1690. 
The  transept  contains  the  Gothic  tombs  of  Beato  Lanfranco-Settala 
(d.  1243),  by  (fioranni  di  Bnlduccio  (p.  148),  and  the  jurist  Sal- 
varinus  de  Aliprandis  (d.  1344),  by  one  of  the  sculptors  known  as 
the  (see  p.  184). 

To  the  N.W.  of  the  Brera  is  the  church  of  San  Simpliciano 
(PI.  D,  3),  a  fine  Romanesque  structure,  repeatedly  altered  at  a 
later  date;  it  contains  a  Coronation  of  the  Virgin  by  Borgognone 
(restored;  in   the  apse).  —  Farther  to  the  N.,  in  the  Corso  Gari- 

B.iEDEKER.    Italy        13th  Kdit.  10 

146    Route  -J-J.  MILAN.  b.  Piaaa  de  Mercanti. 

baldi  (r.),  not  far  from  the  Porta  Garibaldi,  is  the  Gothic  double 
church  of  Santa  Maria  Incoronata  [PI.  D,  1),  built  in  1461-87. 
The  Cappella  Bossi  contains  the  tombs  of  Giovanni  Tolentino  (d.l51?) 
and  Archbishop  Gabriele  Sforza  (d.  1457),  the  former  in  the  style 
of  Andrea  Fusina. 

To  the  S.W.  of  the  Brera  lies  Santa  Maria  del  Carmine  (PI.  D, 
3,  4),  a  Gothic  cruciform  church  of  the  16th  cent.,  but  now  entirely 
modernized.  In  the  right  transept  is  an  Adoration  of  the  Child,  by 
Vine.  CivercMo  (?).  —  The  Palazzo  Clehici  (now  a  law-court),  in 
the  adjacent  Via  Clerici  (Pl.  E,  4),  contains  an  admirably-preserved 
*  Ceiling  Fresco  by  0.  B.  Tiepolo  in  a  handsome  baroque  room 
(always  open). 

b.  From  the  Piazza  del  Duomo  and  the  Piazza  de'  Mercanti 
to  the  Castello  and  the  Arco  della  Face. 

To  the  W.  of  the  Piazza  del  Duomo ,  beyond  the  Via  Carlo 
Alberto  (p.  136),  lies  the  *Piazza  de'  Mercanti  (PI.  E,  5),  the 
central  point  of  the  mediseval  city,  and  formerly  provided  with 
five  gates.  In  the  centre  of  the  Piazza  is  the  building  which 
was  formerly  the  Palazzo  della  Ragione,  a  large  hall  erected  in 
1228-33  by  the  podestk  (or  mayor)  Tresseno,  to  Mhom  an  eques- 
trian relief  was  placed  on  the  S.  side  with  the  inscription,  'qui 
solium  struxit,  Catharos  ut  debuit  uxit'  (the  Cathari  or  heretics  burn- 
ed by  him  were  the  Waldensians).  —  On  the  N.  side  of  the  piazza 
is  the  Palazzo  dei  Oiureconsulti,  with  an  old  tower,  erected  by  Vine, 
Seregni  (1564).  On  the  quaint-looking  S.  side  are  the  Gothic  Loggia 
degli  Osii,  erected  in  1316  in  black  and  white  marble  (restored  in 
1902-4),  and  the  Collegio  dei  NobiU,  also  by  Vine.  Seregni  (1564), — 
Through  the  Via  Cesare  Cantti  to  the  Bihlioteca  Ambroslana,  see  p,  151, 

The  Piazza  de'  Mercanti  is  adjoined  on  the  N.W.  by  the  new 
Piazza  Cordusio  (PI.  D,E,  5),  commonly  known  as  Piazza  Eliltica, 
from  its  elliptical  shape.  On  the  S.E.  side,  beside  the  Via  Oreflci, 
are  the  offices  of  the  Venetian  Socleth  delle  Assicurazioni  Generali, 
by  Luca  Beltrami ,  and  on  the  S.  side  rises  the  Exchange,  with 
a  fine  covered  court,  by  L.  Broggi  (1899-1901;  adm.  1-3  p.m.). 
Facing  the  Via  Dante,  on  the  N.W.  side  of  the  Piazza,  is  a  bronze 
statue  (by  Luigi  Secchi;  1899)  of  6ius.  Parini  (1729-99),  author  of 
the  satiric  poem  '11  Giorno', 

From  the  Piazza  Cordusio  a  new  series  of  streets  leads  in  a  direct 
line  to  the  Castello.  The  first  part  of  this  thoroughfare  is  the  wide 
and  handsome  Via  Dante  (PI.  D,  5, 4;  tramways  Nos,  3  &  4,  see 
p.  130),  which  is  continued,  beyond  the  Foro  Bonaparte,  by  the  Via 
Cairoli  (PI,  D,  4).  In  the  Foro  Bonaparte,  which  was  laid  out  under 
Napoleon  I.  on  the  site  of  the  castle-moat,  is  a  bronze  Equestrian 
Statue  of  Oaribaldi,  by  Ettore  Ximenes  (1896).  The  allegorical 
female  figures  on  the  pedestal  represent  Kevolution  and  Liberty. 

CasteUo  Sforzesco.  MILAN.  22.  Route.    147 

The  *Ca8tello  Sforzesco  (PI.  C,  3,  4),  the  castle  of  Milan,  a 
rectangular  building,  defended  by  four  corner-turrets  and  a  curtain 
wall,  was  originally  built  in  1368  as  the  CasteUo  di  Porta  Olovia 
by  Galeazzo  II.  Visconti  (1355-78),  adjoining  the  old  Porta  Giovia. 
It  was  destroyed  by  the  Ambrosian  Republic  (p.  132)  in  1447,  but 
was  rebuilt  and  enlarged  by  the  Sforza  after  1450  and  beautified  by 
Bramnnle,  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  and  other  masters.  Frequently  since 
the  French  invasion  (1499)  the  castle  has  been  the  focus  of 
straggles  for  the  possession  of  Lombardy.  Under  the  Austrian 
re'gime  it  was  converted  into  barracks.  Since  1893  it  has  been 
restored  in  the  15th  cent,  style  from  the  plans  of  Luca  Beltrami, 
and  it  now  contains  the  municipal  art-collections. 

In  the  centre  of  the  main  facade,  facing  the  Piazza  Castello, 
rises  the  Torre  Dmberto  Primo  (230  ft.  high) ,  a  tower-gateway 
erected  in  1901-5  in  imitation  of  the  early-Renaissance  tower  built 
by  Filarele  (p.  133)  and  destroyed  by  an  explosion  of  gunpowder 
In  1521.  The  two  round  towers  (102  ft.  high)  at  the  corners,  the 
Torrione  Santo  Spirito  on  the  left  and  the  Torrione  del  Carmini  on 
the  right,  were  restored  in  1894  and  1904  and  now  serve  as  reser- 
voirs for  drinking-water.  —  On  the  N.E.  side,  beside  the  Torre 
delle  Asse,  is  the  Ponticella  di  Lodovico  il  Moro,  a  bridge  over  the 
castle-moat  with  an  elegant  loggia;  it  was  reconstructed  by  Bra- 
mante  after  1490  and  restored  in  1903. 

The  main  entrance  (open  at  the  same  hours  as  the  museum) 
opens  on  the  Piazza  d'Armi,  the  large  anterior  court.  At  the  back 
of  this,  to  the  left,  is  the  Eocchetta,  erected  by  Francesco  Sforza 
on  the  foundations  of  the  Visconti  castle,  with  a  windowless  facade, 
a  new  curtain-wall,  and  the  square  Torre  di  Bona  di  Savoia  (1477; 
140  ft.  high);  to  the  right  is  the  Cokte  Ducale,  the  new  palace  of 
the  Sforzas,  with  Gothic  windows  (restored)  and  a  curtain-wall. 
The  passage  between  the  two  palaces  opens  on  the  Nuovo  Parco 
(p.  151). 

In  the  N.W.  angle  of  the  court  of  the  Coktb  Ducale  is  the  Log- 
getta,  a  graceful  Renaissance  structure,  erected  by  Ben.  Ferrini  in 
the  time  of  Galeazzo  Maria.  The  building  now  accommodates  the 
"Museo  Archeologico  ed  Artistico  (adm.,  see  p.  131 ;  no  catalogue). 

On  the  groundfloor  is  the  Museo  Aecheologico,  formerly  (1862- 
98)  in  the  Brera.  This  includes  prehistoric  articles  and  antiques 
discovered  in  Lombardy  and  medisval  and  modern  sculptures. 

I.  Room.  In  the  first  division  are  Egyptian  and  prehistoric  antiquities. 
In  the  seconil  division  are  Etruscan,  Greek,  and  Roman  antiquities.  In 
front,  four  antique  porphyry  columns;  among  the  sculptures  is  a  torso  of 
Venus  (t'dunil  at  Milan  in  1905),  recalling  the  Capiloline  Venus. 

II.  HooM.  Early  medippval  sculptures  (6-13th  cent.).  Entrance -wall: 
Fragments  of  frescoes  and  architectural  fragments  from  the  former  convent- 
church  of  Santa  Maria  d'Aurona  (some  still  in  the  Longobardic  style).  In 
front.  Case  with  articles  found  in  Longobanlic  graves  at  Fornovo  di  San 
Giovanni.  —  Left  vi'all :  Romanesque  architectonic  fragments  from  the 
churches  of  Sant'  Eustorgio  and  San  Celso  (12th  cent.).  —  E.xit-wall: 
Remains  from  the  cloisters  of  the  convent  of  Santa  Radegonda  (12th  cent.); 


148   Route  22. 


b.  Castello  Sforzesco 

reliefs  from  the  Porta  Romana  (1171)  and  Porta  Tosa  (caricatures  of  Emp. 
Frederick  Barbarossa  and  the  Empress  Beatrice?). 

in.  Room  (Sala  di  Balducdo  da  Pisa),  with  traces  of  the  original  ceiling- 
paintings  (Resurrection  and  Saints),  by  Vine.  Foppa.  Lombardic  and  Pisan 
sculptures  and  works  by  the  Campionesi  (14th  cent.;  see  p.  184);  capitals 
and  sculptures  from  the  church  of  Santa  Jlaria  in  Brera,  by  Giov.  di  Bal- 
ducdo (1347);  statue  of  the  Madonna,  from  the  cathedral.  la  the  centre, 
large  "Monument  of  Bernabo  Visconti  (p.  127),  in  the  style  of  Bonino  da 
Campione ,  executed  during  Bernabo's  lifetime  (ca.  1370-80),  for  the  old 
church  of  San  Giovanni  in  Conca,  with  numerous  traces  of  gilding.  Un  the 
sarcophagus  are  reliefs  of  the  Evangelists ,  the  Crucifixion  and  a  Pieta, 
and  the  Coronation  of  Mary  ;  above,  the  eijuestrian  statue  of  Bernabo  and 
two  Virtues   (fortitude   and  J\istice).     By    the  exit-wall   is   the   monument 

Torre  dpi  Tesoro 

Ton-e  dePeAsse 

of  Regina  della  Scala,   wife   of  Bernabo,   and   the  portal  of  the  church  of 
San  Gottardo  (p.  136). 

IV.  PoKTicts  (Sala  Aperla).  On  the  right  wall,  monument  of  the  Rus- 
coni  family  of  Como  (c.  1400),  and  sculptures  from  the  Porta  Orientale 
(Porta  Venezia).  —  In  the  adjacent  Codet,  to  the  left,  baroque  portal  of 
the  time  of  Philip  III.,  surmounted  by  the  arms  of  the  Visconti  and  the 
Sforza;  opposite,  on  the  right,  marble  portal  from  the  Banco  Mediceo  del 
Portinari,  built  for  Cosimo  de'  Medici  by  Michelozzo  in  1457-70,  with  the 
arms  and  portraits  of  Francesco  Sforza  and  his  wife  Bianca  Maria  Visconti. 

V.  Room,  the  former  chapel  (Cappella  Ducale),  with,  the  sadly  damaged 
remains  of  ceiling-frescoes  (Resurrection,  Annunciation)  by  Ste/ano  d«'  Fedeli, 
Oiov  di  Montorfano,  ami  others  (1473).  Late-(5othic  sculptures  (ca.  1400-50), 
mostly  from  the  cathedral;  early -Renaissance  pulpit  from  San  Pietro  in 
Gessate,  assigned  to  Michelozzo.  The  cases  contain  objects  from  the  Castello 
and  new  acquisitions  (vessels,  glass,  weapons,  etc.).  —  Straight  on  is  the  — 

VII.  Room  (Sala  dei  Dncali),  with  a  ceiling  tastefully  decorated  with 
the  arms  and  initials  of  Galeazzo  Maria  Sforza  on  a  blue  ground.  Early- 
Renaissance  sculptures ,  showing  the  influence  of  Donatello  (ca.  1450) :  to 
the  right,  *Tabernacle  with  six  angels,  by  the  Master  of  San  Trovaso;  two 
angels,  and  a  relief  of  the  Tiburtine  Sibyl  announcing  the  Nativity  to 
Augustus  (or  of  Louis  the  Saint  on  a  Crusade),  by  Agostino  di  Duccio  (?),  from 
Rimini;  and  a  relief -bust  of  a  girl,  by  Franc,  di  Simone(0-  By  the  win- 
dow-wall, Caradosso,  marble  tabernacle,  with  St.  Sebastian  (studio-piece). 
—  To  the  right  is  the  — 

VI.  Room  (Sala  delle  Asse),  intended  for  memorials  of  the  Pforzas. 
The  line  ceiling  -  paintings  (restored  in  1901-2)  are  ascribed  to  Leonardo  da 

and  its  Collections.  MILAN.  22.  Rmte.   149 

Vinci  (1498).  The  ceiling  presents  the  appearance  of  a  hnge  arbour  ('per- 
golatd'),  among  the  dense  branches  of  which  are  golden  cords  (the  crest 
of  Lodovico  il  Moro)  and  tablets  with  inscriptions.  —  To  the  left  is  the  — 
vni.  Room  (Sala  delle  Colombine),  with  well-preserved  ceiling  and  wall 
decorations  on  a  red  ground.  (The  white  dove  in  an  aureole  is  the  crest 
of  Bona  di  Savoia;  beside  it  is  her  motto,  'a  bon  droit'.)  Sculptures  of 
the  best  Lombard  period  (c.  1500).  Entrance- wall ;  Giov.  Ant.  Amadeo, 
Adoration  of  the  Child,  a  relief  from  Cremona  (1482).  Exit-wall:  Medallion 
portrait  of  Lodovico  11  Moro;  half-length  of  a  woman  and  relief  of  the 
Madonna,  by  Tomm.  Rodari.  In  the  centre,  half-length  of  a  woman  ('La 
Mora'),  by  Amadeo  (1)\  Ecce  Hiimo,  by  Crista/.  Solari(0- 

IX.  Room  (Sala  degli  Scarlioni).  Sculptures  of  the  16-18th  centuries. 
In  the  first  division:  Andr.  Fttsina,  Tomb  of  Bishop  Batt.  Bagaroto  (1519); 
Bambaia.,  Portions  of  the  monument  of  Gaston  de  Foix  (p.  420),  ordered 
in  1515  by  Francis  I.  but  never  completed,  with  the  recumbent  *Statue 
of  the  hero,  and  casts  of  the  remaining  portions;  near  the  window,  Bam- 
baia, Monument  of  the  poet  Lancino  Curzio  (d.  1513).  —  In  the  second 
division :  'Bronze  Bust  of  Michael  Angelo,  by  one  of  his  pupils  (replica  in 
the  Louvre).     In  the  cases,  ornamental  locks,  keys,  etc. 

X.  Room.  Terracottas  of  the  12-16th  cent.,  from  Milan  and  Cremona, 
including  large  medallion  heads  from  the  former  Banco  Mediceo  (p.  148). 

The  staircase  at  the  end  of  R.  X,  affording  an  excellent  view 
of  the  elegant  Gothic  mndow  in  R.  IX  (to  the  right),  leads  to  the 
Loggetta  (p.  147),  on  the  first  floor  of  which  is  the  — 

*MusEo  Aetistico  Municipale.  This  collection,  founded  in  1874 
and  since  then  considerahly  extended,  originally  occupied  the  former 
Salone  in  the  Giardini  Puhblici. 

I.  Room  (Sala  delle  Ouardie;  Xo.  11  on  the  Plan).  The  first  division 
contains  a  valuatile  collection  of  'Majolica:  Milanese  fayence  (18th  cent.), 
including  imitations  of  Chinese  and  Japanese  porcelain;  fine  Italian  majo- 
lica of  the  IBth  cent.,  with  scmptuous  specimens  from  Urbino  (Case  3,  in 
the  middle),  Gubbio,  and  Deruta  (Case  4);  line  Persian  tiles  (window-wall 
to  the  right),  and  Hispano-MaureS'iue  majolica  (centre  of  the  left  wall). 
Then,  Chinese  and  European  porcelain,  including  examples  from  Capodi- 
monte  and  Ginori.  —  Second  division:  in  the  central  cabinets  are  ivory 
carvings  (in  Cab.  8,  Roman,  early-Christian,  and  medireval),  niello  works, 
Limoges  enamels,  glass  (goblet  of  the  Sforzas;  Itith  cent.);  on  the  walls 
are  lace,  costly  textiles,  oriental  and  other  costumes,  stained  glass,  etc.  — 
From  the  first  division  we  enter  the  — 

U.  Room  (Prima  Sala  Ducale;  PI.  12).  To  the  left,  Italian  iron-work 
and  bronzes  (16-18th  cent.),  including  several  elef^ant  caskets  and  a  bust 
of  Costanza  Buonarelli,  by  Xor.  Bernini.  By  the  first  window.  Ecclesiastical 
jewellery  (14- 16th  cent.).  By  the  exit,  Japanese  bronzes  and  armour.  On 
the  walls  is  Flemish  tapestry  (17th  cent.). 

III.  Room  (Seconda  Sala  Ducale ;  PI.  13).  Italian  furniture  (16-17th  cent.), 
including  several  bridal  chests;  collection  of  frames  (15-17th  cent.);  early 
Flemish  tapestry  (15th  cent.),  with  the  Raising  of  Lazarus.  —  IV.  Room 
(Terza  Sala  Ducale;  PI.  14).    Furniture  and  frames  of  the  17- 18th  centuries. 

V.  Room  (Sala  della  Torre;   PI.  15).     Ethnographical  collections. 

VI.  Room  (Sala  di  Milano ;  PI.  IG).  Objects  of  interest  connected  with 
Milan;  ancient  views  of  the  city,  cathedral,  and  castello;  large  banner  of 
St.  Arabrosius,  carried  in  municipal  processions ;  coins  and  medals  ;  original 
of  the  treaty  made  between  Milan  and  Louis  XII.  in  1502;  fourteen  medallion 
portraits  of  the  Sforzas  and  F^mp.  Maximilian  I.,  by  Bern.  Luini  (ca.  1530). 

VII.  *  Vin.  Rooms  (Sale  della  Pinacoteca;  PI.  17,  18):  '^Pinacoteca,  or 
gallery  of  old  masters.  In  Room  VII.  To  the  left,  Vine.  Foppa.,  Martyr- 
dom of  St.  Sebastian;  Moretto,  St.  Ursula,  John  the  Baptist,  the  Prophet 

VIII.  Room.  To  the  right,  27.  Cariani,  Lot  and  his  daughters;  28. 
Bern.  Licinio,  Double  portrait;  32.  Lor.  Lotto,  Portrait  of  a  youth;  58.  Por- 

150   Route  22.  MILAN.  6.  Castello  Sforzesco. 

denone,  Portrait  of  a  gentleman,  with  a  lap-dog ;  59.  Jac.  Sassano,  Portrait 
of  a  genenl;  64.  Tintoretto,  Doge  Jac.  Soranzo;  65.  O.  B.  Moroni,  Portrait; 
78.  Q.B.  Tiepolo,  Communion  of  St.  Lucia;  81  Fr.  Ouardi,  Sea-piece  with 
ruins;  no  number,  O.  B.  Moroni,  Death  of  St.  Peter  Martyr;  130.  Greuze, 
Girl's  head;  106.  P.  Potter,  Swine  (1649);  145.  Van  Dyck,  Henrietta  Maria, 
wife  of  Charles  I.  of  England  (school-piece  V).  —  178.  C.  F.  Nuvoloni,  Ma- 
donna. —  Fra  Vittore  Ohistandi  (p.  'il2),  202.  Portrait  of  himself,  203. 
Portrait  of  a  monk;  2'i8.  Al.  Magnasco,  Market-scene;  '249.  Ant.  da  Mes- 
sina. Portrait  of  a  man  in  a  laurel  wreath;  '253.  Correggio,  Holy  Family, 
the  so-called  Mailonna  Bolognini,  an  early  work  in  the  master's  Ferrarefe 
style;  BoUraffio,  280.  Madonna,  279,  281.  Altar -wings  with  saints  and  donors; 
'283.  Sodoma,  Archangel  Michael;  306.  Gianpietrino,  St.  Mary  Magdalen; 
no  number,  Borgognone,  St.  Jerome;  505.  V.  Foppa,  Madonna.  —  In  the 
centre,  choir-books  (14-16th  cent.),  drawing.':^  etc.  —  On  the  right  side-wall 
are  Milanese  frescoes  (15th  cent.)  from  the  demolished  churches  of  Santa 
Chiara  and  Santa  Maria  del  Giardino.  —  From  the  small  exit-door  at  the 
end  of  this  room  we  may  proceed  by  the  curtain-wall  and  a  flight  of  steps 
to  a  side-entrance  to  the  Modern  Gallery  (see  below). 

The  RoccHETTA  has  lost  almost  the  whole  of  its  artistic  decor- 
ation. The  Epigraphical  Section  of  the  Archaeological  Museum  is 
arranged  under  the  arcades  of  the  court  (catalogue  by  Em.  Selettij. 
The  rooms  on  the  S.W.  side  of  the  groundfloor  contain  the  collec- 
tions of  the  Socielh  Numism'itica  Ilaliana  (coins)  and  the  archives 
of  the  Societh  Storica  Lomharda.  The  three  large  rooms  on  the  N.W. 
side  of  the  groundfloor,  and  the  first  and  second  floors  are  occupied 
by  the  Galleria  d'Arte  Moderna  (adm.  see  p.  131),  which  was 
founded  in  1903.  The  first  floor  also  contains  the  Museo  del  Risor- 
gimento  Nazionale  (adm.,  seep.  131),  with  a  collection  of  patriotic 
objects  from  the  time  of  the  Cisalpine  Republic  down  to  the 
present  day. 

The  Galleria  d' Arte  Moderna  includes  a  collection  of  sculpture 
and  paintings  of  the  19th  cent.,  chiefly  by  artists  of  Lombardy,  and 
the  municipal  collection  of  coins  and  medals.     Guide  (1903),  60  c. 

Grodndflooe.  —  I.  Room  ( Sala  del  Consiglio).  Sculptures,  including 
numerous  statues  and  busts  of  famous  men  [Ang.  Pizzi,  Napoleon  I. ;  Od. 
TahaccH,  Arnold  of  Brescia);  also,  C.  Pandiani,  Camilla;  Canova,  Benevo- 
lence. —  II.  Room  (Sala  delle  Scoltiire).  Among  the  reliefs:  Pompeo  Mar- 
chesi,  Socrates  and  Aleibiades;  Fieiro  Tenerani,  Christian  martyrs  in  the 
Colosseum;  Ach.  Alberti,  Socrates  as  an  orator.  —  III.  Room  (Hala  del  Te- 
toro),  with  the  remnants  of  a  fresco  of  Mercury  or  Argus,  by  Bramanfe  (?): 
sculptures;  cartoons  by  Andr.  Appiani;  coins  and  'Medals.  —  The  stair- 
case beside  the  exit  leads  to  the  — 

First  Floor,  the  principal  saloon  on  which,  formerly  the  Sala  della 
Bralla  (159  ft.  long  and  59  ft.  broad),  has  been  divided  into  two  rooms 
(IV,  V)  IV.  Room  (gallery).  Pictures  of  the  beginning  of  the  19th  cent, 
by  A.  Appiani,  M.  Enoller,  Mauro  Conconi,  and  others.  Sculptures:  Canova, 
Hebe  (model);  Vine.  Vela,  Spring.  —  V.  Roo.m  (left).  Si.'c  tapestries  from 
Mantua,  perhaps  from  designs  by  pupils  of  Raphael.  On  the  entrance- 
wall  :  Prud^hoii,  Portrait ;  2nd  division  :  Girol.  Indnno,  Interior  ('la  Giari- 
baldina);  3rd  division:  Fr.  Hayez,  Portraits  ofManzoni,  Rossini,  and  Ca- 
voar;  opposite,  by  the  window:  Hayez,  Despair,  Ihe  kiss;  4th  division: 
Ub.  deir  Urto,  Mountain  -  pasture ;  rear -wall:  Girol.  Induno,  Victor  Em- 
manuel II.  Sculptures:  by  the  second  window,  Thorvaldsen ,  Count  Som- 
mariva  ;  Careoi'rt,  Vestal  virfiin;  in  the  centre,  Giov.  Strazza,  Ishmael  in  the 
desert;  Franc.  Barzaghi,  Phryno;  by  the  last  window,  Enr.  Butti,  Miner. 
—  VI.  Room  (gallery).  Window-wall:  Ang.  dalV  Oca  Bianca,  Ave  Maria; 
Gaet.  Chirici,  The  masquerader;    Andr.  Achenhach,   Sea-piece;    W.  TrUbner, 

b.  Arco  della  Pace.  MILAN.  22.  Route.   151 

Transitoriness;    Th.  Couioure,  The  lunatic;    A.  Acheiibacli,   Sunset  at  Porto 
Vunorc.  —  We  ascend  to  the  — 

Second  Flock.  —  VII.  Room.  Water-colours  by  ilos^  Bianchi  and 
others;  miniature  copies.  —  VIII.  Eoom.  Designs  by  Gius.  Maffgiolini,  the 
wood-carver.  —  IX.  Room.  Paintings  by  Don.  Morelli,  Girol.  Indimo,  Fil. 
/Wi^zj,  and  others;  engravinjjs  h'j  Mariano  For  tuny. — X.  Room.  Municipal 
archives;  cartographical  division;  Raccnlta  Vinciana  (literature  relating  to 
Leonardo  da  Vinci),  founded  in  1905.  —  XI.  Room.  Ancient  views  of  Milan. 
—  From  Room  VII  we  turn  to  the  left  into  Room  XII.  (gallery).  Window- 
wall :  Qiac.  Favrelto,  The  picture-restorer  (Vandalismo),  The  mouse;  Fil. 
Carcano,  Workers  on  the  Exhibition  liuildings  after  work-hours,  Interior 
of  the  ch'irch  of  San  Celso  in  Milan;  Dotn.  Morelli,  The  masquerade; 
Am.  Cagnoni,  Portrait;  Mosi  Bianchi,  Eve  of  the  church  festival,  Stormy 
passage  on  the  lagouns,  Harbour  uf  Chi^ggia,  Washerwomen,  etc.;  Leon. 
Bazzaro.,  Nun  taking  the  veil.  Also,  Cartoons  by  Appiani  and  others;  near 
the  exit,  P.  Troubeizkoy,  Equestrian  statue  (if  Tolstoi.  —  XIII.  Room  (upper 
gallery  of  the  Sala  delia  Balla).  Pictures  by  Gnis.  Zcinctti,  Girol.  Induno, 
and  others;  sculptures  by  Inn.  Fracearoli  and  .466.  Sangiorgio. 

The  open  space  at  the  hack  of  the  Castello,  originally  the  plea- 
sance  of  the  Visconti  and  Sforza,  was  converted  in  1893-97  into 
the  still  somewhat  shadeless  Nuovo  Parco  (PI.  B,  C,  2-4).  In  the  N. 
part  of  the  grounds  are  a  number  of  buildings  lor  the  Exhibition 
of  1^06  and  the  Arena  (PI.  C,  2),  an  amphitheatre  built  in  1805 
for  races,  etc.,  recently  used  also  as  a  skating-rink.  Ilard  by  are  the 
Torre  Stigler,  an  iron  belvedere,  erected  for  the  Exhibition  of  1894 
and  commanding  an  extensive  *Panorama  of  Milan,  the  plains  of 
Lombardy,  and  the  Alps  (adm.  25  c. ;  ascent  only  on  Sun.  in  clear 
weather,  in  summer  in  the  evenings  also),  and  the  Montagnola,  a 
low  hill  with  a  cafe-restaurant. 

The  N.  W.  side  of  the  park  is  bounded  by  the  Porta  del  Sempione 
(tramway  No.  3,  see  p.  130),  the  name  of  which  refers  to  the  con- 
struction of  theSimplon  road  (p.  3),  and  the  Arco  della  Pace  (PI.  B, 2), 
a  triumphal  arch  of  white  marble,  begun  by  L.  Cagnola  for  the  Foro 
Bonaparte  (p.  146)  in  1806  and  completed  under  the  Austrians  in 
1838.  Most  of  its  sculptures  are  by  Pompeo  Jl/arc/jesi.  The  remainder 
of  the  Buildinys  for  the  Exhihilion  of  19U6  are  situated  in  the  Piazza 
d'Armi,  at  the  W.  end  of  the  Via  Abbondio  Sangiorgio  (PI.  B,  A,  2; 
tramway  from  the  Nuovo  Parco). 

To  the  S.W.  of  the  Castello  lies  the  Stazione  FerrovieNord  (PI.  B, 
C,  4;  p.  128),  passing  which  and  following  the  Via  Boccaccio  and 
the  Via  Caradosso  (PI.  B,  6),  we  reach  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  delle 
Grazie  and  Leon,  da  Vinci's  Last  Supper  (p.  154). 

c.  West  Quarters  of  the  City.  Biblioteca  Ambrosiana.  Santa 
Maria  delle  Grazie.  Sant'  Ambrogio. 
From  the  S.W.  corner  of  the  Piazza  de'  Mercanti  (p.  146)  the  Via 
Oesare  CanttJ  leads  to  the  Piazza  della  Kosa.  At  No.  2  in  the  latter,  the 
building  erected  for  it  in  1603-9  by  Fabio  Manyone,  is  the  celebrated 
*Biblioteca  Ambrosiana  (PI.  D,  E,  5),  whi(;h  contains  175,000  vols, 
of  printed  books  and  8400  MSS.,  and  also  a  valuable  collection  of 
pictures  (adm.,  see  p.  131;  entrance  from  the  reading-room,  to  the 

152   Route  ■22.  MILAN.  c.  West^Quarters : 

right,  in  the  court).  The  director  of  the  library  is  Cav.  Sacerdote 
Ceriani^  the  Orientalist. 

In  the  Biblioteca,  which  is  on  the  groundfloor,  many  of  the  most  in- 
teresting 5ISS.  are  exhibited  to  the  public.  Among  the  chief  treasures  are 
fragments  of  an  illuminated  MS.  of  Homer,  of  the  end  of  the  4th  cent. ; 
a  copy  of  Virgil,  with  marginalia  by  Petrarch;  a  palimpsest  of  the  5th 
cent,  with  Ihe  Pauline  epistles  and  other  parts  of  Ulflla's  Gothic  trans- 
lation of  the  Bible,  along  with  a  fragment  of  a  Gothic  calendar  (from 
Bobbio ,  p.  361) ;  Dante's  Divine  Comedy,  a  MS.  of  the  first  half  of  the 
14th  cent.;  the  celebrated 'Codex  Atlanticus,  being  a  collection  of  original 
drawings  and  MSS.  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci;  a  number  of  miniatures;  letters 
of  Lucretia  Borgia,  San  Carlo  Borromeo,  Ariosto,  Tasso,  Galileo,  Liguori, 
etc.  —  The  side-rooms  contain  a  few  sculptures  in  marble:  parts  of  the 
tomb  of  Gaston  de  Foix  (p.  149);  Cupid  in  marble,  by  R.  Schadow;  bust  of 
Byron  and  several  reliefs  by  Thorvaldxen.  Also  a  Boman  mosaic  and  a 
fresco  of  Christ  crowned  with  thorns  by  Bern.  Luini  (1521). 

On  the  First  Floor  is  the  "Pinacoteca,  which  has  been  rearranged 
since  1904.  I.  Koom  (Cabinet  of  Bronzes).  Busts  of  Canova  and  Thor- 
valdsen,  the  latter  by  the  master  himself.  Pictures:  46.  Raphael  Mengs, 
Pope  Clement  XIII.;  Marco  Basaiti,  Risen  Christ;  24.  Bart.  Veneto  (not 
Lorenzo  Lotto),  Madonna  (injured).  —  We  ascend  a  short  staircase  and 
turn  to  the  right  into  II.  and  III.  Rooms:  Engravings.  —  IV.  Room.  Paint- 
ings: 52.  Savoldo,  Transfiguration  (copy;  original  in  the  Palazzo  degli 
Uffizi,  p.  489);  Borgognone,  '•'54.  Madonna  enthroned,  with  saints  and  sing- 
ing angels;  (1485),  no  number,  Wings  of  an  altar  with  SS.  Christopher  and 
Peter  Martyr,  Francis,  and  Klizabelh  ;  57.  Moretto,  Death  of  St.  Peter  Martyr; 
*72.  S.  Botticelli,  Madonna  and  angels;  70.  Baroccio,  Nativity;  96.  Cariani, 
Bearing  of  the  Cross.  —  To  the  right  is  Room  V:  "312.  Giov.  Batt.  Moroni, 
Portrait  (1554);  no  number,  Rottenhammer,  Choir  of  angels;  also  landscapes 
and  still-life  pieces  by  J.  Brueghel  and  others.  — VI.  Room:  Paintings  of 
no  importance.  —  We  return  through  the  IV.  Room  to  the  VII.  Room. 
Pictures:  260,  261.  Boltraffio,  Large  portrait- heads  of  a  man  and  a  woman, 
in  chalk;  262.  O.  Ferrari,  Marriage  of  the  Virgin;  Bramantino,  272.  Ma- 
donna with  SS.  Michael  and  Ambrose,  273.  Adoration  of  the  Holy  Child 
(an  early  work);  274.  Marco  d'' Oggiono  and  277.  Gianpieirino ,  Madonnas; 
279.  Boltraffio,  Portrait;  B.  Luini,  281.  Holy  Family  (after  Leon,  da  Vinci's 
cartoon  in  London),  283.  Youthful  Christ  in  an  attitude  of  benediction, 
284.  John  the  Baptist  as  a  child ;  *282.  Leonardo  da  Vinci  (?),  Portrait 
(unfinished;  perhaps  Roberto  Sanseverino?);  *285.  Leonardo  da  Vinci  (at- 
tributed by  Morelli  to  Amhrogio  de  Predis),  Portrait  of  a  young  lady  (perhaps 
Madonna  Bianca,  daughter  of  Lodovico  il  Moro  and  wife  of  Roberto  Sanse- 
verino); 236,  233.  Titian  (copies),  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  Deposition  in 
the  Tomb  (originals  in  the  Prado  at  Madrid) ;  ''231.  Bonifazio  I.,  Holy 
Family,  with  Tobias  and  the  angel  (restored);  230.  Jac.  Bassano,  Adoration 
of  the  Shepherds.  Also,  Drawings  of  the  School  of  Leon,  da  Vinci,  and  a  few 
specimens  from  his  own  hand,  including  some  caricatures.  '■" RaphaeV i 
Cartoon  of  the  'School  of  Athens',  which  should  be  carefully  studied. 
The  dilapidated  condition  of  the  fresco  in  the  Vatican  makes  this  cartoon 
of  great  interest  and  value,  since  here  only  we  gain  the  full  key  to  the 
artistic  motives  of  the  painter.  The  deviations  of  the  fresco  from  the 
cartoon,  with  the  exception  of  the  additions  of  the  sitting  figure  at  the 
foot  of  the  staircase,  the  temple-colonnade,  and  the  portrait  of  Raphael 
himself,  are  unimportant.  —  VIII.  Room:  Drawings  of  the  Lombard 
School,  including  some  by  Leon,  da  Vinci  (the  portrait  of  himself  is  a 
forgery,  comp.  p.  31) ;  also  several  by  DUrer. 

At  the  back  of  the  library  is  the  Romanesque  church  of  Santo 
Sepolcro  [PL  D,  5),  dating  from  the  11th  century,  with  a  picture 
by  Olanpietrlno  (Madonna  and  angels)  in  the  sacristy.  The  Via  del 
Bollo  leads  hence  to  the  W.  to  the  Piazza  San  Borromeo,  which 
contains  a  statue  of  San  Carlo  Borromeo  and  also  the  former  — 

San  Maurkio.  MILAN.  2i>.  Route.    153 

Palazzo  Borromeo  (No.  7;  PI.  D,  5).  In  the  late -Gothic  side- 
court  of  the  palace  are  three  fresioes,  historically  interesting  for 
their  subjects  [card-players,  players  at  ball,  and  a  rustic  dance); 
they  are  ascribed  to  Michelino  da  Bedozzo  (ca.  1430).  On  the  first 
story  is  a  *Picture  Gallery  (Pinacoteca)  containing  some  important 
paintings  and  a  few  sculptures,  chiefly  of  the  Lombard  School 
(adm.,  see  p.  131 ;  no  catalogue;  lists  of  the  pictures  provided). 

1.  KooM.  Madonna  with  John  the  Baptist  and  St.  Sebastian,  an  alto- 
relief  by  Marco  da  San  Michele  (1525).  Copies  of  ancient  paintings  (56. 
Cavalry  engagement,  hy  Ercolede'  Roberti),  etc.  —  II.  Room.  Lombard  School, 
Madonna  with  the  donor  (King  Francis  I.?),  alto-relief  of  the  16th  cent.; 
Desiderio  da  Settignano  (?),  Bust  of  a  girl;  155.  Giov.Ant.  BoUraffio,  Head  of 
the  Virgin  (fragment  of  a  fresco) ;  209,  214.  Ziiccarelli,  Pastel  portraits  of 
girls.  This  room  also  contains  some  beautiful  miniatures  upon  copper.  — 
III.  Room.  Paintings  of  the  German  and  Netherlandish  schools,  drawings, 
autographs,  etc.  —  IV.  Room,  containing  the  chief  works  of  the  collection. 
4.  Marco  d'  Oggiono  (?),  The  Archangel  Michael ;  Gianpietrino,  6.  St.  Catha- 
rine, 9.  Fertility;  Gaud.  Ferrari,  10.  St.  Sebastian,  12.  Madonna  with  SS. 
Joseph  and  Anthony  Abbas;  13.  School  of  Mantegna,  Bearinjj  of  the  Cross; 
Gaud.  Ferrari,  14.  St.  Rdchus,  16.  Two  Amoretti;  '68.  Bern.  Luini,  Susanna 
(half-length);  69.  Fil.  Mazzola,  Portrait  (1468);  34.  Luini,  Holy  Family; 
35.  Bern.  Zenale  (not  Borgognone),  Portrait  of  Andrea  de'  Novelli,  Bishop 
of  Alba;  36.  Pinturicchio,  Bearing  of  the  Cross  (1513);  37.  Cesare  da  Sesto, 
Adoration  of  the  Magi  (early  work);  43.  Lorenzo  Lotto,  Crucifl-xion;  40.  Bart. 
Veneto,  St.  Catharine;  Borgognone,  Hi.  Madonna  enthroned,  45.  Madonna 
by  a  rose-hedge;  Luini,  "44.  Madonna  and  saints,  47.  Daughter  of  Herodias 
with  the  head  of  John  the  Baptist;  Borgognone,  48.  Christ  blessing,  49. 
Madonna;  50,  52.  Vine.  Foppa  (nut  Borgognone),  Annunciation;  51.  Lombard 
School  (not  Leon,  da  Vinci),  Madonna;  '72.  BoUraffio,  Madonna;  Bernardino 
de"  Conti,  56.  Portrait  of  Camillo  Trivulzio  (d.  1525),  58.  Madonna. 

A  little  to  the  N.W.,  at  No.  4  Via  Gorani  (PL  D,  6),  is  the  Casa 
liazzero,  with  the  tower  of  an  ancient  patrician  castle  (13th  cent.), 
which  is  visible  also  from  the  court  of  No.  2  Via  I'.risa.  —  The  Via 
Santa  Maria  alia  Porta  leads  farther  to  the  N.W.  to  the  Corso  Magenta 
(tramway  to  the  Porta  Magenta,  see  p.  130),  in  which,  to  the  right, 
is  the  Palazzo  Litta  (PI.  C,  5),  with  an  imposing  rococo  facade  and 
a  handsome  staircase  and  court,  now  occupied  by  the  offices  of  the 
State  Hallways  (p.  xvi).    On  the  left,  rises  the  small  church  of  — 

San  Maurizio,  or  Chiesa  del  Monastero  Maggiore  (PI.  C,  5), 
erected  in  1503-19  by  Giov.  Uolcehuono,  a  pupil  of  Bramante. 

The  Interiou  contains  numerous  frescoes.  Last  chapel  but  one  on  the 
right:  'Scourging  of  Christ  and  scenes  from  the  martyrdom  of  St.  Catharine, 
painted  by  Luini  about  1525.  The  'Frescoes  beside  the  high-altar  are  by 
Luini:  above,  in  the  centre,  the  Assumption  of  the  Virgin;  below,  to  the 
left,  SS.  Cecilia  and  Ursula  at  the  sides  of  the  tabernacle,  with  a  beauti- 
ful figure  of  an  angel.  In  the  lunette  above  is  a  kneeling  figure  of  the 
donor,  Alessandrcj  Bentivoglio  (d.  1532;  e.xpelled  from  Bologna  and  buried 
here),  with  SS.  Benedict,  John  the  Baptist,  and  John  the  Evangelist.  Above, 
martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice.  Below,  to  the  right,  SS.  ApoUonia  and  Lucia  at 
the  sides  of  the  tabernacle,  with  the  risen  Christ;  in  the  lunette,  Ippolita 
Sforza,  wife  of  Bentivoglio,  with  SS.  Scholastica,  A(;ne3,  and  Catharine. 
Above,  King  Sigismund  presents  a  model  of  the  church  to  St.  Maurice. 
The  frescoes  in  the  chapels  at  the  sides  of  the  entrance-door  are  by 
Aurelio  Luini  and  his  pupils.  —  Behind  the  high -altar  lies  the  Kdns' 
Choir,  of  the  same  size  as  the  church  itself.  At  the  high-altar  is  a 
series  of  9  Frescoes  of  the  Passion;  below,  the  lifesize  figures  of  SS. 
Apollonia,  Lucia,  Catharine,  .\gatha,  Seba.stian,  and  Kochus,  all  by  Luini. 

154   Route  22.  MILAN.  c.  West  Quarters  : 

Between  the  arches  on  the  side-walls  are  20  medallions  of  saints,  by  Bor- 
gognone.  In  the  arches  of  the  gallery  above  are  26  medallions  of  holy 
women,  by  Boltraffio. 

Farther  on  in  the  Corso  Magenta,  on  the  right,  is  situated  the 
church  of  *Santa  Maria  delle  Grazie  (PI.  B,  5),  an  ahhey-church  of 
the  15th  century.  The  choir,  with  its  elahorate  external  decoration 
in  terracotta,  the  transept,  and  the  line  dome  were  designed  by 
Bramante  (1492-97). 

Right  Aisle.  In  the  2nd  chapel,  John  the  Baptist,  an  altar-piece  by 
Oiul.  Bugiardini.  4th  chapel,  fre.scoes  by  Gaudenzio  Fei-rari^  the  Crucifixion, 
Christ  crowned  with  thorns,  Christ  scourged  (1542),  angels  with  the  in- 
struments of  the  Passion  (on  the  vaulting).  —  In  the  Choir  are  good  stalls 
of  the  Renaissance.  —  Left  Aisle.  The  gorgeous  Cappella  del  Rosario, 
with  a  defaced  fresco  (Adoration  of  the  Cliildj  by  Vine.  Foppa,  contains 
the  mural  tablet  of  Branda  Castiglione  (d.  1495).  by  Giov.  Ant.  Amadeo,  and 
the  family-tomb  of  the  Delia  Torre  (p.  127),  by  Tomm.  and  Franc,  da  Cazzaniga 
(1483;  restored). 

The  Monastery,  long  used  as  a  barrack,  the  small  central 
cloistiTS  of  which  are  by  Bramante.,  is  now  being  restored  by  Laica 
Beltrami.  The  iirst  walk  of  the  cloisters,  to  the  left  of  the  choir  of 
the  church,  is  adjoined  on  the  N.  by  the  Sacristy,  which  contains  an 
altar-piece  by  Andr.  Appiani,  a  pupil  of  Marco  d'Oggiono  (John  the 
Baptist  and  donor).  To  the  right  and  left  are  relief-portraits  of  Lodo- 
vico  il  Moro  and  his  son  Massimiliano,  from  Bambaia's  studio.  The- 
Renaissance  cabinets  are  adorned  with  charming  paintings  on  wood. 

A  door  marked  'Cenacolo  Vinciano',  to  the  W.  of  the  church, 
is  the  entrance  to  the  former  refectory,  containing  the  celebrated 
**Last  Sapper  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci  (adm.;  see  p.  131).  The 
picture  is  unfortunately  in  bad  preservation,  chiefly  from  having 
been  painted  on  the  wall  in  oils  (before  1499).  In  the  same  room 
are  also  exhibited  numerous  photographs,  including  those  of  the 
drawings  at  Strassburg  and  Weimar  erroneously  attributed  to  Leo- 
nardo, and  contemporaneous  copies  of  the  great  fresco,  by  Andrea 
Solario^  Cesare  del  Magno,  Marco  d'  Oggiono.,  Ant.  de  Olaxiate^  and 
Lomazzo.  The  study  of  the  original  is  much  facilitated  by  an  in- 
spection of  these,  though  they  are  all  inferior  to  the  copy  at  Ponte 
Capriasca  (p.  14).  —  The  large  fresco  by  Giov.  Donate  Montorfano 
(Crucifixion)  of  1495,  opposite  the  Last  Supper,  is  in  much  better 
condition.  The  kneeling  figures  of  Duke  Lodovico  il  Moro  (p.  127) 
and  his  wife  Bianca  Maria  with  their  children  are  by  Leon,  da  Vinci., 
the  trace  of  whose  hand  is  still  distinguishable. 

Deplorable  as  is  the  condition  of  the  Last  Supper,  the  chief  work 
executed  by  Leonardo  during  his  stay  at  Milan,  the  original  alone  ex- 
hibits to  its  full  extent  the  emotions  which  the  master  intended  to  ex- 
press, and  which  even  the  best  copies  fail  to  reproduce.  The  motive  of 
the  work  has  been  well  explained  by  Ooethe :  'The  artist  represents  the 
peaceful  little  band  round  the  sacred  table  as  thunder-struck  by  the  Master's 
words,  One  of  you  shall  betray  me.  They  Lave  been  pronounced;  the  whole 
company  is  in  dismay,  while  he  himself  bows  his  head  with  downcast 
eyes.  His  whole  attitude,  the  motion  of  his  arms  and  hands,  all  seem  to 
repeat  with  heavenly  resignation,  and  his  silence  to  confirm,  the  mournful 
words  —  'It  cannot  be  otherwise.  One  of  you  shall  betray  me!'  Comp. 
also  p.  liv. 

SanV  Amhrogio.  MILAN.  22.  Route.    155 

The  Via  Caradosso  and  the  Via  Boccaccio  lead  hence  to  the 
Castello  (p.  147).  —  In  the  Piazzale  Michelangelo  Buonarotti,  beyond 
the  former  Porta  Magenta  (PI.  A,  6),  is  the  di  Kiposo  pei  Musi- 
cisti,  a  home  of  rest  for  musicians,  established  in  1899  by  Verdi 
(d.  1901),  who  is  buried  here.  It  contains  aho  a  Verdi  Museum  and 
a  large  concert-hall,  containing  pictures  by  Dom.  Morelli,  Fil.  Pa- 
lizzi,  and  others;  a'lm.  daily  except  Thuvs.  2-5  p.m.,  50  c. 

From  Santa  Maria  delle  Grazie  the  Via  Bernardo  Zenale  and  the 
Via  San  Vittore  lead  to  the  S.E.  to  the  church  of  Sa»i  Vittore  (Pi.  B,6), 
a  baroque  building  by  Galeazzo  Alessi  (1560),  interesting  for  its 
elaborate  internal  decoration.  A  little  farther  on  we  pass  the  S.  end 
of  the  Via  San  Gerolamo,  part  of  the  ancient  route  round  the  ram- 
parts, in  which  rises  the  Palazzo  Gonzaya  (No.  30),  immediately 
to  the  left,  built  in  1900  in  the  Lombard  style  by  Cecilio  Arpesani. 
At  the  end  of  the  Via  San  Vittore  is  the  large  Piazza  Sant' Amukogio 
(PI.  C,  6,  6;  tramway  No.  5,  p.  130),  with  the  church  of  — 

*Sant'  Ambrogio  (PL  0,  b),  founded  by  St.  Ambrose  in  the  4th 
century.  The  present  edifice,  a  Romanesque  basilica,  with  peculiar 
galleries  and  an  octagonal  cupola  over  the  high-altar,  was  practically 
rebuilt  in  the  12th  cent.,  or  according  to  others,  by  Archbp.  Anspert 
in  the  9th  century.  It  was  modernized  in  the  17th  ceit.  by  Franc. 
Richino,  but  about  1860  (by  F.  Schmidt  of  Vienna)  and  more  recently 
(by  Gael.  Landriani)  it  was  restored  in  keeping  with  the  original 
style.  The  line  atrium  (restored  by  llichino),  containing  remains 
of  ancient  tombstones,  inscriptions,  and  frescoes,  seems,  like  the 
facade,  to  have  preserved  the  architectural  forms  of  the  original 
building.  The  wooden  door  of  the  church,  with  reliefs  from  the  life 
of  David  (partly  restored  in  1750),  dates  from  the  time  of  the  saint. 
St.  Ambrosius  baptized  St.  Augustine  here  in  387,  and  in  389  he 
closed  the  doors  of  this  church  against  the  Emp.  Theodosius  after 
the  cruel  massacre  of  Thessalonica.  The  Lombard  kings  and  German 
emperors  formerly  caused  themselves  to  be  crowned  here  with  the 
iron  crown,  which  since  the  time  of  Frederick  Barbarossa  has  been 
preserved  at  Monza  (p,  165).  The  ancient  pillar  at  which  they  took 
the  coronation-oath  before  being  crowned  is  still  preserved  under 
the  lime-trees  in  the  piazza. 

Interior.  To  the  right,  in  the  nave,  is  a  marble  statue  of  Pius  IX.,  by 
Franc.  Confalonieri  (188u).  —  In  the  Ist  chapel  of  the  left  aisle,  a  Kisen 
Christ,  fresco  by  Borgognone.  —  On  the  right  and  left  of  the  side-entrance 
in  the  right  aisle:  frescoes  by  Gaudenzio  Ferrari,  representing  the  Bearing 
of  the  Cross,  the  three  Maries,  and  the  Descent  from  the  Cross.  2nd 
Chapel  on  the  right:  a  fine  kneeling  statue  of  St.  Blarcellina,  by  Pacetti 
(1812).  5th  Chapel  on  the  right :  Legend  of  St.  George,  frescoes  by  Ber- 
nardino Lanini.  —  The  second  door  to  the  left  in  the  large  6th  chapel 
leads  to  the  Cappella  di  San  Satiro,  with  mosaics  possibly  of  the  5th  cent, 
(restored)  in  the  dome.  In  the  dark  chapel  to  the  right  of  the  choir  is  an 
altar-piece  by  B.  Ltiini,  Madonna  and  saints.  —  The  "High  Altar,  apparently 
restored  about  12tX>,  still  retains  its  original  decoration  of  the  first  half  of 
the  9th  cent.,  the  only  intact  example  of  ita  period.  This  consists  of 
reliefs  on  silver  and  gold  ground  (in  front),  enriched  with  enamel  and  gems, 
executed  by  Vol/vinus,  a  German  (covered,  shown  only  on  payment  of  5  fr.). 

156   Route  22.  MILAN.  d.  Southern 

The  12th  cent,  canopy  over  the  high-altar,  which  is  adorned  with  interest- 
ing reliefs,  recently  regilded,  is  borne  by  four  columns  of  porphyry  from 
the  original  altar.  The  apse  contains  an  ancient  episcopal  throne.  In  the 
Tribuna  are  mosaics  of  the  9th  cent. :  Christ  in  the  centre,  at  the  sides 
the  history  of  St.  Ambrose.  —  To  the  left  of  the  choir  is  the  tombstone 
of  Pepin,  son  of  Charlemagne,  above  vphich  is  an  altar-piece  of  the  Lom- 
bard School  (Madonna  and  two  saints).  Opposite,  at  the  N.  entrance  to 
the  Crti't,  is  a  fresco  by  Borgognone  (Christ  among  the  Scribes).  The 
modernised  crypt  contains  a  silver  reliquary,  designed  in  189S  by  Jppolito 
Marchetli  and  Giov.  Lomazzi,  in  which  are  preserved  the  bones  of  SS.  Am- 
brose, Protasius,  and  Gervasius.  —  By  the  pulpit  are  a  bronze  eagle,  a 
bronze  relief  of  St.  Ambrose  (10th  cent.?),  and  an  early  Christian  sarco- 
phagus of  the  6th  century. 

Adjacent  to  the  left  aisle  is  an  unfinished  cloister,  designed  by 
Bramante  (1492),  and  afterwards  rebuilt. 

The  Via  Lanzone  (PI.  C,  6)  leads  hence  to  the  S.E.  to  the  Via 
Torino  and  San  Lorenzo  (see  below). 

d.  Along  the  Via  Torino  to  the  Southern  Quarters  of  the  City 
(San  Lorenzo,  Sant'  Eustorgio,  Ospedale  Maggiore). 

The  busy  Via  Torino  (PI.  E,  D,  6,  6;  tramways  to  Porta  Geneva 
and  Porta  Ticinese,  see  p.  130)  begins  at  the  S.W.  corner  of  the  Piazza 
del  Duomo.  To  the  left  is  the  small  church  of  San  Satiro  (PI.  E,  5, 6 ; 
closed  12-4,  in  winter  12-3),  founded  in  the  9th  cent.,  and  re-erected 
by  Bramante  about  1480.  The  facade  has  been  restored.  The 
apparent  choir  is  only  painted  in  perspective.  The  octagonal  *Bap- 
tistery  (originally  the  sacristy),  off  the  right  transept,  is  also  by 
Bramante,  and  has  a  beautiful  frieze  by  Caradosso  (?)  of  putti,  and 
heads  in  medallions.  At  the  end  of  the  left  transept  is  a  curious 
little  building  with  a  cupola,  belonging,  like  the  belfry,  to  the 
original  structure;  it  contains  a  Pieta,  in  painted  terracotta,  by 
Caradosso  (?  usually  covered). 

The  church  of  San  Giorgio  al  Palazzo  (PI.  D,  6),  farther  on,  to 
the  right,  contains  in  the  1st  chapel  on  the  right  a  St.  Jerome  by 
Oaud.  Ferrari;  in  the  3rd  chapel  on  the  right,  paintings  by  Luini : 
above  the  altar.  Entombment  and  Crowning  with  thorns ;  at  the 
sides,  Scourging  and  Ecce  Homo  ;  iu  the  dome.  Crucifixion  (fresco). 

Farther  to  the  N.W.,  in  the  Piazza  Mentana  (PI.  D,  6),  is  a  Monument 
by  Luigi  Belli,  erected  in  1889  in  memory  of  the  Italians  who  fell  at  Men- 
tana. —  In  the  Via  Marco  d'Oggiono  (PI.  0,  7),  at  the  S.W.  end  of  the 
old  town,  stands  the  large  Albergo  Popolare,  a  'poor  man's  hotel'  founded 
in  1900  by  the  Unione  Cooperativa  (p.  130). 

To  the  S.  the  Via  Torino  is  continued  by  the  Coeso  di  Porta 
Ticinese  (PI.  D,  7, 8),  in  which,  on  the  left,  is  a  large  ancient  *Coi,ON- 
NADE  (PI.  D,  7)  of  sixteen  Corinthian  columns,  the  most  important 
relic  of  the  Roman  Mediolanum.    Adjacent  is  the  entrance  to  — 

*San  Lorenzo  (PI.  D,  7),  the  most  ancient  church  in  Milan, 
which  was  erected  about  560  on  the  ruins  of  a  Roman  building, 
under  the  influence  of  St.  Sophia  in  Constantinople  and  San  Vitale 
in  Ravenna.  After  a  fire  in  1071  it  was  altered,  and  subsequently 
restored  by  Martina  Bassi  about  1573.   It  is  octagonal  in  form,  and 

Quarters.  xMlLAN.  2i>.  Route.    157 

covered  with  a  dome.  Ou  the  four  principal  sides  are  large  semi- 
circular apses  in  two  stories,  each  home  hy  four  columns  alternately 
octagonal  and  round. 

At  the  back  of  the  high-altar  is  the  Cappella  di  Sunt''  JppoUio,  dating 
from  the  5th  or  6tli  cent.,  containing  the  tomb  of  Count  Giov.  Maria 
Visconti ,  by  Marco  Agrate  (1559).  —  To  the  right  of  the  church  is  the 
equally  ancient  Cappelln  di  Sanf  Aquilino  (closed),  containing  mosaics  of 
the  6th  and  7th  cent.  (Christ  and  the  Apostles  and  Annunciation  to  the 
Shepherds,  the  latter  freely  restored),  and  an  ancient  Christian  sarco- 
phagus. The  entrance  to  the  chapel  from  the  church  is  adorned  with  an 
antique  marble  frame ,  on  which  appears  a  Bacchante  riding  a  goat  (to 
the  left). 

Farther  to  the  S.,  heyond  the  Naviglio,  rises  the  ancient  Domin- 
ican church  of  Sant'  Eustorgio  (PI.  D,  8],  founded  in  the  4th  cent., 
re-erected  in  the  Gothic  style  in  1278,  renewed  in  the  bad  taste 
of  the  17th  cent,  hy  Richino,  and  recently  again  restored.  The 
modern  facade  is  hy  Oiov.  Brocca  (1862). 

1st  Chapel  to  the  right,  Mural  monument  of  Giac.  Stefano  Brivio 
(d.  14&i),  by  Tommaso  da  Cazzaniga  and  Bened .  Briosco ;  4th  Chapel  to  the 
right,  Gothic  monument  of  Stefano  Visconti  (ca.  1337),  by  Bonino  da 
Campione  (?) ;  6th  Chapel,  Monuments  of  Gaspare  Visconti  and  his  wife  Agnes 
(d.  1417).  —  Farther  on,  on  the  same  side,  the  Cappella  de'  Magi,  con- 
taining a  relief  of  1347  and  a  late-Romanesque  sarcophagus,  in  which  the 
'bones  of  the  Magi'  were  preserved  until  they  were  presented  to  the  city 
of  Cologne  by  Frederick  Barbarossa  after  the  conquest  of  Milan  in  1162. 
By  the  high-altar  are  reliefs  of  the  Passion,  dating  from  the  14th  century. 
In  a  modern  sarcophagus  (1900)  below  are  deposited  the  bones  of  Eustor- 
gius,  Magnus,  and  Honoratus,  three  archbishops  cjf  Milan  in  the  4th  cen- 
tury. —  At  the  back  of  the  choir  is  the  'Cappella  Portinari,  with  a  fine 
cupola  and  a  charming  frieze  of  angels,  built  in  1462-66  by  Michelozzo 
(p.  133)  for  Pegello  Portinari  (d.  1468)  of  Florence.  It  contains  the  mag- 
nificent Gothic  tomb  of  St.  Peter  Martyr  by  Oiov.  di  Balduccio  of  Pisa 
(1339).  This  saint,  the  Dominican  Fra  Piecro  of  Verona,  was  murdered 
in  1252  in  the  forest  of  Barlassina,  in  consequence  of  his  persecution  of 
heretics.  The  walls  are  adorned  with  admirable  frescoes  of  the  four 
Fathers  of  the  Church,  scenes  from  the  life  of  St.  Peter  Martyr,  the  Aunim- 
ciation,  and  the  Assumption,  probably  by  Vine.  Foppa.  —  In  the  sacristy 
is  a  Penitent  St.  Jerome,  by  Borgognone.  —  The  adjacent  convent  is  now 
a  barrack. 

We  follow  the  street  to  the  Porta  Ticinese  (PI.  D,  8),  originally 
intended  to  commemorate  the  Battle  of  Marengo,  but  inscribed  in 
1815  'Paci  Populorum  Sospitse'.  We  then  turn  to  the  E.  and  skirt 
the  city-walls  to  the  Porta  Lodovica  (PI.  E,  8),  whence  we  follow 
the  CoRSO  San  Cklso  (PI.  E,  8,  7),  to  the  left,  to  the  church  of 
Santa  Maria  presso  San  Celso  (PI.  E,  8),  built  in  the  Renaissance 
style  by  Oiov.  Dolcebuono  after  1490.  It  possesses  a  handsome 
atrium  (1514),  groundlessly  attributed  to  Bramante ,  and  a  rich 
facade  by  Galeazzo  Alessi  (1569-72).  On  the  right  and  left  of  the 
portal  are  Adam  and  Eve  by  Stoldo  Lorenzi. 

The  Interior  is  in  the  form  of  a  basilica  with  barrel-vaulting  over 
the  nave,  a  dodecagonal  cupola,  and  an  ambulatory.  By  the  2nd  altar  to 
the  right.  Holy  Family  and  St.  Jerome,  by  Paris  Bordone;  in  the  ambu- 
latory, Qaudenzio  Ferrari,  Baptism  of  Christ,  and  Moretlo,  Conversion  of 
St.  Paul ;  at  the  beginning  of  the  left  aisle,  Borgognone,  Madonna  and  saints; 
below  it,  Sassoferrato ,  Madonna.  The  2nd  chapel  on  the  left  contains  a 
sarcophagus   with  the  relics  of  St.  Celsus.     The  cupola  is  decorated  with 

158    Routt  2-2.  MILAN.  d.  Southern  Quarters. 

frescoes  by  Appiani  (1795).  —  In  the  sacristy  are  some  fine  specimens   of 
goldsmith's  work. 

Adjacent  is  the  Romanesque  church  of  San  Celso,  docked  of  its 
"W.  half  in  1826  and  now  possessing  few  remains  of  the  original 

At  the  N.  end  of  the  Corse  San  Celso  is  the  Piazza  SanV  Eu- 
femia,  in  which,  to  the  right,  stands  the  church  of  that  name  (PI.  E,  7), 
dating  from  the  5th  century.  In  the  third  chapel  on  the  left  is  a 
Madonna  with  saints  and  angels,  by  Marco  d'  Oggiono.  —  A  little 
to  the  S.  is  the  church  of  San  Paolo,  a  richly  ornamented  building 
of  the  middle  of  the  16th  century.  The  architectural  decorations 
of  the  facade  already  illustrate  the  principles  of  the  later  baroque 
style,  and  this  is  seen  even  more  strongly  in  the  interior,  which  is 
adorned  with  frescoes  by  the  brothers  Oiulio,  Antonio,  and  Vin- 
cenzo  Campi  of  Cremona. 

TheViaAmedei  leads  hence  towards  theN.  to  Sant' Alessandro 
(PI.  E,  6),  erected  about  1602  by  Lor.  Binago,  a  reduced  and  in 
the  interior  successful  copy  of  St.  Peter's  at  Rome,  with  two  W. 
towers.  The  sumptuous  decorations  date  from  the  close  of  the 
17th  century.  High -altar  adorned  with  precious  stones.  Facade 
restored  in  1905.  ■ — •  Adjacent  is  the  Palazzo  Trivulzio,  with  a 
handsome  baroque  portal  and  a  valuable  art- collection  (adm.  by 
special  introduction  only). 

Sculptures:  Tomb  of  Azzone  Visconti  (1328-39),  from  San  Gottardo, 
by  Oiov.  di  Baldticcio ,  to  whom  also  is  ascribed  the  relief  of  Louis  the 
Bavarian  investing  Azzone  Visconti  as  imperial  viceregent;  statuette  of 
a  warrior,  being  a  bronze  copy  of  one  of  the  figures  of  Leon,  da  Vinci't 
first  model  for  the  equestrian  monument  to  Franc.  8forza(p.  133);  a  relief- 
portrait  by  Cristoforo  Solari.  —  Paintings:  Antonello  da  Messina,  Portrait; 
Mantegna,  Madunna  enthroned,  with  saints  and  angels  (1497);  Qiov.  Bellini, 
Madonna.  The  extensive  library  conlains  a  Dante  codex  of  1337,  a  few 
leaves  from  the  Heures  de  Turin  (p.  39) ,  a  MS.  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci, 
and  other  rarities. 

The  Via  Carlo  Alberto  (PI.  E,  6,  6),  mentioned  at  p.  146,  passes 
a  few  paces  to  the  E.  of  Sant'  Alessandro.  From  it  we  turn  to  the 
S.E.  into  the  Coeso  di  Pokta  Romana  (tramway,  see  p.  130),  which 
leads  to  the  gate  of  that  name.  "We  follow  this  street  as  far  as  the 
church  of  San  Nazaro  (PL  F,  6,  7),  with  the  masterpiece  of  Ber- 
nardino Lanini  (1546),  a  large  fresco  representing  the  martyrdom 
of  St.  Catharine,  painted  in  imitation  of  the  similar  picture  in  the 
Brera  by  Lanini's  master  Gaudenzio  Ferrari  (p.  143);  a  handsome 
carved  Gothic  altar ;  and  ancient  Swiss  stained-glass  windows  to  the 
right  of  the  main  entrance.  A  side-entrance  admits  to  the  octa- 
gonal sepulchral  chapel  of  the  Trivulzi,  built  by  Oirolamo  della 
Porta  (1519).  —  To  the  N.E.,   in  the  Via  dell'  Ospedale,  is  the  — 

*0spedale  Maggiore  (PI.  F,  6) ,  the  first  municipal  hospital, 
a  vast  and  remarkably  fine  brick  structure,  begun  in  the  Renaissance 
style  in  1457  by  Antonio  Filarete  of  Florence ,  continued  in  the 
Gothic  style  by  Ouinifortt  Solari  and  other  Lombard  architects,  and 
not  completed  by  Franc.  Richino  till  after  1624.    The  edifice  is 

e.  Kaai  Quarters.  MILAN.  22.  Route.    159 

entirely  covered  externally  with  terracotta,  iu  a  style  frequently 
observed  in  other  Milanese  htiildings,  but  its  facade,  with  its  rich 
window-mouldings,  is  superior  to  any  other  structure  of  the  kind  at 
Milan.  The  extensive  principal  court,  surrounded  hy  arcades,  by 
Richino,  is  adjoined  on  the  right  and  left  by  eight  smaller  courts. 
In  the  chapel  are  two  paintings  by  Francesco  de  Vico,  containing 
portraits  of  Francesco  and  Bianca  Maria  Sforza,  the  founders  of  the 

From  the  back  of  the  hospital  the  Via  San  Barnaba  leads  to  the 
Kotonda  (PI.  H,  6;  open  on  Thurs.  &  Sun.,  10-4;  adm.  50  c),  built  by 
Arrigone  and  dedicated  by  the  Viceroy  Eugene  Beauharnais  in  1809  as  a 
Pantheon  Nazionale.  It  now  contains  a  large  ci>llection  of  portraits  of  bene- 
factors of  the  Ospedale  Magsnore,  from  the  16th  cent,  to  the  present  day.  — 
In  the  Via  Guastalla,  the  tirst  cross-street  of  the  Via  San  Barnaba,  is  the 
Spnagogite  tPl.  G,  6),  by  Luca  Beltrami  (1S92). 

A  little  to  the  N.  of  the  Ospedale  Maggiore  is  the  Piazza  Santo 
Stefano,  with  the  simple  Renaissance  church  of  that  name  (PI.  F,  6). 
—  Hard  by  is  the  Piazza  del  Verziere  (PI.  F,  G,  5),  used  as  a  vege- 
table-market. We  may  now  return  to  the  W.  by  the  Via  Tenaglie 
and  the  Piazza  Fontana  (PI.  F,  5)  to  the  Piazza  del  Duomo,  or  we 
may  follow  the  Via  Cesare  Beccaria  to  the  N.  to  the  Palazzo  di 
Giustizia  (PI.  F,  51,  a  baroque  structure  by  Seregni,  with  a  courtyard 
of  later  date  (1606);  to  the  left  of  the  portal  is  a  tablet  commem- 
orating Silvio  Pellico  and  the  other  Italian  patriots  committed  by 
the  Austrians  to  the  fortress  of  Spielberg  in  1821  (comp.  p.  45). 
Adjacent  is  the  Piazza  Beccaria,  with  a  statue  of  Beccaria  (p.  139) 
by  Grandi,  erected  in  1871.  —  The  Via  Cesare  Beccaria  ends  on 
the  N.  at  the  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  (see  below), 

e.  East  ftuarters  of  the  City.  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  and  its 
Side  Streets.   Giardini  Pubblici. 

On  the  N.E.  side  of  the  cathedral  begins  the  Coeso  Vittorio 
Emanuele  (PI.  F,  5;  tramway,  see  p.  130),  which,  with  its  pro- 
longation, the  Corso  Venezia(Pl.  G,  H,  4,  3),  leads  to  the  Giardini 
Pubblici.  This  is  the  principal  business-street  in  Milan,  containing 
the  best  shops.  At  No.  23,  on  the  left,  is  an  antique  statue,  known  as 
'I'uomo  di  pietra'.  Farther  on  is  the  church  of  San  Carlo  Eorromeo 
(PI.  F,  4,  5),  a  rotunda  in  the  style  of  the  Pantheon  at  Rome,  con- 
secrated in  1847.  The  adjacent  Galleria  de'  Cristdforis,  occupied  with 
shops,  was  erected  by  Pizzala  in  1830-32. 

To  the  right,  farther  on,  at  the  corner  of  the  Corso  Venezia 
and  the  Via  Monforte,  is  the  small  Romanesque  church  of  Santa 
Babila  (PI.  G,  4),  with  a  new  fa(;ade  (1905),  near  which  is  an  old 
Column  with  a  lion,  the  cognizance  of  this  quarter  of  the  town. 

To  the  S.  of  the  Via  Monforte,  in  the  Via  del  Conservatorio,  Is 
the  church  of  Santa  Maria  della  Passione  (PI.  H,  5),  'amori  et 
dolori  sacrum',  with  a  spacious  dome  by  Criai.  Solari  (1530),  and 
a  nave  and  facade  of  1692. 

160   Route  'J-J.  MILAN.  e.  East  Quarters. 

It  contains  a  Last  Supper  by  Gaud.  Ferrari  Oeft  transept),  a  'Pieta 
by  Luini  (behind  the  high-altar;  with  a  predella,  representing  scenes 
from  the  life  of  Constantine  and  Helena,  the  earliest  known  work  of 
this  master,  'showing  the  influence  of  Borgognone  and  Bramantino),  and 
the  tomb  of  Abp.  Birago  by  Andrea  Fusina  (1495;  right  transept).  The 
pilasters  are  adorned  with  figures  of  saints  by  Daniele  Crespi  (1622).  The 
ceiling  of  the  sacristy  was  painted  by  Borgognone. 

The  Conservatory  of  Music  occupies  the  old  monastery  buildings. 
—  In  the  vicinity  is  the  Gothic  monastic  church  of  San  Pietro  in 
Gessate(Pl.  G,  5),  built  about  1460,  containing  much  defaced  fres- 
coes by  Bern.  Butinone  and  Bern.  Zenale,  and  the  monument  of 
Ambrogio  Griffl  (d.  1493)  by  C.  Solari.  The  cloisters,  with  two 
early-Renaissance  courts,  are  now  occupied  by  the  Orfanotroflo,  or 

At  the  E.  end  of  the  Corse  di  Porta  Vittoria,  outside  the  gate  of  that 
name  (PI.  H,  5;  tramway,  see  p.  130),  is  a  Monument  commemorating  the 
Cinque  Giornate  (p.  133),  designed  by  Gios.  Grandi  (d.  1894)  and  unveiled 
in  1895. 

We  now  return  to  the  Corse  Venezia.  On  the  left,  on  this 
side  of  the  canal,  is  the  Archiepiscopal  Seminary  (PI.  F,  G,  4),  by 
Gius.  Meda  (1570),  with  a  baroque  portal  and  a  fine  court.  In  the 
Via  del  Senato ,  which  diverges  to  the  left  by  the  Naviglio ,  is 
(No.  10)  the  Palazzo  del  Senato  (PL  G,  3  ;  formerly  Pal.  Elvetico), 
built  about  1600  by  Fabio  Mangone,  now  containing  the  provincial 
archives ;  in  the  court  is  a  colossal  equestrian  statue  of  Napoleon  III. 
(bronze),  lay  Barzaghi.  Adjacent,  at  the  beginning  of  the  avenue 
(Boschetti)  leading  to  the  Giardini  Pubblici,  are  marble  statues  of 
the  Garibaldian  generals  Giac.  Medici,  by  Barcaglia,  and  Gius.  Dezza 
(1830-98),  by  Enrico  Cassi  (1902). 

Farther  on  in  the  Corso  Venezia,  to  the  right.  No.  16,  is  the 
Casa  Fontana  (now  Silvestri^,  of  the  middle  of  the  15th  cent.,  with 
scanty  remains  of  the  ancient  paintings  on  the  fa(jade  by  Bramante, 
to  whom  a  frieze  in  one  of  the  rooms  is  also  ascribed.  —  No.  22  is 
the  Palazzo  Serhelloni  (18th  cent.),  now  the  property  of  Count  Sola, 
with  a  small  collection  of  old  musical  instruments,  some  artistic 
treasures  (Antonello  da  Messina,  Moretto,  and  others),  and  a  large 
park.  —  On  the  left,  farther  on,  Nos.  59-61,  is  the  Pal.  Ciani 
(PI.  G,  3),  completed  in  1861,  with  rich  ornamentation  in  terra- 
cotta. On  the  right  is  the  Pal,  Saporiti  (PI.  G,  3),  another  modern 
building,  in  the  'classicist'  style,  with  reliefs  by  Marchesi.  —  A 
little  farther  on,  to  the  left,  stands  the  — 

Museo  Civico  di  Storia  Naturale  (PI.  G,  3),  a  tasteful  Renais- 
sance building  of  brick,  erected  in  1892-94  and  containing  the 
natural  history  collections  of  the  city.  Adm.,  see  p.  131.  No  cata- 
logue.   Director,  Prof.  Tito  Vignoli. 

Gbound  Flook.  Room  I.  General  mineralogical  collection  ;  minerals 
from  Elba,  and  collection  of  stunes.  —  Room  II.  Fossils  of  Lombardy.  — 
Room  III.  General  straligraphical-palseontological  collection,  including  fine 
fossils  from  the  Pampas  of  S.  America  {Megatherium,  Glypiodon,  etc.),  from 
New  Zealand  {Dinornis  Maximus  or  Moa,  an  extinct  bird  of  gigantic  size) 
and  elsewhere.  —  Rooms  IV-VI  Mammalia  (skeletons,  stuffed  beasts,  etc.). 

f.  Cemeteries.  MILAN.  2:>.  Route.   161 

FiKST  Flook.  Rooms  I-V.  Ornithological  collection  (Raccolta  Turati; 
about  26,000  specimens).  —  Room  VI.  Collection  of  reptiles,  founded  by 
Jan  (d.  1866). 

The  *Giardiiu  Pubblici  (PI.  F,  G,  2, 3),  between  the  Corso  Venezia 
and  the  Via  Maiiin,  are  probahly  the  most  beautiful  public  park  in 
Italy,  with  their  tasteful  flower-beds,  their  pouds,  and  their  pictur- 
esque groups  of  venerable  trees.  In  the  older  part  of  the  park 
(1785),  near  the  new  Museo  Civico,  are  bronze  statues  of  Ant. 
Stoppani,  the  geologist  (1824-91 ;  by  Fr.  Confalonieri),  and  Gen. 
Gius.  Sirtori  (by  E.  Butti).  On  a  small  island  in  the  middle  is  a 
marble  statue  of  the  Milanese  poet  Carlo  Porta,  by  Puttinati.  Tlu; 
W.  portion  of  the  park,  laid  out  in  1856,  is  embellished  with  a 
bronze  statue  of  Ant.  Rosmini  (p.  200),  by  Franc.  Confalonieri 
(1895).  —  The  high-lying  N.  portion  of  the  gardens,  known  as  the 
Montemerlo,  has  a  cafe'-restaurant  and  a  bronze  statue  of  the  patriot 
Luciano  Manara  (d.  1869),  by  Barzaghi  (1894).  It  is  skirted  by  the 
chestnut  avenue  of  the  Bastioni  di  Porta  Venezia  (PI.  G,  F,  2,  1). 

On  the  S.  side  of  the  park,  in  the  Via  Palestro,  is  the  Villa  Reale 
(PI.  G,  3),  erected  by  L.  Pollack  for  Gen.  Belgioioso  in  1790  and  con- 
taining a  few  works  of  art.  —  In  the  Via  Manin  stands  the  Palazzo 
Melzi,  containing  paintings  by  Cesare  da  Sesto,  etc.  —  Piazza  Ca- 
vour,  see  p.  138. 

f.  The  Cemeteries. 

To  the  N.W.  of  the  city,  outside  the  Porta  Volta  (PI.  C,  D,  1) 
and  at  the  terminus  of  the  tramways  Nos.'  4  &  5,  mentioned  at 
p.  130,  lies  the  Cimitero  Mouumeutale  (closed  12-2),  designed  by 
C.  Maciachini,  50  acres  in  area,  enclosed  by  colonnades,  and  one 
of  the  finest  'campi  santi'  in  Italy.  (The  guide,  who  speaks  French, 
shows  visitors  round  if  desired ,  for  which  he  demands  a  fee  of 
11/2  fr.  for  each  person.)  The  numerous  and  handsome  monuments 
form  a  veritable  museum  of  modern  Milanese  sculpture.  In  the  last 
section  is  situated  the  ^Tempio  di  Cremazione' ,  presented  to  the 
town  in  1876  (inspection  permitted).    Fine  view  of  the  Alps. 

The  Cimitero  di  Musocco,  3  M.  to  the  N.W.  of  the  Porta  del 
Sempione  (p.  161),  was  laid  out  in  1895  and  is  twice  the  size  of 
the  Cimitero  Monumentale.  It  is  reached  either  by  the  Corso  del 
Sempione  (PI.  B,  A,  1)  or  by  the  Corso  al  Cimitero  di  Musocco  (tram- 
way), beginning  at  the  Piazza  San  Michele,  to  the  W.  of  the  Cimi- 
tero Monumentale. 

Excursion  from  Milan  to  the  Certosa  di  Favia. 

To  visit  the  Certosa  di  Pavia  we  may  use  either  the  Railway  to  Cer- 
lota,  on  the  Pavia-Voghera  line,  or  the  Pavia  Steam  Tramwat  as  far  as 
Torre  di  Mangano.  The  railway  starts  from  tlie  Central  Station  and  takes 
V2-I  hr.  (fares  3  fr.  30,  2  fr.  30,  1  fr.  50  c.  ;  return-fares  4  fr.  75,  2  fr.  50, 
1  fr.  60  c).  The  tramway  starts  about  every  2  hrs.  from  the  Porta  Tici- 
nese  (PI.  D,8;  electric  tramway  from  the  Piazza  del  Duomo,  see  p.  13i))  and 

Babdbkeb.  Italy  I.    13th  Edit.  11 

162    Route  22.         CERTOSA  DI  PAVIA.  Excxirsiom 

takes  IVz-lVi  ^^-  (return-fares  2  fr.  40,  1  fr.  50  c,  or,  incl.  omn.  to  the  Cer- 
tosa,  2  fr.  70,  1  fr.  80  c).    The  whole  excursion  takes  '/«  day. 

The  district  traversed  between  Milan  and  Pavia  consists  of  alter- 
nate stretches  of  rice-fields  and  underwood  and  offers  little  of  in- 
terest. At  (41/2  M.)  Rogoredo  the  Rail-way  diverges  to  the  S.  from 
the  line  to  Piacenza  (p.  357).  —  6V2  M.  Chiaravalle  Milanese  is 
noted  for  its  Cistercian  *Church,  a  fine  brick  edifice  with  a  lofty 
domed  tower,  in  the  Romanesque  style,  founded  by  St.  Bernard  of 
Clairvaux  and  dedicated  in  1221.  The  interior,  in  the  transition 
style  but  partly  modernized,  is  adorned  with  frescoes  by  Milanese 
painters  of  the  16th  cent,  and  contains  choir-stalls  of  1465  ;  in  the 
right  transept  are  frescoes  by  Bramante  (Ecce  Homo)  and  B.  Luini 
(Madonna).  —  1272  M.   Villamaggiore. 

171/2  M.  Stazione  della  Certosa,  whence  two  routes  lead  along 
the  enclosing  wall  (right  and  left)  to  the  entrance  (W.  side)  of  the 
Certosa  (walk  of  1/4  hr. ;  omn.,  30  c.,  one-horse  carr.  per  pers. 
50  c).  —  Ou  the  S.  side  of  the  Certosa  is  the  modest  Alb.  Milano. 

The  Steam  Tramway  follows  the  highroad  and  passes  BirMSco,  with 
an  ancient  castle,  in  which  the  jealous  Duke  Filippo  Maria  Visconti 
caused  his  noble  and  innocent  wife  Beatrice  di  Tenda  (p.  47j  to  be  put 
to  death  in  1418.  The  station  of  Torre  del  Mangano  (Alb.  d''Italia,  clean, 
df^j.  21/2,  D.  4  fr.,  wine  included;  Trattoria  della  Pesa  Pubblica,  unpre- 
tending), on  the  Naviglio  di  Pavia  (p.  132),  lies  about  V2  M.  to  the  W. 
of  the  Certosa  (omn.  30  c.). 

The  ^Certosa  di  Favia,  or  Carthusian  monastery,  the  splendid 
memorial  of  the  Milan  dynasties,  was  begun  in  1896  by  Giovanni 
Galeazzo  Visconti  (p.  127)  in  fulfilment  of  a  vow  made  by  his  wife 
Catharina.  The  monastic  buildings  were  practically  completed 
soon  after  Galeazzo's  death,  under  the  direction  of  Bern,  da  Venezia, 
Crista f.  da  Conigo,  and  others;  while  the  church  was  continued 
after  1453  by  Guiniforte  Solari  (d.  1481)  in  the  Lombard  Transition 
style,  with  exterior  arcading  and  elaborate  terracotta  ornamentation. 
The  facade  of  white  marble  (from  Carrara  and  Candoglia,  p.  4)  was 
begun  in  1473  by  Crist.  Mantegazza  and  Giov.  Ant.  Amadeo,  and 
the  lower  part  was  completed  after  1492  on  Amadeo's  model,  with 
the  assistance  of  Ben.  Briosco,  Ant.  Tamagnino ,  and  numerous 
other  sculptors.  The  warlike  commotions  of  the  time  kept  the 
upper  part  unfinished.  The  monastery,  suppressed  under  Emperor 
Joseph  II.  in  1782,  was  restored  to  its  original  destination  in  1843 
and  presented  to  the  Carthusians.  Since  the  suppression  of  the 
Italian  monasteries  (1866)  it  has  been  maintained  as  a  'National 

An  inspection  of  the  Certosa,  which  is  open  from  8.30  to  5.30 
in  summer  and  from  9  to  4  in  winter  (on  Sun.  &  holidays,  except 
New  Year's  Day,  Easter  Sunday  and  Whitsunday,  9-3),  takes 
11/2-2  hrs.  (adm.  1  fr..  Sun.  free  ;  guide  imperative,  gratuities  for- 

Beyond  the  Vestibule  (ticket-office),  with  sadly-damaged  fres- 
coes by  Bern,  Luini  (SS.  Sebastian  and  Christopher)  and  others, 

from  Milan.  CERTOSA  DI  PA  VIA.  22.  Route.   163 

we  enter  the  Piazzaxk,  or  fore -court,  surrounded  by  the  former 
Farmada  or  laboratory  (now  a  liqueur-distillery),  the  Foresteria,  or 
pilgrims'  lodging-house,  and  the  Palazzo  Ducale  (now  a  Museum, 
p.  164),  huilt  about  1625  by  Franc.  Richino  for  distinguished  visi- 
tors to  the  monastery.  On  the  E.  side  of  the  court  rises  the  celebrated 
facade  of  the  church,  before  inspecting  which  a  glance  should  be 
taken,  from  the  N.E.  side,  of  the  choir  and  central  tower. 

The  **Facadb,  unquestionably  the  finest  example  of  early- 
Renaissance  decorative  work  in  N.  Italy,  is  perhaps  the  most  masterly 
creation  of  its  kind  of  the  15th  century.  Its  design,  independent 
of  the  antique  orders  of  architecture,  is  in  the  Lombard-Romanesque 
style  of  graduated  church-fronts,  with  projecting  pillars  and  trans- 
verse arcades,  while  within  these  well-defined  structural  features 
it  embraces  a  wonderful  and  judiciously  distributed  wealth  of 
ornament.  —  The  plinth  is  adorned  with  medallions  of  Roman 
emperors,  above  which  are  reliefs  representing  Biblical  history  and 
scenes  from  the  life  of  Giov.  Galeazzo  (including  the  transference 
of  the  bones  of  the  founder  to  the  Certosa  in  1474).  Below  the 
four  magnificent  windows,  by  Amadeo,  is  a  row  of  angels'  heads, 
and  above  them  are  niches  with  numerous  statues.  A  relief  by 
the  main  portal,  which  was  completed  in  1501  by  Ben.  Briosco, 
represents  the  dedication  of  the  church  in  1497.  The  statues  on 
the  top  are  by  Briosco,  Tamagnino,  Stefano  da  Sesto,  and  others. 

The  beautiful  and  spacious  *Intkeioe  has  a  purely  Gothic  nave, 
supported  by  eight  handsome  pillars,  with  aisles  and  14  chapels; 
while  Renaissance  forms  begin  to  appear  in  the  transepts  and  choir 
(each  with  a  triple  absidal  ending)  and  in  the  dome  above  the 
crossing.  The  originally  handsome  decorations  designed  by  Bor- 
gognone  and  the  fine  stained-glass  windows  of  the  15th  cent,  have 
nearly  all  disappeared.  Most  of  the  altar-pieces  and  the  present 
florid  enrichments  of  the  chapels  date  from  the  17th  century.  The 
beautiful  choir-screen  of  iron  and  bronze  was  executed  about  1660 
by  Ft.  Villa  and  P.  P.  Ripa.  The  mosaic  pavement,  originally  laid 
down  by  Rinaldo  de  Slauris  (1450),  was  restored  in  1850. 

We  begin  in  the  Left  Aisle.  1st  Chapel.  Renaissance  fountain  by 
the  brothers  Mantegazza.  2nd  Chapel.  Altar-piece  by  Perugino,  of  which 
only  the  central  part,  above,  representing  God  the  Father,  is  original, 
the  other  parts  being  now  in  the  National  Gallery  in  London.  Adjacent 
are  the  four  great  Church  Fathers,  by  Borgognone.  In  the  6th  Chapel : 
Borgognone,  St.  Ambrose  with  four  other  saints  (1490).  Left  Transept: 
'Figures  of  Lodovico  More  and  his  wife  Beatrice  d'Este  (d.  1497),  from  the 
demolished  monument  of  the  latter,  one  of  the  chief  works  of  Crist.  Solari, 
brought  in  1564  from  Santa  Maria  delle  Grazie  in  Milan  (p.  154)  and  restored 
in  1891.  In  front  of  the  altar  is  a  handsome  bronze  candelabrum  by  Ann. 
Fontana  of  Milan  (1580).  The  ceiling-fresco  is  by  5orfro</»one:  Coronation  of 
the  Virgin,  with  the  kneeling  figures  of  Fmnc.   Sforza  and  Lodovic<i  il  Moro. 

The  Old  Saceistt,  to  the  left  of  the  choir,  has  a  fine  marble  portal  with 
seven  relief-portraits  of  the  Visconti  and  Sforza  families ;  in  the  interior 
is  a  fine  carved  ivory  altar-piece,  in  66  sections,  by  Bald,  degli  Embriachi  of 
Florence  (1409).  —  The  Choir  contains  a  fine  marble  altar  by  Ambr.  Volpi 
and  others  (1568) ;  beneath,   in  front,  is  a  small  Pietk,  a  charming  relief- 


164   Route  23.  SARONNO. 

medallion.  The  *Choir  Stalls  are  adorned  with  inlaid  figures  of  apostles 
and  saints,  executed  hj  Bart,  de"  Polli  (1486-98)  from  drawings  by  Borgognone. 
—  The  door  to  the  right  of  the  choir,  handsomely  framed  in  marble  and 
with  seven  relief-portraits  of  Milanese  princesses,  leads  to  the  Lavabo, 
which  contains  a  rich  fountain  by  Alb.  Maffiolo  of  Carrara  (1490).  The 
stained  glass  dates  from  1477.  To  the  left  is  a  fresco  by  Bern.  Luini 
(Madonna  with  the  carnation). 

Right  Transept :  magnificent  'Monument  of  Giov.  Galeazzo  Visconti, 
begun  in  1494-97  by  Oian  Crisloforo  Romano  and  Ben.  Briosco,  but  not 
finished  until  1562  (by  Galeazzo  Alessi  and  others).  The  ceiling-frescoes, 
by  Borgognone.,  represent  C.iov.  Galeazzo,  holding  the  orginal  model  of  the 
church,  and  his  sons  kneeling  before  the  Virgin.  —  The  adjoining  Saghestia 
NoovA,  or  Oratorio,  has  a  large  altar-piece,  an  'Assumption  by  A.  Solaria 
(completed  in  1576  by  Bern.  Campi).  Over  the  door,  -Madonna  enthroned, 
veith  two  saints  and  angels,  by  Bart.  Montagna  (1490);  the  side-pictures 
are  by  Borgognone.     In  the  desk -cases  are  choir- books  of  1551  and  1567. 

An  elegant  early-Renaissance  portal  leads  from  the  right  transept  to 
the  'Front  Cloisters  (Cbiostro  della  Fontana) ,  which  possess  slender 
marble  columns  and  charming  decorations  in  terracotta  by  Rinaldo  de 
Stavris  (1463-78).  Fine  view  from  the  front  of  the  Refectory  (W.  side)  of 
the  side  of  the  church  and  the  S.  transept.  —  Around  the  Great  Cloisters 
(Grande  Chiostro),  which  also  have  fine  terracotta  decorations  by  R.  de 
Slawis,  are  situated  24  small  houses  formerly  occupied  by  the  monks,  each 
consisting  of  three  rooms  with  a  small  garden. 

We  now  re-enter  the  church.  Right  Aisle.  In  the  2nd  Chapel :  Guercino, 
Madonna  enthroned,  with  two  saints  (1641;  injured).  3rd  Chapel:  Bor- 
gognone, St.  Sirus  and  four  other  saints  (1491).  The  well-preserved  ceiling-, 
decoration  is  by /ac.  de  J/o«s  (1491).  4th  Chapel :  Borgognone,  'Crucifixion 
(1490).  6th  Chapel :  Altar-piece  by  Macrino  d'Alba  (1496 ;  the  four  Evangelists 
above  are  by  Borgognone). 

The  Palazzo  Ducale  (p.  163)  has  been  occupied  since  1901  by  the 
Certosa  Museum,  containing  paintings,  sculptures,  casts,  objects  found  in 
1889  in  the  coffin  of  Giov.  Galeazzo,  etc. 

The  Dome  cannot  be  ascended  without  a  special  'permesso',  obtained 
at  the  prefecture  in  Pavia. 

Pavia,  whicli  lies  5  M.  to  the  S.  of  the  Certosa,  and  the  railway 
thence  to  Voghera  and  Oenoa,  are  described  in  R.  32. 

23.  From  Milan  to  Como  via  Saronno. 

281/2  M.  Railway  (Ferrovie  Nord)  in  lV4-lV4br.  (fares  3  fr.  45,  2  fr.  20, 
1  fr.  65  c.  ;  return-fares,  5  fr.,  3  fr.  20,  2  fr.  25  c).  —  At  both  the  Stazione 
Ferrovie  Nord  and  the  town  office  (p.  12^)  through  and  return  tickets 
(p.  173)  may  be  procured  for  Brunate,  Cernobbio,  Cadenabbia,  Bellagio, 
Menaggio,  Bellano,  and  Colico. 

As  far  as  (3  M.)  Bovisa,  see  p.  171.  Farther  on  we  enjoy  a  good 
view  of  the  Mte.  Rosa  group,  to  the  left. 

131/2  M.  Saronno  (702  ft.;  Albergo  Madonna;  Leon  d'Oro),  a 
large  village  on  the  Lura,  with  8700  inhah.,  known  in  Italy  for  its 
excellent  gingerbread  (amaretti).  —  A  quadruple  avenue  of  plane 
trees  leads  W.  from  the  station  to  the  (1/4  M.)  celebrated  pilgrimage- 
church  called  the  Santuaeio  della  Bkata  Vbkgine,  an  early- 
Renaissance  structure  by  Fietro  daW  Orio  (1498),  with  a  campanile 
by  Faolo  Porta  (1516),  while  the  facade  and  other  additions  are  in 
a  pompous  baroque  style  (17th  cent.).  It  contains  a  series  of  ad- 
mirable *Fre8coes. 

FeiTa>ie  e  Ti'amvic    nei   Dintonii  di  Milaiio 

Fcrr-orti;  Trar.crte 

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'"  ^"-^t"-"^'"     Scala  di  1  a  500000 


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CeTtosacPivia.  'Paiia. 

CCentrxUeliXbrd  iBlano .  X  Porta  nanjesf 

MONZA.  24.  Route.    165 

The  paintings  in  the  interior  of  the  dome  represent  a  concert  of 
angels,  and  are  by  Gaudenzio  Ferrari.  Round  the  drum  are  several  wooden 
statnes  by  Andrea  Fusina.  The  frescoes  immediately  below  the  drum  arc 
by  Lanini,  those  in  the  next  section  by  Cesare  del  Ma(jno  and  Bernardino 
Luini  (SS.  Rochus  and  Sebastian).  The  remaining  frescoes  are  all  by 
Luini,  who,  as  the  story  goes,  sought  an  asylum  in  the  sanctuary  of  Sa- 
ronno  after  killing  a  man  in  self-defence,  and  had  to  work  at  the  bidding 
of  the  monks.  In  the  passage  leading  to  the  choir  are  depicted  the  Mar- 
riage of  the  Virgin  and  Christ  among  the  doctors;  in  the  choir  itself, 
the  'Adoration  of  the  Magi  and  the  Presentation  in  the  Temple.  Above, 
in  the  panels  and  lunettes,  are  Sibyls,  Evangelists,  and  Church  Fathers. 
A  small  apse  built  out  from  the  choir  contains  paintings  of  *St.  Apollonia 
to  the  right,  and  *St.  Catharine  to  the  left,  each  with  an  angel. 

Saronno  is  a  station  on  the  line  from  Novara  to  Seregno  (p.  68) 
and  the  starting-point  of  a  branch-line  of  the  Ferrovie  Nord  via 
Castellaiiza  (p.  (38)  to  (lA^/oM.)  Cairate-Lonate-Ceppino,  in  the 
industral  Olona  valley.  (Continuation  to  Mendrisio  projected.)  — 
From  Saronno  to  Varese  and  Laveno,  see  R.  29. 

25V2  M.  Orandate  (p.  170).  —  271/2  M.  Camerlata  (p.  167).  — 
We  descend,  enjoying  a  pretty  view  of  Como  and  Brunate,  to  (28  M.) 
Como  Borghi.  28'/2  M.  Como  Lago,  the  main  station  (comp.  p.  167). 

24.  From  Milan  to  Como  and  Lecco  (Colico)  via  Monza. 

From  Milan  to  Como,  30  M.,  railway  (St.  Gotlhard  line)  in  I-I3/4  hr. 
(fares  5  fr.  60,  3  fr.  90,  2  fr.  40  c. ;  express,  6  fr.  15,  4  fr.  30  c).  Through 
and  return  tickets  may  be  obtained  at  the  Central  Station  of  Milan  and 
at  the  Agcnzia  Internazionale  (p.  12S)  for  Tremezzo,  Cadenabbia,  Bellagio, 
Menaggio,  and  Colico.  —  From  Milan  to  Legco,  3Vh  M.,  railway  in 
1-2  hrs.  (fares  5  fr.  95,  4  fr.  15,  2  fr.  70  c. ;  express,  6  fr.  55,  4  fr.  60  c,  3  fr.); 
to  Colico,  56  M.,  in  2'A-3V4  hrs.  (fares  10  fr.  45,  7  fr.  35,  4  fr.  70  c. ;  express, 
11  fr.  50,  8  fr.  5  c). 

The  lines  to  Como  and  Lecco  are  identical  as  far  as  Monza  and 
traverse  a  fertile  and  well-irrigated  plain,  luxuriantly  clothed  with 
vineyards,  mulberry-plantations,  and  fields  of  maize,  —  41/2  M. 
Sesto  San  Oiovanni. 

8  M.  Monza.  —  Hotels.  Alb.-Ristor.  del  Pakco,  Alb.-Ristor.  Sport, 
both  11/2  M.  from  the  station,  opposite  the  entrance  to  the  palace  park, 
with  gardens;  Alu.  del  Castello  e  Falcone,  at  the  station,  unpretending. 

—  Cafe.  Caffe-liistor.  GaKzia,  Piazza  Roma.  —  Cabs.  Per  drive  ^j^  fr. ; 
per  1/2  hr.  in  the  town  1  fr.,  each  addit  1/2  hr.  70  c.;  outside  the  town  2 
and  1  fr.  —  Electric  Railway  to  Milan,  see  p.  130. 

Monza  (532  ft.),  a  town  on  the  Lambro,  with  27,800  Inhab.,  has 
been  the  coronation-town  of  the  kings  of  Lombardy  since  the 
11th  cent.  (comp.  p.  202).  Leaving  the  station  and  following  the 
Via  Italia  to  the  right,  we  pass  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  in  Jstrada 
(second  on  the  right),  with  a  Gothic  brick  facade  of  ca.  1393  (in- 
terior modernized),  and  in  10  min.  reach  the  Piazza  Roma,  the 
centre  of  the  town,  with  the  handsome  Gothic  Municipio  or  town- 
hall,  also  called  Palazzo  Arengario  (13th  cent.,  restored  in  1890). 

—  A  few  paces  to  the  S.E.,  beyond  the  Via  Napoleone,  is  the  Piazza 
del  Duomo,  in  which  rises  the  — 

166   Route  24.  MONZA.  From  Milan 

Catk',  (San  Oiovanni),  the  cMef  object  of  interest.  It  was 
erected  in  the  14th  cent,  in  the  Lombard  Gothic  style  by  Matteo  da 
Campione  on  the  site  of  a  church  founded  in  590  by  the  Lombard 
queen  Theodolinda  and  afterwards  replaced  by  a  Romanesque 
structure.  The  interior,  with  both  aisles  flanked  by  chapels,  has 
been  almost  entirely  modernized  since  the  17th  century.  The  fine 
facade,  with  a  large  rose-window,  was  restored  in  1899-1901.  Above 
the  portal  is  a  very  curious  Romanesque  relief  representing  Queen 
Theodolinda  amid  her  treasures;  below,  the  Baptism  of  Christ.  The 
campanile,  burnt  down  in  1740,  has  been  re-erected  since  1891. 

Intekioe.  In  the  right  transept  is  a  curious  relief  representing  the 
coronation  of  a  German  king,  from  the  former  imperial  gallery  by  M.  da 
Campione  {nov!  the  organ-loft).  —  The  chapel  to  the  left  of  the  choir,  restored 
in  1890,  contains  the  plain  sarcophagus  of  Queen  Theodolinda  (14th  cent.) 
and  frescoes  of  scenes  from  her  life  by  the  Zavaltari  (1444).  Here  also  is 
preserved  the  celebrated  Iron  Crown,  supposed  to  have  been  the  royal 
crown  of  the  Lombards,  with  which  the  German  emperors  were  crowned 
as  kings  of  Italy,  from  the  13th  cent,  onwards.  This  venerable  relic  was 
used  at  the  coronation  of  the  Emp.  Charles  V.  in  1530,  of  Napoleon  at 
Milan  in  1805,  and  of  Emp.  Ferdinand  I.  in  1838.  It  consists  of  a  broad 
hoop  of  gold  adorned  with  precious  stones,  round  the  interior  of  which 
is  a  thin  strip  of  iron,  said  to  have  been  made  from  a  nail  of  the  true 
Cross  brought  by  the  Empress  Helena  from  Palestine.  In  its  present  form 
it  is,  perhaps,  a  work  of  the  12th  century.  In  1859  it  was  carried  off  by 
the  Austrians,  but  after  the  peace  of  1866  it  was  restored.  (Fee  for  seeing 
the  crown  and  treasury,  5  fr.).  —  The  'Tbeasukt  (fee  1  fr.)  contains  several 
objects  of  historical  interest:  a  hen  with  seven  chickens  in  silver-gilt 
(on  a  modern  copper  base),  perhaps  representing  Lombardy  and  its  seven 
provinces,  executed  by  order  of  Queen  Theodolinda;  the  queen's  crown, 
fan,  and  comb;  a  richly-adorned  book-cover  with  an  inscription  of  Theo- 
dolinda; fine  diptychs  of  the  4-6th  cent. ;  reliquary  of  Berengarius;  goblet 
of  sapphire,  with  a  stem  of  Gothic  workmanship;  Gothic  goblet  of  Giov. 
Galeazzo  Visconti;  Gothic  carvings  in  ivory.  —  In  a  wali-recess  of  the  old 
cemetery,  on  the  N.  side  of  the  cathedral,  is  the  mummy  of  Ettore  Visconti 
(d.  1413),  shown  by  the  verger. 

In  the  Via  Matteo  da  Campione,  in  the  N.W.  part  of  the  town, 
a  Memorial  Chapel  is  to  mark  the  spot  on  which  King  Humbert  I. 
was  asassinated,  on  July  29th,  1900. 

To  the  N.  of  the  town,  about  3/^  M.  from  the  Piazza  Roma,  lies 
the  Castbllo  Reale,  reached  by  the  Via  Carlo  Alberto  and  across 
the  Piazza  Vittorio  Emanuele ;  it  was  formerly  the  royal  summer- 
palace  and  stands  in  an  extensive  and  beautiful  park,  traversed  by 
the  Lambro.  The  mansion,  in  the  'classicist'  style,  was  built  about 
1777  by  Oius.  Piermarini  for  Archduke  Ferdinand,  Governor  of 
Lombardy.  A  drive  in  the  park  is  attractive  (entrance  near  the  ter- 
minus of  the  electric  tramway  mentioned  on  p.  130,  1/4  M.  to  the 
left  of  the  Castello);  cyclists  also  are  admitted. 

From  Monza  to  Bergamo,  24  M.,  steam-tramway  in  21/4  hrs.  The  chief 
intermediate  stations  are  (51/2  M.)  Vimercate  and  (I31/2  M.)  Trezzo  suW  Adda 
(615  ft.),  with  the  picturesque  ruins  of  a  Castle  of  the  Visconti  (adm.  50  c), 
in  which  Giov.  Galeazzo  (p.  127)  confined  his  uncle  Bernabo.  The  Mar- 
tesana  (p.  132)  diverges  here,  and  its  old  sluices  are  said  to  have  been 
constructed  by  Leonardo  da  Vinci.  —  Bergamo,  see  p.  209. 

Other  steam-tramways  run  from  Monza;  1.  To  Qorgonzola  (famous  for 
its  cheese),  Tre:viglio,   and  Caravaggio  (p.  217).    2.  Past  the  royal  park  to 

to  Como.  COMO.  24.  Route.    167 

(T/a  W.}  Carnte  Brianza.  3.  Via  (i'^j-z  M.)  ^rcorc  (p.  170),  (U  M  )  Monlicello 
(1330  It. ;  Aib.  Monticello),  a  favuurite  siimmer-rescirt  iu  the  Brianza  (p.  171), 
and  (i2V2  M.)  Barzand  (1215  ft.),  to  (20  il.)  Oggiono  (p.  170). 

The  lines  to  Como  and  Lecco  divide  at  Monza.  The  former,  the 
St.  Gotthard  line,  runs  to  the  N.W.,  affording  pleasant  views.  Two 
tunnels. '  IO1/2  M.  Lusone-Muggih.  Before  reaching  (12  M.)  Desio 
a  good  view  is  obtained  of  the  Alpine  chain  from  the  Monte  Resegone 
to  the  Monte  Grlgna  and  behind  it  of  the  mountains  reaching  to  the 

ISV'i  M.  Seregno  (736  ft.),  a  town  wilh  12,000  inhabitants. 

From  Sereono  to  Bkroamo,  25  M.,  railway  in  IV2-2  brs.  (fares  4  fr.  65, 
3fr.  25,  2  fr.  10  c.).  —  8V2  M.  Usmate-Carnate  (p.  17u).  —  Beyood  (13  M.) 
Paderno  d'Adda  (870  ft.)  the  railway  crosses  the  Adda  (p.  180)  by  the  "Ponte 
di  Paderno.,  a  single  l)old  iron  archway,  275  ft.  above  the  level  of  the 
water.  Below  the  bridge  the  stream  forms  a  series  of  rapids  (rdpidi). 
Adjacent  is  a  dam,  140  yds.  long,  constrncted  by  the  Edison  Co.  of  Milan 
in  1897  to  conduct  the  water  into  the  Naviglio  di  Paderno  (I3/4  M.  long), 
which  couvys  it,  partly  underground,  to  the  Electric  Works.,  90  ft.  above 
the  level  of  the  Adda,  which  furnish  the  motive  power  (ca.  13,000  horse- 
power) for  the  tramways  and  lighting  of  (2IV2  M.)  Milan  and  Monza.  — 
20  M.  Ponte-San-Pielro- Locate  (p.  216).  —  25  M.  Bergamo.,  see  p.  209. 

From  Seregno  to  Novara,  see  p.  68. 

To  the  right  lies  the  fertile  Brianza  (p.  171),  with  its  numer- 
ous country-residences,  and  in  the  background  rises  the  indented 
Monte  Resegone  (p.  170).  —  From  (I71/2  ^0  Camnago  a  branch-line 
diverges  to  San  Pietro  (p,  171),  20  M.  Carimate ;  21  M.  Cantii- 
Asnago.  Tunnel.  23'/2  M.  Cucciago ;  '26  M.  Albate-Camerlata,  at 
the  foot  of  a  mountain-cone  (1416  ft.)  bearing  the  Castello  Baradelio, 
which  was  probably  erected  by  Frederick  Barbarossa  and  was  destroyed 
by  the  Spaniards  in  1627;  the  tower  was  restored  in  1903.  —  29  M. 
Como  (^Stazione  San  Giovanni,  see  below), 

Como,  —  Arrival.  The  Stazione  Como  San  Giovanni  or  ifediterranea, 
the  principal  station  (St.  Gotthard  Railway),  is  1/2  ^I-  *o  the  S.W.  of  tlie 
quay  (omn.  30  c,  included  in  through-tickets).  —  The  Stazione  Como  Lago 
or  Ferrovie  yard  lies  360  yds.  to  the  E.  of  the  quay  (branch-lines  to  Saronno 
and  Milan,  p.  164,  and  to  Vareso  and  Laveno,  p.  170).  —  The  Stazione 
Como  Borghx,  a  third  station,  is  of  no  importance  to  tourists. 

Hotels  (all  near  the  harbour).  '6e.  Hot.  Pliniu.s  (PI.  p),  Lungo  Lario  di 
Levante,  a  comfortable  Italian  house  of  the  first  class,  !•>.  from  4,  B.  l'/2, 
d^j.  31/2-4,  D.  5-6,  music  V2,  pens,  for  a  stay  of  4  days  from  9,  omn.  I'/z  fr. 
(closed  Nov.  15th -Feb.  2Stb).  —  *Gk.  Hot.  Volta  (PI.  v),  also  with  lift 
and  steam-heating,  R.  3-5,  B.  I1/2,  ddj.  3,  D.  4,  pens.  8-10,  omn.  1  fr.-.  Hot. 
MfiTuopoi-E  ET  au  Lac  (PI.  m),  with  cafe,  R.  2V2-5,  E.  I1/2,  dej.  2V2-3, 

D.  4,  S.  8,  pens.  8-12,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Italia  (PI.  i),  with  lift  and  steam-heating, 

E.  2-4,  B.  iVz,  dej.  2'/2-3,  D.  4,  pens.  7-9,  omn.  3/«  1  f"". ;  Hotel-Pbnsion 
Bellevue  (Pl.  b),  with  steam  -  healing  and  restaurant,  R.  from  2,  B.  i'/«, 
pens,  from  7,  omn.  ^4-1  fr. 

Restaurants,  liittorante  delta  Bdrchetta  (with  bedrooms),  Piazza  Gavour ; 
Jiislorante  San  Gotlardo  (R.  from  i'/x  fr.),  Piazza  Volta.  —  Cafes.  Caffi<  del 
Bottegone,  Birreria  d^Jlalia,  Piazza  del  Duomo ;  Caffk-Risiorante  Sbodio.,  Caffi- 
Ristorante  Plinio,  Piazza  I'avour. 

Bathing  Estaklisiiment  {Bagni ;  also  warm  and  vapour  baths),  on  the 
lake  by  the  Giardino  Pttbblico.  —  Post  &  Telegraph  Office,  ViaUnione.  — 
Photographs,  etc.  at    VittanVs,  Via  Plinio  4. 

Omnibus  from  the  Stazione  Como  Borghi  (see  above)  to  the  Calle  Rail- 
xcay  (10  c);  to  Cernobbio  (p.  174;  30  c.).  —  Steamboat  to  Cernobbio,  Torno, 
and  Moltratio,  10  times  daily  (20  c). 

168   Route  24.  COMO.  From  Milan 

Cable  Railway  ( Funicolave)  from  the  Borgo  Sanf  Agottino,  '/«  M.  to  the 
N.  of  Stazione  Como  Lago,  to  Brunate  (p.  169),  every  '/z  hr.  (hourly  in 
winter);  fares,  up  li/z,  <lown  1,  up  and  down  2  fr.,  before  8  a.m.  and  after 
7  p.m.  and  (in  Snn.  and  holidays  1  fr. 

Como  (6G3  ft.),  a  flouiishing  industrial  town,  the  capital  of  a 
province,  and  the  see  of  a  bishop,  with  38,174  inhab.  and  large  silk- 
factories,  lies  at  the  S.W.  end  of  the  Lake  of  Como  (p.  173),  and 
is  enclosed  by  an  amphitheatre  of  mountains.  The  small  stream 
Cosia  enters  the  lake  here.  Como  is  the  Roman  Comum^  the  birth- 
place of  the  elder  and  younger  Pliny.  The  electrician  and  philosopher 
Volta  (1745-1827 :  whose  Statue  by  P.  Marches!  (1838)  is  in  the 
Piazza  Volta,  to  the  S.W.  of  the  quay),  was  born  at  Como  in  the 
house  marked  'Casa  Volta'  on  the  Plan. 

The  Piazza  Cavour,  a  large  square  near  the  harbour,  the  most 
animated  part  of  the  town  on  fine  evenings,  is  connected  with  the 
Piazza  del  Duomo  by  the  short  Via  Pllnio. 

The  *Cathedeal,  built  entirely  of  marble,  is  one  of  the  best  in 
N.  Italy.  The  nave  was  rebuilt  in  the  Gothic  style  about  1396,  the 
facade  in  1457-87  (by  Luchino  Scharabota  da  Milano  and  others); 
and  in  1487-1626  the  transepts,  choir,  and  exterior  of  the  nave  were 
altered  in  the  Renaissance  style  by  Tommaso  Rodari,  who  used 
Crisiof.  Solaris  design  (1519)  for  the  beautiful  apse.  The  S.  portal 
(1491)  is  built  in  Bramante'a  style  by  an  unknown  architect;  the 
octagonal  dome  is  by  Fil.  Juvara  (1731).  The  greater  part  of  the 
sumptuous  plastic  ornamentation  is  by  Tommaso  Rodari  and  his 
brother  Jacopo.  Over  the  magniflcentW.  portal  are  reliefs  (Adoration 
of  the  Magi)  and  statuettes  (Mary  with  SS.  Abondius  and  Protus, 
etc.);  at  the  sides  are  statues  of  the  two  Plinys,  erected  in  1498. 
The  over-decorated  N.  portal  (Porta  della  Rana)  dates  from  1505-9. 

Interior.  The  heavy  and  gaudy  vaulting,  restored  in  1838,  destroys 
the  eft'ect  of  the  fine  proportions,  which  resemble  those  of  the  Certosa 
near  Pavia  (p.  162).  —  To  the  right  of  the  entrance  is  the  monument  of 
Cardinal  Tolomeo  Qallio  (1861).  Farther  on,  to  the  right,  second  altar,  with 
handsome  wood-carving  and  scenes  from  the  life  of  St.  Abondius  (1514) ; 
adjoining  (1.)  the  "Adoration  of  the  Magi,  by  Bern.  Luini,  and  (r.)  the 
Flight  into  Egypt,  by  Gaud.  Ferrari.  Over  the  third  altar,  a  Madonna  by 
B.  Luini.  In  the  Choir,  the  Apostles,  by  Pompeo  Marchesi.  The  Sacristy 
contains  pictures  by  Guido  Reni,  Paolo  Veronese  (1),  etc.  Fine  statue  of 
St.  Sebastian  (1498)  in  the  N.  Transept.  In  the  Left  Aisle:  at  the  first 
altar,  Entombment  by  Tommaso  Rodari  (1498)5  ^^  ^^^  second  altar,  1. 
G.  Ferrari,  Nuptials  of  the  Virgin,  r.  B.  Luini,  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds. 

To  the  left  of  the  cathedral  is  the  Broletto  (now  a  public  office), 
constructed  of  alternate  courses  of  black  and  white  stone,  and  com- 
pleted in  1215  (restored  in  1900).  • 

In  the  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele,  which  runs  S.W.  from  the  cath- 
edral, is  the  rear  of  the  Romanesque  church  (rebuilt  in  1265)  of 
San  Fedele,  with  a  fine  pentagonal  apse.  The  chief  fagade  of  the 
church,  in  the  Piazza  del  Mercato,  is  as  little  worthy  of  attention 
as  the  completely  modernized  interior.  —  The  Palazzo  Giovio,  on 
the  left,  at  the  end  of  the  street,  contains  the  Museo  Civico  (adm. 
daily  except  Tues.,  10-4,  50  c,  Frid.  1  fr. ;  catalogue  1  fr.). 

to  Lecc.o.  COMO.  '24.  Route.    169 

On  the  groundfloor  are  memorials  of  Volta  and  of  Cesare  Cant  it 
(1807-95)  the  historian;  views  of  Como,  etc.  —  On  the  first  floor  are  pre- 
historic and  Roman  antiquities;  a  rich  collection  of  coins;  autographs  of 
Volta  and  others;  local  curiosities,  etc. 

The  old  Toxcn  Wall  is  intact  except  near  the  lake;  on  the  S.K. 
side  are  three  well-preserved  towers,  that  in  the  middle,  the  Porta 
Torre,  now  known  as  the  Porta  Vittoria,  heing  a  massive  five-storied 
structure.  —  In  the  Viale  Varese,  a  promenade  shaded  with  plane- 
trees  and  skirtiTig  the  S.W.  town-wall,  is  the  church  of  the  San- 
tissitna  Anniinziata,  of  the  17th  cent.,  also  known  as  the  Chiesa 
del  Crocefisso,  from  a  miraculous  image. 

Farther  to  the  S.,  on  the  slope  of  the  mountain  on  the  other  side 
of  the  Cosia,  is  the  fine  old  ^Basilica  SanV  Abbondio,  originally  a 
Lombard  structure  of  the  8th  cent.,  rebuilt  in  the  11th  cent.,  and 
well  restored  in  1863-88.  Beneath  it  the  remains  of  a  church  of 
the  5th  cent,  have  been  found. 

Excursions  (comp.  Map,  p.  172).  The  Castello  Baradello  (p.  167),  reached 
from  the  Piazza  Vittoria  in  l'/2  hr.  by  the  Via  Milano  (to  the  S.)  and 
then  by  a  tolerable  footpath,  is  an  excellent  point  of  view.  —  On  the  W. 
bank  of  the  lake,  on  the  beautiful  road  to  (2V2  H.)  Cernobbio  (p.  174),  just 
beyond  the  Borgo  San  Giorgio  or  N.W.  suburb  of  Cumo,  lies  the  'Villa 
VOlmo  (Duca  Visconti-Modrone).  the  largest  on  the  lake,  with  fine  rooms 
and  a  charming  garden  (visitors  admitted).  —  Another  fine  "Road,  traversing 
the  Borgo  San(  Agoitino,  leads  along  the  E.  bank  of  the  lake  and  then, 
on  the  hillside,  high  above  the  lake,  to  Blevio  and  (5  M.)  Torno  (p.  175). 

A  Cable  Railway  (2/3  M.  long;  its  steepest  frradient  5o:l(X);  fares,  see 
p.  IG-i),  passing  through  a  tunnel  13'2  yds.  long,  leads  from  the  N.  end  of 
the  Borgo  S^int' Agostino,  via,  Ca?'eM!one  (Ristorante  Falchet'o),  to  (20  niin.) 
Brunate  (2350  ft.;  Ornnd  ffdiel  Brunale,  w^ith  steam-beating  and  garden, 
E.  3  o,  B  IV2.  <le.j.  3,  D.  5,  pens.  8-11  f r. ;  mt.  Milan,  W.  from  2V2,  de'j.  21/2, 
D.  372,  pens,  from  7  fr. ;  Alb.  Bellavista,  with  small  garden  with  view, 
R.  fnim  2,  E.  ^/4,  d^j.  2'/2-  D.  3,  pens.  7  fr.,  incl.  wine,  Italian,  very  fair; 
Chalet  Brunate,  with  view-terrace,  dcj.  2V2,  D-  3V2  fr.),  which  commands  a 
superb  "View  of  the  plain  of  Lombardy  as  far  as  Jlilan,  and  of  Mie  Alps  to 
Mte.  Rosa  (best  light  in  the  morning).  —  .Several  pleasant  walks  (guide- 
posts  and  benches):  to  the  (20  min.  I  Piani  di  Brunate,  on  the  slope  above 
the  lake;  to  the  (12  min.)  Fontana  Pissarotlino  (23S5  ft.),  with  a  view  of 
Cernobbio  and  Monte  Bisbino;  to  (1/2  hr.)  San  Maurizio  (2860  ft.;  Hot.- 
Restanrant  du  Pare,  dej.  2V2,  I>.  3'/2  fr.,  incl.  wine)  and  she  Tre  Croci 
(2970  ft.).  More  comprehensive  views  are  commanded  by  the  Pizzo  di  Torno 
(3740  ft.),  I'A  hr.  to  the  E.  of  S.  Maurizio,  and  by  the  (2  hn.)  Monte  Boletto 
(4050  ft.). 

From  Como  to  Bellagio  via  Eeba,  about  26  M.,  one-horse  carriage 
in  5-6  hrs.  (25  fr.).  The  road,  which  will  also  repay  the  pedestrian,  ascends 
the  valley  of  the  Cosia.  The  lake  is  concealed  by  the  spurs  of  the  Monte 
Boletto.  In  the  church  of  Camnago  Volta  (a  little  to  the  N.  of  the  road) 
is  the  tomb  of  Volta  (p.  168).  Farther  on,  to  the  S.  of  the  road,  rises 
the  jagged  crest  of  Montorfano,  near  a  lit  lie  lake.  Near  Cassano  (1325  ft.) 
is  a  leaning  cam|ianile.  Beyond  Albe^e  (1325  ft.)  we  enjoy  a  view  of  the 
Pian  (tErba,  with  the  lakes  (p.  171)  of  Alserio,  Pusiano,  and  Annone,  dom- 
inated on  the  E.  by  the  Corni  di  Canzo  (p.  178)  and  the  rugged  Resegom 
(p.  170).  —  11  M.  Erba,  and  thence  to  Bellagio,  see  p.  172. 

From  Como  to  Lkcco,  26  M.,  state- railway  in  I1/2-2  hrs.  (4  fr.  90, 
3  fr.  45,  2  fr.  20  c.).  —  3  M.  Albate- Camerlata,  see  p.  167;  7'/2  M.  Cantit; 
11  M.  Anzano  del  Parco.  To  the  left  lies  the  Logo  d'AUerio.  —  13'/2  M. 
Herone-  Pontenuovo ,  the  junction  of  the  Milan  and  Erba  line  (p.  172).  — 
15V2  M.  Casletto-Rogeno,  on  the  S.  bank  of  the  Lago  di  Pusiano.  —  I9V2  M. 

170   Route  24.  LECCO. 

Os/giono,  at  the  S.  end  of  the  Lago  d'Annone.  The  train  then  runs  along 
the  E.  bank  of  this  lake.  —  2I1/2  M.  Sola  al  Barro  is  the  sta